Translator’s Mote: Many documents of immense political value are published on the official web-site of Chinese Embassies from around the world. The following comprehensive document (which appears on the website of the PRC Embassy in Iraq) examines the entire concept of modern Tibet and the ‘racist’ and ‘terrorist’ undertones that motive and guide the ‘Pro-Tibetan Movement’ as headed by the exiled 14th Dalai Lama and his followers. Those who read my blog but support this movement are not welcome in my thought community as you are supporting the essence of Western (White) racism and colonialism. In other words, you are a ‘White’ racist practicing US and British-inspired anti-China racism in the name of a Tibetan people who want nothing to do with you or your cause. Tibetans living in China view your attitudes as being ‘racist’ to them! The 14th Dalali Lama authorises terrorist attacks and encourages young people to set fire to themselves, furthermore, he annually receives hundreds of thousands of dollars as his ‘pay’ from the CIA! Get a grip on your life and examine the nature of the false reality being presented to you! I have met Tibetans (in Tibet) and have seen how they live and how they are prospering! Buddhism is doing fine but is now free of the political and terroristic corruption of the 14th Dalai Lama – who is a more or less a complete irrelevance nowadays! Modern Tibetans are well-off and live happy and content lives and certainly do not want a return to its (backward) feudal past! I would not say these things if they were not true. You are being lied to by the machinations of Western racism! ACW (23.1.2022)
The Historical Choice of Tibet’s Development Path
People’s Republic of China
State Council Information Office
1. The old system will inevitably withdraw from the stage of Tibetan history
2. New Tibet has embarked on a correct development path
3. The essence of the “middle way” is to split China
4. The illusion of “peace” and “non-violence”
V. The Central Government’s Policy towards the Fourteenth Dalai Lama
The People’s Republic of China is a unified multi-ethnic country jointly created by the people of all ethnic groups in China. In the long-term historical development, all ethnic groups in China have formed a community with a shared future for the Chinese nation. Tibet has been a part of China since ancient times, and the Tibetans are a member of the community with a shared future for the Chinese nation. The fate of Tibet has always been closely linked to the fate of the great motherland and the Chinese nation.
Historically, the Tibetan people have created splendid history and culture, and contributed to the enrichment and development of Chinese history and Chinese culture. However, until the middle of the 20th century, Tibet was still under the rule of feudal serfdom in which politics and religion were integrated. The level of productivity was extremely low, and the society was conservative and closed, declining and backward.
Tibet’s real step into modern civilization began after the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949. After peaceful liberation, democratic reform, establishment of an autonomous region, reform and opening up and other important development stages, Tibet not only established a brand-new social system, but also achieved a historic leap in economic and social development and embarked on the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics.
It is an objective requirement for the development of modern civilization that Tibet has embarked on today’s development path. It conforms to the trend of progress in human society, conforms to China’s national conditions and actual development, and conforms to the fundamental interests of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet. On this road, the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet are the masters of their own national region, its society and their own destiny; Tibet has achieved a leap from poverty and backwardness to a rich civilization, and presents itself to the world with a new attitude; the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet (and the whole country) live in harmony and work together to create a happy and beautiful new life. Tibet faces the world with an open attitude and actively absorbs the outstanding achievements of human civilization.
The great achievements Tibet has made in development and progress fully demonstrate that the development path that Tibet has embarked upon is correct. However, the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique, which has been in exile for a long time and represents the remnants of the feudal serf-owner class, has been promoting violent “Tibet independence” and an attachment to the (brutal) feudal serf system of old Tibet, where politics and religion were integrated. After the failure of the route, the “middle way” has been hyped up again over the years. The “middle way” looks like “compromise”, “giving-way”, “peace” and “non-violence”, but in fact it denies the correct development path that Tibet has embarked upon since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, and attempts to establish on Chinese territory the rule of the 14th Dalai Lama clique as “A country within a country” and achieve the goal of “Tibetan independence” step by step.
1. The old system will inevitably withdraw from the stage of Tibetan history
In the 1950s, when slavery, serfdom and black slavery had been completely spurned by modern civilization, Tibetan society was still under the rule of feudal serfdom, which integrated politics and religion. The feudal serfdom system, which integrates state and religion, grossly tramples on human dignity, seriously violates basic human rights, fundamentally hinders the development of Tibetan society, and completely deviates from the trend of progress in China and the world.
——The unity of politics and religion, the supremacy of theocracy, the typical representative of theocracy
In old Tibet, theocracy was paramount, the regime sheltered theocracy, the theocracy controlled the regime, and the theocracy was integrated with the regime to jointly maintain the rule of the three feudal lords, the official family, the aristocracy and the upper-class monks in the monastery. According to statistics, before the democratic reform in 1959, there were 2,676 monasteries and 114,925 monks in Tibet. The number of monks accounts for about a quarter of the male population, and the proportion far exceeds that of the medieval clergy in Europe, which is rare in the world.
Under theocracy, religion was tainted by feudal serfdom, and temples were not simply pure places to worship Buddha, but to carry out religious activities, control one party’s political power, implement economic exploitation, hoard armed forces, and conduct judicial trials. Temples also dominate the landscape as forts. Some temples have private courthouses, containing not only handcuffs, shackles, sticks, but also cruel torture instruments used to gouge out eyes and ‘pinch’ and ‘pull-off’ human-skin (using hot irons). The methods of punishing serfs were extremely cruel. An existing letter from the relevant departments of the local government of Tibet in the early 1950s to the leader of the Reposting Scripture Records reveal that once, in order to recite the sutras for the 14th Dalai Lama’s birthday, all the staff of the Lower Secret Academy needed to recite the 15th Texts of Wrath and offer food, etc. The Record states “In order to effectively complete this Buddhist event, it is necessary to throw food on the same day, and urgently we need a pair of wet intestines, two heads, various types of blood, and a whole piece of human skin. I hope they will be delivered immediately.” Temple lords lend the most money among the three lords, accounting for about 80% of the total.
Since a large number of people are not engaged in reproduction and production, and become a tool of theocratic political oppression, social resources are seriously lacking, and population growth has been stagnant for a long time. According to the book “Saint Wu Ji·Tibet Postscript” written in the middle of the 19th century, in the second year of Emperor Qianlong of the Qing Dynasty (1737), the Lifan Institute assembled the areas under the jurisdiction of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama in Tibet, containing a total of more than 316,200 lamas. (Including the present Qamdo area), the total population is about 1.09 million. By the early 1950s, Tibet’s population was still hovering at more than 1 million, with little growth for more than 200 years.
The use of religion to strengthen control over society is a prominent feature of theocracy. Li Youyi, a former official of the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission of the Nationalist Government in Lhasa and a famous Tibetan scholar who worked in Tibet in the 1940s, exclaimed in his memoir article “Tibet, Mysterious and No Longer Mysterious”: “Tibet’s serfs suffered from such Cruel exploitation and oppression, why did they not rise up to resist? I also asked this question to the serfs. Unexpectedly, their answer was ‘No. Only by suffering in this life can we wash away our sins, and in the next life we can reincarnate to a better realm. This is what the lamas taught them, and Tibetans firmly believe in it.” In Li Youyi’s view, it is this kind of ideological control that Make “serfs accumulate merit for the future all their lives, and nobles whip them with whips, and they think they are washing their sins for them!”
Charles Bell, an Englishman who experienced Tibet, said in “Biography of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama”: “Does it matter to you whether you are a human or a pig in your next life? The Dalai Lama can guarantee you to be reincarnated and become a high-ranking official. Or better yet—be the grand lama in a country where Buddhism thrives.” He goes on to point out, “There is no doubt that the lamas used mental terror to maintain their influence and keep the regime in their hands.”
——Strictly hierarchical, trampling on human rights, the last bastion of feudal serfdom in the East
Before 1959, Tibet still retained the feudal serfdom. Between 1916 and 1924, the French traveller Alexandre David Neel visited Tibet and its surrounding areas five times. In 1953, she published “Old Tibet Facing New China”, which described the serfdom in old Tibet as follows: “In Tibet, all peasants are serfs in debt for life, and it is difficult to find a serf among them who has already paid off their debts.” “In order to maintain a living, the serfs had to borrow money, borrow food, borrow livestock, and pay high interest. However, the next year’s harvest will never pay off the inflated interest.” Under these circumstances, they had to borrow again, excuse food, borrow seeds. On the body, the poor son has been squeezed by these ancestral debts since the beginning of his farming career, and the origin of these debts has long been in the distant past, and he has no idea when this started.” “These The poor people are left on their poor land forever. They have completely lost all their liberties and are getting poorer every year.”
Under feudal serfdom, people were divided into classes. The Thirteen Codes and the Sixteen Codes, which were used in old Tibet for hundreds of years, clearly divided people into three classes and nine grades, legalizing the strict hierarchy. The Code stipulates: “People are divided into three classes, upper, middle and lower, and each class is divided into upper, middle and lower classes. The upper, middle and lower classes are determined by the level of their bloodlines and positions.” “People have grades, so the price of life is also high and low”, “the life of a superior is worth the same weight of gold as a corpse”, and “the life of an inferior is worth a straw rope”.
The backward feudal serfdom and the theocracy with the integration of state and religion made old Tibet a society with a huge disparity between the rich and the poor. By the end of the 1950s, the three major lords and their proxies, who accounted for less than 5% of Tibet’s population, owned almost all of Tibet’s arable land, pastures, forests, mountains, rivers, beaches, and most of the livestock. According to statistics, before the democratic reform in 1959, there were 197 hereditary nobles and 25 large nobles in Tibet. Among them, seven or eight nobles were at the top, each occupying dozens of manors and tens of thousands of grams of land (15 grams is equivalent to 1 hectare). The 14th Dalai Lama’s family owns 27 manors, 30 pastures, and has more than 6,000 peasant and herdsmen slaves. The 14th Dalai Lama owns 160,000 taels of gold, 95 million taels of silver, more than 20,000 pieces of precious jade, and more than 10,000 pieces of silk, satin and precious furs. The serfs and slaves, who make up 95% of the Tibetan population, have nothing, are in a miserable situation, and have no human rights to speak of. For these people, there is a folk saying in Tibet: “Although life is born by parents, the body is owned by the official family. Even if you have life and body, you don’t have the right to decide.”
——It is closed and backward, far away from modern civilization, it is definitely not the “Shangri-La” in the imagination
In the 1930s, British writer James Hilton described the fantastic and wonderful paradise on earth – “Shangri-La” in the book “Lost Horizon”. Since then, the pursuit of “Shangri-La” has become the dream of many people, and some even regard Tibet as the original place of “Shangri-La”. However, this is only the good wishes of people, and there is no “Shangri-La” in old Tibet at all.
The backwardness of old Tibet can be seen from the following situations: until the peaceful liberation in 1951, Tibet did not have a school in the modern sense, and the illiteracy rate of young and middle-aged people was as high as 95%; The main method is that the average life expectancy is only 35.5 years old; there is no regular road, and the transportation of goods and mail are all carried by people and animals; there is only a small power station of 125 kilowatts, which is only used by the 14th Dalai Lama and a few privileged people.
Chinese and foreigners who experienced old Tibet were all touched by its backward social scene, and left many immersive descriptions. In 1945, Li Youyi observed after several months of fieldwork in Tibet: “During my journey of more than 1,700 miles along the middle and lower reaches of the Brahmaputra, what I saw was a scene of decay. I could see several times during my daily journey. In the ruins where people go to the empty buildings, the traces of ridges and acres are faintly discernible, but the people are gone. There are more than a hundred places like this kind of ‘ghost town’ that I have passed by… I set out to investigate the autumn harvest season. This season is in the mainland in relatively backward rural areas, you can also see the joy of harvesting on the faces of farmers. But in rural Tibet in 1945, I never saw a happy face. What I saw were nobles and ‘chapter collars’ (rent collectors) roared and whipped the serfs, all I heard was the serfs’ cries and sighs.”
Edmund Candler, the former British “Daily Mail” correspondent in India, also wrote in “The Real Face of Lhasa” published in 1905: Lhasa “is a city that is indescribably dirty, with no sewers and no paving stones. Not a single house was cleaned or swept regularly. After the rains, the streets became stagnant pools of stagnant water, and pigs and dogs came to these places to find waste.”
Du Tai (Tibetan), who was the director of the Radio and Television Department of the Tibet Autonomous Region, recalled: “When I came to Lhasa in 1951, the poverty and dilapidation of the city really exceeded my expectations. At that time, Lhasa was nothing but the Jokhang Temple. In the surrounding Barkhor Street, there is hardly a decent street, nor any public service facilities, no street lights, no water supply and drainage facilities. The streets often see the bodies of people who died of cold and starvation, as well as beggars, prisoners and groups of people. To the west of the Jokhang Temple is a beggar village called ‘Lubu Bangcang’, and the surrounding area of the Jokhang Temple is also a gathering place for beggars. At that time, there were as many as three or four thousand beggars, accounting for more than one-tenth of the city’s population.”
In 1950, Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme, who was the former Tibetan local government Kalon and later served as the vice chairman of the Standing Committee of China’s National People’s Congress, said to Kashag about the situation in the Qamdo area: “Because the times are cloudy and the people are unbearable, there are seven or eight households still having tsampa to survive, and the rest all live by eating Yuangen (that is, Manjing).
Numerous facts have proved that by the middle of the 20th century, the old system in Tibet had come to an end. Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme once recalled: “I remember that in the 1940s, I had many conversations with some close friends about the crisis of the old society (system) in Tibet. Everyone believed that if the old way continued, it would not be long before the serfs died. Without it, the nobles will not survive, and the whole society will be destroyed.”
In the 1950s, most countries and regions in the world had realized the separation of state and religion. At this time, Tibet still practiced this backward system, which seriously hindered the development and progress of Tibetan society and made Tibet and modern civilization gradually drift away. After the 19th century, many countries and regions in the world set off the abolition movement, and Britain, Russia, the United States and other countries abolished the slave system one after another. In 1807, the British Parliament passed a decree prohibiting its ships from participating in the slave trade. In 1861, the Russian Emperor Alexander II formally approved the “decree” and “manifesto” to abolish serfdom. In 1862, U.S. President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, and in 1865 the U.S. Congress passed the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, officially abolishing slavery. In 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights adopted by the United Nations General Assembly stipulates that no one shall be made into slavery or servitude; all forms of slavery and slave trade shall be prohibited. In the mid-20th century when serfdom almost disappeared, the world’s largest fortress of serfdom was still entrenched in China’s Tibet, which not only hindered the development and progress of Chinese society, but also humiliated human civilization, conscience and dignity.
With the establishment of New China and the development and progress of Chinese society, in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the old system in Tibet was completely abolished. However, the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique moved against the trend of history. Instead of reflecting on the darkness and brutality of the old Tibetan system of integrating state and religion, they were nostalgic and dreamed of bringing this system back to Tibet one day. In this regard, the relevant documents of the 14th Dalai Lama Group have clear records. The “Tibet Future Democracy Constitution (Draft)” formulated in 1963 stated: “Tibet will build a democratic and unified country based on the Dharma spirit taught by the Buddha.” The Constitution of Tibetans in Exile enacted in 1991 stipulates: “The future politics of Tibet is to establish a democratic federal republic with the unity of state and religion, freedom and stability on the basis of adhering to the principle of non-violence.” The Essentials defines “the complementarity of politics and religion” as the political nature of Tibet in the future. The revised Constitution of Tibetans in Exile in 2011 stipulates that future Tibetan politics will be a “combination of state and religion”.
2. New Tibet has embarked on a correct development path
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Tibet underwent a historic transformation. In 1951, Tibet was peacefully liberated, creating conditions for the complete expulsion of imperialist forces from Tibet. In 1959, Tibet implemented democratic reforms, which ended in one fell swoop the feudal serfdom that had lasted for hundreds of years. In 1965, the Tibet Autonomous Region was established and the socialist system was established. After 1978, China began to reform and open up, and Tibet’s modernization drive continued to make new achievements. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Tibet’s development has entered the fast lane, and new progress has been made in building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way. After more than 60 years of construction and development, people of all ethnic groups in Tibet have gradually explored a development path with Chinese characteristics and Tibetan characteristics.
——The development path of new Tibet is the road of great unity of the Chinese nation
Since modern times, due to imperialist aggression, Tibet has faced two fates, whether to be united in the big family of the Chinese nation or split from the big family of the Chinese nation. The British colonists invaded Tibet twice in 1888 and 1904, forcing the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) government of China to sign unequal treaties and obtain a lot of privileges in Tibet. After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, the British colonists actively cultivated separatist forces in Tibet and created the issue of “Tibet independence”. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the upper-level separatists and imperialist forces in Tibet stepped up their plans for “Tibet independence” in an attempt to separate Tibet from China. The Central People’s Government has decided to adopt the policy of peaceful liberation of Tibet based on the historical and actual situation of Tibet, and firmly safeguard national unity and territorial integrity. The 10th Panchen Lama and other Tibetan patriots from all walks of life have also issued appeals for the liberation of Tibet, asking the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to enter Tibet and safeguard national unity. On May 23, 1951, representatives of the Central People’s Government and the local government of Tibet signed the “Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet” (hereinafter referred to as the “17-Article Agreement”), and Tibet declared peaceful liberation. The 14th Dalai Lama called Mao Zedong, Chairman of the Central Government on October 24, and said: “The local government of Tibet and the Tibetan monks and lay people unanimously support, and under the leadership of Chairman Mao and the Central People’s Government, they actively assist the People’s Liberation Army troops entering Tibet to consolidate national defense. Drive the imperialist forces out of Tibet and protect the unity of the motherland’s territorial sovereignty.”
The peaceful liberation freed Tibet from the fetters of the imperialist aggression forces, declared the bankruptcy of the imperialist attempt to create “Tibet independence”, and realized the great unity of the Chinese nation under new historical conditions. Peaceful liberation also resolved the historical issues between the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama and contributed to the great unity within Tibet. After the peaceful liberation of Tibet, the Chinese government gradually abolished the long-standing privileges foreign countries had enjoyed in Tibet. In 1954, China and India signed the “Agreement on Commerce and Transportation between China’s Tibet Region and India”, which cancelled the privileges inherited by India from the British invasion of Tibet. In 1956, China and Nepal signed the “People’s Republic of China and the Kingdom of Nepal to maintain friendly relations and the agreement on trade and transportation between China’s Tibet region and Nepal”, which resolved the issues left over from the history of Tibet and Nepal.
In the more than half a century since then, in the big family of the Chinese nation, the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet and the people of all ethnic groups in the country have united in one heart and one mind, standing together through thick and thin, and established ethnic relations of equality, unity, mutual assistance and harmony. With me, with you, no one can leave you. In the struggle to maintain national unity and oppose ethnic division, the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet united closely around the central government, withstood various difficulties and risks, and safeguarded the unity of the Chinese nation and national unity. In the process of realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet and the whole country share the fruits and glory of national development.
In order to help Tibet get rid of poverty and backwardness and speed up the pace of development, the central government gave full play to the advantages of the socialist system, and mobilized the whole country to support the construction of Tibet. With preferential policies and huge human, material and financial resources, it has continuously injected new life into the development of Tibet. For more than 60 years, the central government has continuously increased its financial transfer payments to Tibet. From 1952 to 2013, the central government’s various financial subsidies to Tibet amounted to 544.6-billion-yuan, accounting for 95% of Tibet’s local public financial expenditure. Since 1980, the central government has held five symposiums on work in Tibet, starting from the overall situation of China’s socialist modernization drive and making overall plans for the development and construction of Tibet. Since the third Central Tibet Work Symposium in 1994, the Central Government has implemented a policy of counterpart assistance to Tibet, and arranged for 60 central state organs, 18 provinces and cities, and 17 central enterprises to provide counterpart assistance to Tibet. Over the past 20 years, seven batches of 5,965 outstanding cadres have entered Tibet for work, implemented 7,615 aid projects in Tibet, and invested 26 billion yuan in aid funds, mainly used to improve people’s livelihood and infrastructure construction, making important contributions to Tibet’s economic and social development. After the Fifth Central Tibet Work Symposium in 2010, the Central Government approved the amount of aid funds for 17 provinces and cities in Tibet according to one thousandth of the provincial and municipal fiscal revenue, and established a stable growth mechanism.
——The development path of new Tibet is the path of the people being the masters of the country
Transforming the old Tibet where the serf-owners ruled into a new Tibet where the people are the masters of the country is the inevitable requirement of Tibet’s social development and the fundamental aspiration of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet. Within the framework of socialist democratic politics with Chinese characteristics, Tibet has embarked on the road to modern democracy, and the people’s political rights are fully respected and guaranteed.
In Tibet, Tibetans, Monba, Lhoba, Naxi, Hui, Han and other ethnic groups share the right to equally participate in the management of state affairs. The people’s congress system, the fundamental political system of the country, is the main way for the people of all ethnic groups in China to exercise their democratic rights. Currently in the National People’s Congress, the Tibet Autonomous Region has 21 deputies, of which 12 are Tibetan citizens. Although the Monba and Lhoba peoples are very small, each has one representative. The CPPCC is a unique form and unique advantage of China’s socialist democratic politics, and an important institution for the Chinese people to practice deliberative democracy. Currently in the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the Tibet Autonomous Region has 29 members, including 26 members of Tibetans and other ethnic minorities. Among the 34,244 deputies to the fourth-level people’s congress in the Tibet Autonomous Region, 31,901 are representatives of Tibetans and other ethnic minorities, accounting for more than 93%. Among the 44 members of the Standing Committee of the Tenth National People’s Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region, there are 25 Tibetans and other ethnic minorities, and 8 of the 14 directors and deputy directors of the Standing Committee are Tibetans and other ethnic minorities. The construction of grassroots democracy has been continuously strengthened. In Tibet, more than 95% of the villages have established a villager representative meeting system, and elected villagers’ self-governing organizations. Full coverage of village affairs and democratic management has been achieved, and more than 90% of the villages have set up public columns to protect the people’s right to know, to participate, to make decisions, and to supervise. All 192 urban communities have established community organizations such as community residents’ congresses, community committees, and community residents’ self-governance is fully guaranteed by the organization.
Starting from its national conditions, China implemented a system of regional ethnic autonomy. Tibet is one of China’s five autonomous regions. According to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China and the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, the Tibet Autonomous Region enjoys a wide range of autonomy rights, including the right to legislate, the right to flexibly implement relevant state laws, the right to use ethnic languages, the right to manage personnel, The right to financial management and the right to independently develop culture and education. Since 1965, the People’s Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region and its Standing Committee have successively formulated more than 290 local regulations and resolutions and decisions of a regulatory nature, and formulated implementation measures suitable for Tibet’s characteristics for a number of national laws. In terms of marriage system, the Tibet Autonomous Region formulated modified regulations in 1981 and 2004 respectively, which lowered the legal age of marriage for men and women by two years respectively as stipulated in the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, and stipulated that polyandry and polyandry that had been formed before the implementation of the modified regulations would be enforced. Polygamous marriages, those who do not take the initiative to dissolve the marriage, are allowed to maintain it. In terms of the birth system, according to the “Interim Measures for the Administration of Family Planning in the Tibet Autonomous Region (for Trial Implementation)”, the Tibet Autonomous Region implements the policy of “only one child per couple” for Han cadres, employees and their families, while the Tibetan and Naxi, Hui, For cadres and employees of Zhuang and other ethnic groups, as well as family members of urban residents whose household registration is in the unit, a couple can have two children at intervals. There is no restriction on the number of births for farmers and herdsmen in farming and pastoral areas. People do not advocate fertility indicators. On the basis of implementing national statutory holidays, the Tibet Autonomous Region has also included traditional Tibetan festivals such as “Tibetan New Year” and “Shoton Festival” as statutory holidays.
The “Constitution of the People’s Republic of China” stipulates that the state assists ethnic autonomous areas to cultivate a large number of cadres at all levels, various professionals and skilled workers from the local ethnic groups. The “Regional Ethnic Autonomy Law of the People’s Republic of China” stipulates that the chairman of an autonomous region, the governor of an autonomous prefecture, and the head of an autonomous county shall be citizens of the ethnic group that exercises regional ethnic autonomy; nationals and other ethnic minorities. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on Civil Servants stipulates that when recruiting civil servants in ethnic autonomous areas, appropriate care must be given to candidates from ethnic minorities. At present, among the cadres in the Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibetans and other ethnic minorities account for 70.95%, of which 70.13% are Tibetans and other ethnic minorities in the county and township level leadership. The chairman of the Standing Committee of the People’s Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region and the chairman of the people’s government are held by Tibetan citizens. In the national college entrance examination and the national civil service examination, ethnic minorities such as Tibetans enjoy the policy of adding points.
——The development path of New Tibet is the path of common prosperity and progress of all ethnic groups
For decades, with the strong support of the central government and the active help of the people of all ethnic groups in the country, and through the united struggle of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet, the level of development in Tibet has reached a new level, and new achievements have been made in various undertakings.
People’s living standards have been continuously improved. In 2013, the GDP of Tibet reached 80.767 billion yuan, the per capita net income of farmers and herdsmen reached 6,578 yuan, and the per capita disposable income of urban residents reached 20,023 yuan. The vast majority of the population in Tibet has been lifted out of poverty that has lasted for thousands of years and has basically reached a moderately prosperous standard of living. The housing project for farmers and herdsmen implemented since 2006 has been fully completed, with 460,300 households and 2.3 million farmers and herdsmen living in safe and suitable houses. The per capita living area of farmers and herdsmen is 30.51 square meters, and the per capita living area of urban residents is 42.81 square meters. The population has grown substantially, reaching 3,120,400 in 2013, with an average life expectancy of 68.2 years, three and two times, respectively, of the early 1950s. In the “CCTV Economic Life Survey” jointly organized by the National Bureau of Statistics, China Post Group Corporation and China Central Television, Lhasa has been rated as the city with the highest happiness index in China for five consecutive years.
All-round development of education, health and social security. Tibet is the first country in the country to achieve 15-year free education in pre-school education, urban and rural compulsory education, and high school education. The enrolment rate of primary school-age children is 99.59%, the gross enrolment rate of junior high school is 98.75%, and the gross enrolment rate of senior high school is 72.23%. The quality of the population has been significantly improved, the illiteracy of young and middle-aged people has been basically eliminated, and the average number of years of education for people over 15 years old has reached 8.1 years. The basic medical and health service system has been basically established, and there are 6,660 medical and health institutions (including village clinics). The medical system in agricultural and pastoral areas based on free medical care covers all farmers and herdsmen, and the government funding subsidy standard was raised to 380 yuan per capita per year in 2014. It is the first in the country to realize free health examinations for urban and rural residents.
The level of modernization continues to improve. With the continuous development of modern industry and infrastructure, a modern industrial system with more than 20 categories and rich Tibetan characteristics has been established. A new energy system with multiple complementary energies such as geothermal energy, wind energy, and solar energy, with hydropower as the mainstay, has been fully established. In 2013, the installed capacity of electricity was 1.28 million kilowatts, and the population coverage rate of electricity was 100%. The comprehensive transportation system focusing on the construction of road, air, railway and pipeline transportation will be gradually improved. In 2014, highways were basically connected to counties and counties, and highways to townships and villages, of which 62 counties were connected to oil roads, and the Lhasa-Shigatse railway, the extension line of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway, was completed and opened to traffic. Tibet has built 5 navigable airports, 8 airlines operate in Tibet, and 45 domestic routes have been opened. Optical cable, satellite and long-distance telephone networks throughout the region have been fully established, and 3G communication technology has basically achieved full coverage at the county level and above. At the end of 2013, the telephone penetration rate reached 98.1 per 100 people, and the Internet penetration rate was 37.4%.
The level of opening to the outside world has been continuously improved. Tibet’s economy has gradually changed from a closed type to an open type, from a supply type to an operation type, and the pace of development is basically the same as that of the whole country. At present, Tibet has been integrated into the national unified market system. Commodities from all over the country and around the world have entered Tibet continuously, and Tibetan special commodities have also entered the national and even the world market in large quantities. In 2013, the total import and export volume of the whole region was 3.319 billion US dollars, and the number of tourists to Tibet reached 12.91 million, including 220,000 overseas tourists.
——The development path of new Tibet is the path for the inheritance and promotion of the excellent traditional culture of Tibet
Tibetan language and writing are effectively protected. The Tibet Autonomous Region passed legislation in 1987, 1988 and 2002 respectively, bringing the work of learning, using and developing Tibetan language and writing into the track of legalization. The education system implements a bilingual teaching system mainly in Tibetan. All agricultural and pastoral areas and some urban primary schools implement simultaneous teaching of Tibetan and Chinese, and main courses are taught in Tibetan. At the middle school stage, both Tibetan and Chinese are taught at the same time, and Tibetan language classes are offered in Tibetan middle schools in the mainland. The Tibetan language answer sheet can be used in the entrance examination for general colleges and universities. The computer coding of Tibetan characters has passed national and international standards, and Tibetan editing systems, laser phototypesetting systems, and electronic publishing systems have been widely used. Tibetan language is widely used in political life. The resolutions and regulations passed by the people’s congresses at all levels, and the official documents and announcements issued by the Tibetan people’s governments at all levels and their subordinate departments are in both Tibetan and Chinese languages. In judicial proceedings, the Tibetan language is used to hear cases for all Tibetan participants, and Tibetan language is also used for legal documents. While protecting and developing the Tibetan language and writing, the state also promotes, learns and uses the national standard spoken and written language among citizens across the country, including the Tibet Autonomous Region, and promotes economic and cultural exchanges among all ethnic groups and regions.
Excellent traditional culture is protected and inherited. The Tibet Autonomous Region has formulated the Regulations on the Administration of the Protection of Cultural Relics in the Tibet Autonomous Region and the Notice of the People’s Government of the Tibet Autonomous Region on Strengthening the Protection of Cultural Relics to strengthen the protection of cultural relics. There are 4,277 cultural relic sites of various types, 55 national key cultural relics protection units, 391 autonomous region-level cultural relics protection units, 978 city and county-level cultural relics protection units, and 3 national historical and cultural cities. The Potala Palace, Norbulingka, and Jokhang Temple are listed in the World Cultural Heritage List, Lhasa, Shigatse, and Gyantse are listed as national-level historical and cultural cities, the Tibet Museum is listed as a national-level museum, and the Tibet Archives has more than 300 collections. Thousands of important historical archives. There are 76 national intangible cultural heritage lists, 323 at the autonomous region level, 76 at the prefecture level, and 814 at the county level. There are 68 representative inheritors of intangible cultural heritage at the national level, 350 at the autonomous region level, and 117 folk Tibetan opera teams. Gesar and Tibetan operas are included in the representative list of the intangible cultural heritage of mankind. Modern public culture is increasingly popular, and the comprehensive coverage of radio and television has reached 94.38% and 95.51% respectively. All administrative villages in Tibet have peasant book houses, and all Tibetan Buddhist temples have temple book houses. In 2011, Tibet set up a special fund for cultural industry development to support the development of Tibet’s cultural industry.
Citizens’ right to freedom of religious belief is guaranteed. There are various religions such as Tibetan Buddhism, Bon, Islam and Catholicism in the Tibet Autonomous Region. Within Tibetan Buddhism, there are different sects such as Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya and Gelug. The right to freedom of religious belief of all ethnic groups is protected by the Constitution and laws. All religions and sects are equally respected and protected, realizing true religious tolerance. No state organ, social group or individual may force citizens to believe in religion or not, and may not discriminate against citizens who believe in religion and citizens who do not believe in religion. Tibet currently has 1,787 places for various religious activities, with more than 46,000 monks and nuns, and 358 living Buddhas; 4 mosques, with more than 3,000 Islamic believers; one Catholic church, with more than 700 believers. Traditional religious activities such as studying scriptures, debating scriptures, promoting degrees, receiving ordination, empowering, chanting, and practicing in temples are carried out normally, and various activities are held on major religious festivals. Religious people generally have scripture halls or Buddhist shrines in their homes, and religious activities such as turning scriptures, worshipping Buddhas, and inviting monks and nuns to practice deeds are carried out normally. The reincarnation of living Buddhas is respected by the state as a unique inheritance method of Tibetan Buddhism. In 1995, in accordance with religious rituals and history, the Tibet Autonomous Region completed the search and identification of the reincarnated soul boy of the 10th Panchen Lama, as well as the canonization and enthronement of the 11th Panchen Lama. In 2007, the State Administration of Religious Affairs passed the “Administrative Measures for the Reincarnation of Living Buddhas in Tibetan Buddhism” to further regulate the reincarnation of Living Buddhas. Since the democratic reform, more than 60 newly reincarnated living Buddhas have been approved and recognized according to historical customization and religious rituals.
——The development path of new Tibet is the path of sustainable development
Tibet is an important ecological security barrier for the country and is of great significance to Asia and the world. Over the years, in the process of development, Tibet has always followed the laws of economy, society and nature, not sacrificing the natural environment, paying attention to the harmony and unity of economy, society and ecology, and taking the road of sustainable development. The central government adheres to the people-oriented scientific outlook on development, and places environmental protection in a prominent position as an important option for development. The government of the Tibet Autonomous Region has put forward the strategic goals of building an ecological security barrier in Tibet and building an ecological and beautiful Tibet, striving to explore new ways to achieve sustainable development of Tibet in the plateau environment.
Over the years, the central government and the Tibet Autonomous Region have formulated and implemented a series of plans for ecological environment protection and construction, making comprehensive plans and arrangements for ecological environment protection and construction in Tibet. In the “National Ecological Environment Construction Plan” and “National Ecological Environment Protection Outline” formulated by the Chinese government in 1998 and 2000, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau freeze-thaw area is regarded as one of the eight major ecological construction areas in the country, and special planning and protection measures have been established. In 2009, the Chinese government passed the “Plan for the Protection and Construction of Tibet’s Ecological Security Barrier (2008-2030)”, and planned to invest 15.8 billion yuan, striving to basically complete the Tibetan ecological security barrier by 2030. The Tibet Autonomous Region has formulated and implemented a series of ecological environmental protection and construction plans, including the Ecological Environment Construction Plan, the Water and Soil Protection Plan, the Comprehensive Environmental Improvement Plan for Agricultural and Pastoral Areas, and the Ecological Function Zone Plan, and has stepped up legislation to protect the environment. In recent years, the “Regulations on Environmental Protection of the Tibet Autonomous Region” have been revised, and regulations such as the “Measures for the Supervision and Administration of Ecological Environmental Protection of the Tibet Autonomous Region” have been issued.
National and autonomous regional governments have adopted strict environmental protection measures. Implement natural forest protection projects, returning farmland to forests, returning grazing land to grassland, natural grassland protection and construction, nomadic settlement, artificial grass planting, grassland improvement and other grassland ecological environment construction projects; launched the National Forest Ecological Benefit Compensation Fund, launched Sand prevention and control, soil erosion, comprehensive management of small watersheds, and prevention and control of geological disasters. Adhere to the principle of prudently developing industries, strictly limit the development of industries with high energy consumption, high pollution and high emissions in the area, promote the use of clean energy, and strive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Over the years, the central government and the Tibet Autonomous Region government have taken strict measures to strictly prohibit the development of mineral resources. In 2013, the government further tightened environmental access, and newly promulgated and implemented the ecological and environmental protection supervision and management measures, the mineral resources exploration and development supervision and management measures, and the environmental protection assessment measures. veto.
With the concerted efforts of all parties, Tibet’s ecological civilization construction has achieved remarkable results. At present, the area of nature reserves in Tibet has reached 413,700 square kilometers, accounting for 33.9% of the region’s land area, ranking first in the country; the forest coverage rate has reached 11.91%, and the total volume of living forests ranks first in the country; the area of various wetlands is more than 600 Ten thousand hectares, ranking first in the country. 125 kinds of national key protected wild animals and 39 national key protected wild plants are well protected in nature reserves. By the end of 2012, Tibet had 85.11 million hectares of natural grassland, of which 69.1 million hectares of usable natural grassland. At present, Tibet is still one of the regions with the best environmental quality in the world, with most areas in their original state.
3. The essence of the “middle way” is to split China
After more than half a century of united struggle by the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet, Tibet has embarked on a development path that conforms to the development requirements of the times and the fundamental interests of the people, and has achieved world-renowned development achievements. However, for the political purpose of “Tibet independence”, the 14th Dalai clique has not only turned a blind eye to the development and progress of Tibet, but also tried to obliterate the achievements of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet and tried to deny the correct path that Tibet has embarked on.
Over the years, the “Tibet independence” strategy of the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique has been constantly changing. In March 1959, after the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique launched an all-out armed rebellion and failed to flee to India, they publicly advocated the use of violence as a means to achieve “Tibetan independence”. After the late 1970s, with the relaxation of Sino-US relations, the 14th Dalai Lama Group saw that the international situation was not favorable for it, and began to change its strategy, proposing the so-called “middle way”, from open independence to disguised independence. After the drastic changes in the Soviet Union and the East in 1989, the 14th Dalai Lama clique misjudged the situation, believing that the time to achieve “Tibet independence” had come, and proposed to achieve “complete independence”. After 1994, the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique found that “Tibet independence” was hopeless, changed its caliber again, picked up the “middle way” sign again, and demanded the so-called “high degree of autonomy”. In recent years, the 14th Dalai Lama Group has stepped up its advocacy of the “middle way” and stepped up its packaging.
The “Middle Way”, is a Buddhist term, but the 14th Dalai Lama Group politicized it. Throughout the “Middle Way”, there are five core points: First, it does not recognize that Tibet has been a part of China since ancient times, and declares that “Tibet has historically been a completely independent country”, “occupied by China in 1951”, “historically, Tibetans have independent rights.” The second is to try to establish a “Greater Tibetan Area” that has never existed in history, claiming that the “Tibet issue” is a problem of 6 million Tibetans, and to merge Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, Qinghai and other areas inhabited by Tibetans and other ethnic groups. Create a unified administrative region. The third is to demand the implementation of a “high degree of autonomy” that is not bound by the central government, not to recognize the leadership of the central government and the current social and political system in Tibet, to claim the establishment of an “autonomous government”, and “except for foreign affairs and national defence, all other matters are handled by Tibetans (i.e. The 14th Dalai Lama Group) is responsible and has full authority.” The fourth is to oppose the central government’s garrisoning of troops in Tibet, ostensibly acknowledging the central government’s responsibility for national defence, but proposing to “withdraw all” Chinese troops and turn Tibet into an “international peace zone.” Fifth, ignoring the fact that multiple ethnic groups have coexisted on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau since ancient times, restricting other ethnic groups from entering the “Greater Tibet” and driving out other ethnic groups who have lived on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau for generations.
The “middle way” exchanged the ostensible recognition of China’s “sovereignty” over Tibet in exchange for the “governance” of the 14th Dalai clique over Tibet, and established a “semi-independent” political entity controlled by them; Seek “sovereignty” and finally achieve “Tibet independence”. The “middle way”, as a political program for realizing “Tibet independence” step by step, is neither in line with China’s history, reality, constitution, laws, and basic systems, nor in line with Tibet’s history, reality, and ethnic relations. fundamental interests of the whole Chinese people.
——Tibet has been a part of China since ancient times and has never been an independent country
Tibet has been a part of China since ancient times. The Tibetans are one of the ethnic groups with a long history in China and have contributed to the formation and development of a community with a shared future for the Chinese nation. A large number of archaeological and historical studies have shown that in China, Tibetans, Han and other ethnic groups have been closely related in blood, language and culture since ancient times. cultural exchanges. The Tubo regime developed in Tibet in the 7th century AD was a local regime in Chinese history and made important contributions to the development of China’s southwestern frontier.
It was during the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) that Tibet was officially brought under the administrative jurisdiction of the central government in ancient China. The Yuan Dynasty set up the General Institute of Buddhism and Education and the Xuanzheng Administration, which directly managed military, political and religious affairs in Tibet. jurisdiction. During the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), many feudal constructions were implemented in Tibet, and religious leaders from all over Tibet were given titles such as “Dharma King” and “Enlightened National Teacher”. At the same time, the succession to the local throne in Tibet must be approved by the emperor, and envoys can be conferred before the new king can succeed the throne. During the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), the central government successively enshrined the fifth Dalai Lama and the fifth Panchen Lama, leaders of the Gelug Sect of Tibetan Buddhism, and formally established the titles and political and religious status of the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni. Since then, the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Lama of all generations have been canonized by the central government, and they have been customized. Beginning in 1727, the Qing Dynasty set up ministers stationed in Tibet to supervise and manage the local administration of Tibet on behalf of the central government, and successively dispatched more than 100 ministers stationed in Tibet. In 1751, the Qing Dynasty abolished the system of secular county kings in charge of government, and officially appointed the seventh Dalai Lama to be in charge of the local government of Tibet. In 1774, when the British East India Company sent people to Tashilhunpo Monastery in an attempt to establish direct contact with Tibet, the sixth Panchen Lama replied that Tibet belongs to Chinese territory, and everything must obey the imperial decree of the Chinese emperor. In 1793, the Qing Dynasty promulgated the Twenty-nine Articles of the Regulations on Rehabilitation in Tibet, which improved the central government’s management of many systems in Tibet. Since then, the 10th, 11th and 12th Dalai Lamas and the 8th, 9th and 11th Panchen Lama have all been identified by drawing lots from the golden urn. The 13th and 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama were both exempted from the identification of the golden urn by lot after being approved by the central government.
The Republic of China (1912-1949) inherited the central government’s sovereignty over Tibet formed in history, and continued to exercise sovereign jurisdiction over Tibet. In 1912, the last emperor of the Qing Dynasty declared in the “Edict of the Qing Emperor’s Abdication” that “the ruling power will be transferred to the whole country, and it will be established as a republic and constitutional state.” for the Republic of China.” The “Provisional Law of the Republic of China” enacted in 1912 and the “Regional Law of the Republic of China during the Political Training Period” formulated in 1931 clearly stipulate that Tibet is the territory of the Republic of China. In 1929, the Nanjing National Government established the Mongolian-Tibet Committee to exercise administrative jurisdiction over Tibet. In 1940, the Nationalist government established the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission in Lhasa as a permanent agency of the central government in Tibet. The 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Lama were identified and seated in bed with the approval of the then government of the Republic of China. During the period of the Republic of China, warlords fought scuffles, civil strife continued, and the country was weak, but the central government still maintained the country’s sovereignty in Tibet under very difficult conditions.
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, ending the state of national separatism and realizing national reunification under new historical conditions has become a necessity of historical development. The peaceful liberation of Tibet and the entry of the People’s Liberation Army into Tibet are just actions taken by the Chinese central government to exercise national sovereignty, safeguard national unity and safeguard national territorial integrity after the change of the central government. The “17-Article Agreement” signed by the central government and the former local government of Tibet is a domestic contract and law based on respecting and affirming the historical fact that Tibet is a part of China. After the peaceful liberation, Tibet has gradually embarked on the road of socialism. The people of all ethnic groups in Tibet and the people of all ethnic groups in the country jointly promote the development and progress of the country.
Historical facts fully demonstrate that Tibet has been a part of China since ancient times and has never been an independent country. In today’s world, all countries generally recognize that Tibet is a part of China. No country has ever recognized “Tibet independence”, and there is no question of Tibet’s “political status”. Since the 14th Dalai Lama fled abroad in 1959 because he resisted the abolition reform, he has no right to represent the Tibetan people at all, let alone decide the future and destiny of Tibet. The so-called “government-in-exile” is an illegal political organization engaged in separatist activities. It has no legitimacy and is not recognized by any country in the world.
——”Greater Tibetan Area” is purely fictitious and does not conform to Chinese history and national conditions
When the 14th Dalai Lama Group peddled its “middle way” proposition, it always talked about the so-called “Greater Tibet”. According to the assumption of the 14th Dalai Lama Group, the “Greater Tibetan Area” extends from the southern part of Xinjiang and the Hexi Corridor in the north, to the central part of Gansu and central Sichuan in the east, and to the central part of Yunnan in the south, including the entire Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province, Sichuan Province. One-half of China’s total area, one-half of Gansu Province, one-fourth of Yunnan Province, and the southern part of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, with a total area of more than one-fourth of China’s land area.
”Greater Tibet” has no basis in the history of China’s administrative divisions. The administrative divisions of contemporary China are formed in a long historical process. In the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the Tubo regime was a multi-ethnic regime composed of the Tubo people and the various ethnic groups and tribes living in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and surrounding areas. After the demise of the Tubo regime, the Tubos living in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau coexisted with other ethnic groups, and there was no unified regime. During the Yuan Dynasty, the Marshal’s Mansion of Wusi Zang Nali Suguru Sun 3rd Road Du (that is, Wusi Zang Xuanwei Division) was set up in Tibet to manage Tibet, and in other Tibetan areas, Tubo and other road Xuanwei envoys were set up. Marshal Du’s Mansion (that is, Duogansi Xuanwei Division) and Tubo and other places to declare consolation envoy Sidu Marshal’s Mansion (that is, Tuosima Xuanwei Division). The above three Xuanwei Divisions all belong to the Xuanzheng Yuan (initially the General System Institute), the central management agency. During the Ming Dynasty, the Wusi Tibetan Guard Command and Envoy and the Oris Military and Civil Marshal’s Office were established in Tibet, and later upgraded to the Wusi Tibetan Travel Capital Command and Envoy. In the Duogansi area, there is the Duogan Commander (later promoted to the Duoganxingdu Commander). In the fourth year of Yongzheng in the Qing Dynasty (1726), in response to the turmoil in Tibet, the central government adjusted the administrative divisions of Tibet and surrounding provinces such as Sichuan, Yunnan and Qinghai. and continues to this day. Until the peaceful liberation in 1951, the administrative scope of the local government of Tibet never exceeded the scope of today’s Tibet Autonomous Region.
The “Greater Tibet” is the product of Western colonists’ invasion of China and their attempt to split China. The concept of “Greater Tibet” was not initiated by the 14th Dalai Lama clique, but was proposed by British colonialists at the 1913-1914 “Simla Conference” and written into the illegal “Simla Treaty”. The treaty divides the Tibetan areas in China into “Outer Tibet” and “Inner Tibet”: “Outer Tibet” refers to today’s Tibet Autonomous Region, which implements “autonomy”; “Inner Tibet” refers to Sichuan, Yunnan and Gansu excluding Tibet Autonomous Region. , The four provinces of Qinghai belong to Tibetan areas, and the Chinese government can send officials and troops. Due to the strong opposition of people of all ethnic groups in China, the representatives of the Chinese government at that time did not sign it and did not recognize it. The “Simla Conference” ended in bankruptcy, and the “Simla Treaty” also became a dead letter. However, the British colonialists still actively cultivated and supported the separatist forces at the upper levels in Tibet, and the separatist forces at the upper levels in Tibet once fantasized about achieving “autonomy” with the support of the United Kingdom. In his later years, the thirteenth Dalai Lama, who had been used by the British colonialists, finally woke up. In 1930, he said to Liu Manqing, the then representative of the central government in Lhasa: “It’s all Chinese territory. Brothers fighting against the wall is not worth it.”
”Greater Tibet” ignores the history and culture jointly created by all ethnic groups on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. After long-term exchanges, various ethnic groups in China have formed the distribution characteristics of large mixed settlements and small settlements. In China, an ethnic group is often distributed in different administrative regions, and an administrative region is often populated by different ethnic groups. In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, especially the adjacent areas, more than a dozen ethnic groups such as Han, Tibetan, Hui, Menba, Lhoba, Qiang, Mongolian, Tu, Dongxiang, Baoan, Yugu, Sala, Lisu, Naxi, Pumi, and Nu have lived since ancient times. , they are the co-owners of the land. Today’s Tibet and the four provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Qinghai are all multi-ethnic areas, which is the historical result of the long-term exchanges and integration of people of all ethnic groups in China. Due to various reasons such as geography, history and customs, the different Tibetan tribes in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Qing regions are managed by different provinces in China, and have long intertwined with other ethnic groups in various places. In the long-term historical development, the Tibetan people distributed in different administrative regions not only maintain common national characteristics, but also have differences in tribal languages and customs, each with its own characteristics. At the same time, Tibetans in different regions have frequent political, economic and cultural exchanges with other local peoples, especially the economic ties are very close, and they have common or similar regional cultural characteristics.
The “Greater Tibetan Area” is completely divorced from China’s actual national conditions. In China, the system of regional ethnic autonomy is a basic political system of the country. Regional ethnic autonomy means that under the unified leadership of the state, areas where various ethnic minorities live together exercise regional autonomy, establish organs of self-government, and exercise the right of autonomy. Ethnic autonomous areas are divided into three levels: autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures, and autonomous counties. All ethnic autonomous areas are inseparable parts of the People’s Republic of China. After the founding of New China, in addition to the Tibet Autonomous Region, 8 Tibetan Autonomous Prefectures, 1 Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, 1 Mongolian Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture and 2 Tibetan Autonomous Counties were established in Tibetan areas in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu, Qinghai and other provinces. Some Tibetan autonomous prefectures have also established autonomous counties of other ethnic groups. This kind of administrative division not only fully takes into account the historical characteristics of ethnic distribution, but also focuses on future development. It reflects the combination of ethnic factors and regional factors, historical factors and practical factors, and political factors and economic factors. Common prosperity and development in the family, practice has proved that this institutional arrangement is successful. Article 14 of the “Law of the People’s Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy” stipulates: “Once an ethnic autonomous area is established, it shall not be revoked or merged without statutory procedures; once the regional boundaries of ethnic autonomous areas are determined, they shall not be changed without statutory procedures; Revocation, merger or change shall be formulated by the relevant departments of the state organs at higher levels and the organs of self-government of ethnic autonomous areas through full consultation, and submitted for approval in accordance with legal procedures.”
It can be seen from the above that the 14th Dalai Lama Group’s attempt to establish a “Greater Tibetan Area” goes against both history and reality, and is completely divorced from China’s national conditions. The “Greater Tibetan Area” ignores the fact that multiple ethnic groups have coexisted on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau for thousands of years, distorts the history of the joint development of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau by various ethnic groups into the history of a single ethnic group, creates contradictions and differences among various ethnic groups in China, and seeks to establish a system that excludes other ethnic groups. The pure “Greater Tibet” theory is a typical manifestation of extreme nationalism and racism.
——”High degree of autonomy” is an attempt to create a “state within a state” and completely violates the Chinese constitution and state system
”High degree of autonomy”, also known as “true autonomy” and “authentic autonomy”, is another core content of the “middle way” advocated by the 14th Dalai Lama clique. On the surface, “high degree of autonomy” refers to the pursuit of “autonomy” in terms of language, culture, religion, education, and environmental protection within the sovereignty of the People’s Republic of China. However, in the remarks of the 14th Dalai Lama clique on “high degree of autonomy”, it also clearly includes the content of undermining China’s national unity, sovereignty and state system. country”.
One is about the relationship between “autonomous government” and the central government. The “high degree of autonomy” declared that “except for foreign affairs and national defence, all other affairs should be handled by Tibetans with full authority”, and the “autonomous government” has the right to set up “representative offices” in foreign countries. The essence of this is to put the “autonomous government” in an independent position that is not bound by the central government, to overthrow the existing political systems in the Tibet Autonomous Region and to create a new one.
The second is about the military defence of Tibet. The 14th Dalai Lama Group proposed that “only the complete withdrawal of the CCP army can begin the real process of reconciliation”, and also proposed that “regional peace conferences should be held to ensure the demilitarization of Tibet” in an attempt to turn Tibet into an “international peace zone” and the “buffer zone between China and India” turn China’s internal affairs into international affairs. Tibet is an integral part of the People’s Republic of China, and the central government’s presence in Tibet is a symbol of national sovereignty and a need for national security. The 14th Dalai Lama’s opposition to the central government’s garrisoning of troops in Tibet clearly reflects its political motives for “Tibet independence”.
The third is about the rights of other ethnic groups. The 14th Dalai Lama Group proposed that “the immigration to Tibet must be stopped, and the Han Chinese who immigrated to Tibet must be brought back to China.” Sang Dong, an important member of the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique, stated in a speech in 2005: “The Tibetans themselves should exercise their regional ethnic autonomy in the entire Tibetan settlement. Constrain our rights.” As mentioned above, within the so-called “Greater Tibetan Area” of the 14th Dalai Lama clique, especially the areas adjacent to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, historically it has been an ethnic corridor where various ethnic groups in China have frequently migrated, forming staggered living, interdependent situation. The 14th Dalai Lama’s clique wants tens of millions of other ethnic groups in this area to move away from their homeland where they have lived for generations, revealing an absurd and terrifying logic, that is, the day when the so-called “high degree of autonomy” is realized will be the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. the time of national cleansing.
The fourth is about “a high degree of autonomy” and “one country, two systems”. The 14th Dalai Lama Group claimed to implement “a high degree of autonomy” in the entire “Greater Tibet” in accordance with the “one country, two systems” approach, and that the situation in Tibet is more “special” and the right to autonomy should be greater than that of Hong Kong and Macau. “One country, two systems” is China’s basic national policy to solve the Taiwan issue, as well as the Hong Kong and Macau issues, and realize the peaceful reunification of the country. Tibet is completely different from Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau. The Taiwan question is an issue left over from the civil war between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. The Hong Kong and Macao issues are the product of imperialist aggression against China and the issue of China’s resumption of the exercise of sovereignty. Tibet has always been under the sovereign jurisdiction of the central government, and the above problems do not exist at all.
It can be seen from this that the so-called “high degree of autonomy”, “autonomy” is false, “independence” is true, the purpose is to deny China’s sovereignty over Tibet and establish a “Greater Tibetan Area” that is not under the jurisdiction of the central government. Such a “high degree of autonomy” has no basis and conditions for its realization.
First, “a high degree of autonomy” goes against the spirit and principles of the “Constitution of the People’s Republic of China” concerning the relationship between all ethnic groups in China. The preamble of the “Constitution of the People’s Republic of China” clearly states: “The People’s Republic of China is a unified multi-ethnic country jointly created by the people of all ethnic groups in the country. The socialist ethnic relations of equality, unity and mutual assistance have been established and will continue to be strengthened. In the struggle of the People’s Republic of China, we must oppose big nationalism, mainly Han nationalism, but also local nationalism.” Article 4 stipulates: “All ethnic groups in the People’s Republic of China are equal”, “Discrimination and oppression of any ethnic group are prohibited, and Acts that undermine national unity and create national division.” Article 48 of the “Law of the People’s Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy” stipulates: “The organs of self-government of ethnic autonomous areas guarantee that all ethnic groups in the area enjoy equal rights.” The “high degree of autonomy” of the 14th Dalai Lama clique simply ignores all ethnic groups in Tibet equal rights is a manifestation of extreme nationalism.
Second, “a high degree of autonomy” is fundamentally contrary to China’s current state structure. The People’s Republic of China inherited a unitary state structure when it was founded, with a unified constitution and legal system throughout the country. In China, the components that make up the country as a whole are local administrative regions rather than member governments. Article 57 of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China stipulates that the National People’s Congress is the highest organ of state power; Article 58 stipulates that the National People’s Congress and the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress exercise the legislative power of the state. Local governments at all levels are subordinates of the central government and must obey the management of the central government. There is no subject of power equal to the legal status of the central government. “High degree of autonomy” denies the supreme power of the National People’s Congress, disregards the authority of the central government, demands legislative power equivalent to the national level, and describes the subordination of local governments to the central government as a “cooperative” relationship and an equal relationship between political entities. In China, there is no such thing as a “negotiation” between the central and local governments on an equal footing, obtaining mutual “agreement” and establishing a “cooperative solution”.
Third, “a high degree of autonomy” is fundamentally contrary to the basic political system of socialism with Chinese characteristics. As mentioned above, the system of regional ethnic autonomy is a basic political system in China. Within the autonomous region, citizens of all ethnic groups enjoy equal rights, and the rights of citizens of all ethnic groups are guaranteed by the Constitution and laws. All ethnic autonomous areas are an inalienable part of the territory of the People’s Republic of China. The people’s government of an ethnic autonomous area is a first-level local state administrative organ, as well as an organ of self-government of the autonomous area. Article 15 of the “Law of the People’s Republic of China on Regional Ethnic Autonomy” stipulates: “The people’s governments of all ethnic autonomous areas are state administrative organs under the unified leadership of the State Council and are subject to the State Council.” As an autonomous region of China, Tibet is naturally under the central government’s control under leadership. The 14th Dalai Lama group attempted to fundamentally deny China’s system of regional ethnic autonomy through “high degree of autonomy”.
The “Middle Way” thought in Buddhist teachings originally advocated abandoning the two prejudices of “existence” and “empty realms” and not going to extremes. However, the political proposition of the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique is only in the name of the “middle way” to practice “Tibet independence”. The 14th Dalai Lama’s second brother Gyalo Thondup, younger brother Tenzin Qujia, and his important backbone Sang Dong, the leaders of “Tibetan independence” once said: “We seek autonomy first, and then drive the Chinese away! Autonomy will be the beginning. “The first step is to make Tibet semi-independent in the name of autonomy; the second step is to transition to Tibet’s independence.” The new leader of the so-called “Tibetan government-in-exile” also told India’s Dialogue: “The views of Tibetan independence and Tibetan autonomy are not contradictory. From a dialectical point of view, Tibetan independence is a principled goal, and Tibetan autonomy is a realistic goal.” The “middle way” and the realization of “Tibet independence” in stages, the 14th Dalai Lama Group tried its best to package itself, pretending to cater to the “world trend”, under the guise of “the third way”, “national self-determination”, “national autonomy”, International discourses such as “non-violence” and “win-win” whitewash the demands of “Tibet independence” as the pursuit of fairness, justice, democracy and freedom. However, because it is completely divorced from China’s national conditions and the reality of Tibet, and fundamentally violates China’s constitution, laws and basic political system, no matter how it is packaged, it is futile.
4. The illusion of “peace” and “non-violence”
Over the years, the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique has always used fashionable words such as “peace” and “non-violence” to whitewash itself when peddling the “middle way”, covering up its violent and armed nature, creating the illusion of “charity” and defrauding sympathy and support from the international community. However, behind the warm words such as “peace” and “non-violence”, it is not difficult to find that since the armed rebellion was launched in 1959, the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique has always used both violence and “non-violence”. Violence in the name of non-violence. “Peace” and “non-violence” are just a fig leaf for the 14th Dalai clique to deceive the world. They have never given up the line of using violence to promote “Tibet independence”.
——In order to achieve the political goal of “Tibet independence”, the 14th Dalai Lama Clique has never given up violence
In 1959, the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique launched a large-scale armed rebellion, armed attacks on the staff of the central government stationed in Tibet, and massacred Tibetan compatriots who supported democratic reforms. The 14th Dalai Lama not only knew about this, but also explicitly encouraged it. The 14th Dalai Lama once wrote in his “autobiography”: “Everyone is fully armed, even my personal cook is carrying a bazooka, and his waist is full of cannonballs. He is a former American Central Young people trained by the Intelligence Service”. After the 14th Dalai Lama fled India, he reorganized the armed forces and waited for the opportunity to “fight back to Tibet”. In 1960, the 14th Dalai Lama Group reorganized the “Four Rivers and Six Posts Guards and Religions Army” in Mustang, northern Nepal. In 1962, with the support of external forces, the 14th Dalai Lama Group established the “India-Tibet Border Special Forces”, mainly exiled Tibetans. From 1961 to 1965, the 14th Dalai Lama group sneaked across the border 204 times, frantically attacking the Chinese border troops and civilians in the border areas.
The 14th Dalai Lama Group was once armed with support from the US Central Intelligence Agency. Documents released by the US show that the 14th Dalai Lama Group established contact with the US government when Tibet was peacefully liberated in 1951. During the armed rebellion in Tibet, the CIA not only sent agents to help the 14th Dalai Lama escape, but also specially trained militants engaged in “Tibetan independence” activities and dropped a large amount of weapons and equipment. On June 8, 2012, the German “Süddeutsche Zeitung” published “Sacred Appearances” and commented, “The Dalai Lama, the representative of pure pacifism, probably knows much more about the CIA’s activities in Tibet than he has admitted so far. Now, a huge shadow has fallen on the head of this god-king.” The commentary noted that the 14th Dalai Lama’s direct relationship with the CIA was “completely inconsistent with his status as the highest moral authority.”
After the late 1970s, with the changes in the international situation, the open violence of the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique became increasingly unpopular. Under the pressure of the situation, they began to adopt a two-handed strategy: one was to continuously create violent incidents and put pressure on the central government; One-handedly, it advocates “non-violence”, deceives the world, and covers up violent acts. In the 1980s, a series of violent incidents occurred in Tibet under the planning and instigation of the 14th Dalai Lama clique. On September 21, 1987, the 14th Dalai Lama delivered a speech in the US Congress, advocating the idea of “Tibet independence”. On September 27, rioters shouted separatist slogans at the Jokhang Temple Square in Lhasa, besieged the police, and injured many people. On October 1, rioters smashed the police station on Barkhor Street, burned seven cars, and injured dozens of police officers. The thugs claimed: “The Dalai Lama wants to seek Tibetan independence, and we must follow suit. Anyone who does not follow the parade will smash their homes.” On March 5, 1988, during the Dafa conference in Lhasa, a group of thugs gathered in Jokhang. Temple, Barkhor Street and other places, attacked the party and government organs and public security police stations, smashed cars and shops, etc., causing a total of 299 police and civilians to be killed and injured. From March 5 to 7, 1989, riots broke out again in Lhasa. The rioters attacked the police with guns, killing one police officer and injuring 40 police officers. 107 businesses, 24 government offices, primary schools and neighbourhood committees were destroyed. On March 11, 1992, nine “Tibetan independence” elements attacked the Chinese embassy in India with incendiary bombs.
More serious violence occurred on March 14, 2008. On this day, a group of thugs used stones, knives, sticks, etc. as weapons in the central city of Lhasa, smashing, smashing, looting and burning innocent passers-by, vehicles, shops, banks, telecommunications outlets and government agencies. The local social order was seriously affected. damage, causing heavy losses to people’s lives and property. During the incident, rioters set fire to more than 300 places, damaged 908 shops, 7 schools, 120 private houses, and 5 hospitals in Lhasa, smashed 10 financial outlets, burned at least 20 buildings to rubble, and destroyed 84 cars. 18 innocent people were burned or hacked to death, and 382 people were injured, including 58 seriously injured. Numerous facts show that the “3.14” incident was carefully planned and instigated by the 14th Dalai Lama clique. After the incident, the 14th Dalai Lama issued a statement through his private secretariat, glorifying the violence as a “peaceful protest.” On March 16, the 14th Dalai Lama said in an interview with a British BBC reporter: “No matter when or what Tibetans do, I will respect their wishes and will not ask them to stop.” The “Tibetan Youth Congress” (hereinafter referred to as the “Tibetan Youth Congress”) influenced by Lai passed a resolution to “immediately form guerrillas to secretly enter the country to carry out armed struggle”. The leader of the “Tibetan Youth Congress” said that in order to achieve complete victory, he was ready to sacrifice at least 100 more Tibetans.
——The 14th Dalai Lama group destroyed the Olympic Games symbolizing peace, fully exposing the hypocrisy of its “non-violence”
The Olympic Games are a symbol of human peace, friendship and progress, and are welcomed and cherished by people of all countries. The harassment and destruction of the Beijing Olympics by the 14th Dalai Lama clique is a great satire on its so-called “non-violent” image.
In May 2007, the “Tibetan Independence” forces and international anti-China forces held the “Fifth International Conference of Solidarity with Tibet Organizations” in Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The meeting adopted a “strategic plan” and decided to launch a boycott of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. Later, the “Tibetan Independence” organization in the United States put forward the concept of “Tibetan People’s Uprising”. They believed that 2008 was the last chance to achieve “Tibetan independence”, and decided to take advantage of the “favorable opportunity” before the Olympics when the international community paid attention to China, in an attempt to “create a crisis for China by awakening and coordinating actions in Tibet.”
At the end of 2007, “Tibetan Youth Association”, “Tibetan Women’s Association” (hereinafter referred to as “Tibetan Women’s Association”) and other “Tibetan independence” militant organizations held a meeting in India, claiming to launch a “Tibetan People’s Uprising Movement”. On January 4 and 25, 2008, seven “Tibetan Independence” organizations held a press conference in New Delhi, India, to announce the “Tibetan People’s Great Uprising Movement” Proposal, which was disseminated on more than 100 websites, saying that “from Starting from March 10, 2008, an uninterrupted large-scale ‘Tibetan People’s Great Uprising Movement’ was held.” On March 10, the 14th Dalai Lama delivered a speech, inciting lawless elements in China to take violent actions. The “Tibetan Youth Association” issued a statement on the same day saying, “At present, we should seize the important opportunity that has never existed in the past independence struggle, that is, this year’s Olympic Games”, and “will not hesitate to shed blood and sacrifice lives” for “Tibet independence”.
Under the planning and organization of the 14th Dalai Lama Group, during the preparations for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, the “Tibet independence” forces created a series of disruptive and sabotage activities internationally. “Tibetan independence” elements have repeatedly destroyed important ceremonies of the Olympic Games, including the torch collection ceremony in Greece, and snatch the Olympic torch that is being passed in many countries. This has caused great indignation in the international community.
——The 14th Dalai Lama Group ignores the lives of ordinary Tibetans, beguiling and condoning self-violence of monks and lay believers
In August 2011, the new leader of the so-called “Tibetan government-in-exile” came to power and explicitly proposed the “innovative non-violent” movement. Since then, the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique has started to incite self-immolation among Tibetan monks, laymen and believers in various ways, resulting in a series of self-immolation incidents in some parts of China. On May 29, 2012, at a candlelight rally held by the “Tibetan Youth Congress” for self-immolated Tibetans, its leader declared, “Tibetan independence will not fall from the sky, nor will it grow from the ground, but depends on our efforts. And action comes at a price.” From September 25th to 28th, 2012, the 14th Dalai Lama Group convened the second “Global Tibetan Exile Extraordinary Conference”, which clearly regarded self-immolation as “the highest form of non-violent action”, and regarded self-immolators as “nationality”. Hero”, build a memorial hall and raise special funds for him. For a period of time after that, the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique trumpeted that “self-immolation does not violate the Dharma” and that “self-immolation is an act of martyrdom and an act of a bodhisattva”, deceiving Tibetan believers, especially some young people who have not seen the world, to take the road of no return. Self-immolations have risen sharply.
A series of self-immolation cases detected by the Chinese public security organs clearly show that the self-immolation incident was manipulated and fabricated by the 14th Dalai Lama clique. The Kirteng Monastery in Aba Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan Province is the place where the most self-immolation incidents occurred. The 14th Dalai Lama Group usually organizes self-immolations through four channels: first, through the contact between the Kirti Temple and the “News Liaison Team” of India’s Kirti Temple, and remotely plan the self-immolation; second, members of the “Tibetan Youth Association” enter illegally to incite Organizing self-immolation; third, instigating self-immolation through overseas returnees;
The 14th Dalai Lama’s clique also issued the “Guide Book of Self-immolation” for manipulating self-immolation, systematically inciting and abetting Tibetans in the territory to self-immolate. The author of the book, signed Ramoji, has served two consecutive terms in the “Parliament in Exile” and “Member”. The “Self-immolation Guide” is divided into four parts: the first part advocates that self-immolators are “fearless heroes, very great and glorious”, and encourages “heroes and heroines” to be ready to sacrifice their lives at all times; the second part teaches how to “prepare for self-immolation”, Detailed instructions for self-immolators to “choose an important day in terms of time”, “choose an important place for the environment”, “leave a written or audio-recorded last note”, “it is very important to ask one or two trusted people to help video or take pictures”; Part III It is the “self-immolation slogan”, instigating self-immolators to shout a unified slogan; the fourth part is other actions in cooperation with self-immolation. The “Guide Book of Self-immolation” is a death guide that instigates others to commit self-violence and creates an atmosphere of terror. Writing and disseminating the “Guide Book of Self-immolation” is undoubtedly a crime of killing, which is completely contrary to the teachings of Tibetan Buddhism.
Self-inflicted violence in public is itself an act of violence, the purpose of which is to create an atmosphere of terror and transmit terror. On this issue of right and wrong, the 14th Dalai Lama played a disgraceful role. On November 8, 2011, in the early days of the self-immolation incident, he said in an interview with the media: “The problem is here, self-immolation requires courage, very courage.” This is actually an appreciation and affirmation of the self-immolators. On January 3, 2012, he again defended his self-immolation, saying, “Suicide is a violent act on the surface, but the distinction between violence and non-violence ultimately lies in the motive and purpose, and acts stemming from anger and hatred are violence.” Obviously, in his view, self-immolation is a “non-violent” act. On October 8, 2012, he also said in an exclusive interview, “I am quite sure that those who self-immolated sacrificed themselves with sincere motives, for the sake of the Dharma and the well-being of the people, from a Buddhist point of view. Look, it’s positive.” Here, he has clearly affirmed and praised the self-immolation. The Dalai Lama also used his status as a religious leader to personally preside over the “dharma meeting”, and took the lead in “surviving”, “reciting scriptures” and “praying for blessings” for the self-immolators, which was very inciting and charismatic to believers with simple religious feelings.
Respecting life and opposing violence are the basic propositions of Buddhism. Buddhism opposes both killing and suicide. It advocates compassion, and treats, cherishes, and saves all living beings. Do not commit suicide, the great precept set by the Buddha. In Buddhist scriptures, suicide and teaching people to commit suicide are both great evils. Buddhist “Four-point Vinaya”, “Five Points of Precepts”, “Ten Precepts” and other monks’ precepts all stipulate: If a monk commits suicide, or asks others to kill himself, or teaches others to commit suicide, the monk commits killing. If the precepts are severed, they lose their qualifications as monks and must be expelled from the Sangha. Buddhism also believes that persuading, encouraging, admiring suicide, and providing conditions and conveniences for suicide is a serious sin. The attitude and practice of the 14th Dalai Lama clique towards Tibetans’ self-immolation is to instigate and induce others to commit suicide, which is a criminal act. This kind of behaviour not only violates the basic conscience and morality of human beings, but also seriously tramples on Buddhist teachings and completely contradicts the Buddhist outlook on life. In order to safeguard the rights of the people and the dignity of the law, the Chinese government has taken various measures to stop the self-immolation incident, save innocent lives, and punish the criminals involved in the self-immolation incident in accordance with the law. Conspiracy.
——The 14th Dalai Lama clique incited ethnic hatred and cultivated the successors of the “Tibet independence cause” who advocated violence
Over the years, in order to achieve “Tibetan independence”, the 14th Dalai clique has never stopped creating estrangements and conflicts between the Tibetans and other ethnic groups in China, instigating inter-ethnic relations and inciting ethnic hatred. After the failed rebellion in 1959, the 14th Dalai Lama kept proclaiming in his speeches: “Red Han Chinese” are “snakes in their arms and annoying things”; “Han people are like a neurotic person”; ” The Han people regard Tibetans as animals and torture them cruelly”; “Since the Han people came, Tibet’s suffering has increased, so the root of the increased suffering lies in the Han people”; “The Han people are cruel, ruthless, and vicious, and do everything possible to destroy the Tibetans. ”, “The CCP massacred more than 1 million Tibetans”. In recent years, the 14th Dalai Lama Group has also used the self-immolation incident to intensify hatred education, displaying photos of self-immolation in the schools it runs, forcing children to pay tribute to the self-immolators, attacking the central government’s policy of governing Tibet, and strengthening ethnic estrangement and hatred.
Founded in 1970, the “Tibetan Youth Association” is a “Tibetan independence” radical organization directly under the orders of the 14th Dalai Lama, with the purpose of training “successors” for the “Tibet independence cause”. The constitution of the “Tibetan Youth Association” stipulates that “follow the correct leadership and guidance of the Dalai Lama,” “commits to the just cause of Tibet’s freedom and independence”, “at the cost of life”. The “Tibetan Youth Association” has been producing violent and terrorist activities since its establishment. Many presidents of the “Tibetan Youth Association” have claimed: “Armed struggle and the use of violence are the only way for Tibet to achieve complete independence”, “Terrorist activities can achieve the greatest effect at the lowest cost”, “Terrorist activities can have a wide range of influence and attract the international community to Concerns about Tibet”. On July 3, 2003, Kelsang Phuntsok, then chairman of the “Tibetan Youth Association”, said in an interview with the media: “As long as it is for our cause, we will not hesitate to use any means, whether violent or non-violent.” Over the years, the “Tibetan Youth Congress” not only planned and incited ordinary people who did not know the truth to participate in violent incidents, but also actively trained its armed and reserve forces. They set up an armed training base in Dharamsala, India, formed the “Tibetan Freedom Fighters Association”, carried out armed sabotage activities, and sent people to contact international terrorist organizations to seek mutual support. Many violent terrorist incidents in Tibet and other places are directly related to the “Tibetan Youth Congress”.
For the political purpose of cultivating successors for “Tibetan independence”, the 14th Dalai clique created the “Tibetan orphans” incident, which resulted in the separation of flesh and blood, resulting in human tragedy. According to the Swiss newspaper Neue Zurich, in the 1960s, the 14th Dalai Lama colluded with Swiss businessmen to forcibly took nearly 200 Tibetan children from their biological parents, falsely calling them “orphans” and arranged for adoption by Swiss families. The actions of the 14th Dalai Lama blatantly violated human ethics and violated children’s rights, which are not tolerated by human justice and kindness.
In order to maintain authority and exclude dissidents, the 14th Dalai clique resorted to assassination, poisoning and other means to conduct political and religious persecution against those with political and religious dissent. In the late 1990s, the living Buddha Gongdelin was seriously stabbed in his home, and two young living Buddhas, Chijiang and Songbu, received “death threats”. These events are all directly related to the 14th Dalai Lama clique.
V. The Central Government’s Policy towards the Fourteenth Dalai Lama
More than 60 years ago, the central government actively sought the cooperation of the 14th Dalai Lama and realized the peaceful liberation of Tibet from the overall interests of safeguarding the unity of the motherland and ethnic groups. After the 14th Dalai Lama defected abroad in 1959, the central government has always been benevolent and righteous and offered a way out. However, over the past 60 years, the 14th Dalai Lama has repeatedly made choices that run counter to the aspirations of the central government and the Tibetan people.
——The historical legitimacy of the Dalai Lama comes from the central government. The 14th Dalai Lama did some useful things during the peaceful liberation of Tibet, but in the end he deviated from his correct choice
The title of the Dalai Lama, the great living Buddha of the Gelug sect of Tibetan Buddhism, its historical status and influence are inseparable from the conferment of the central government. In 1653, the fifth Dalai Lama was summoned to the Beijing Dynasty to meet the Emperor Shunzhi of the Qing Dynasty, and was canonized and awarded the Golden Book and Golden Seal. Since then, the title of the Dalai Lama and his political and religious status in Tibet have been established. In 1793, the Qing Dynasty promulgated the Twenty-nine Articles of the Imperial Regulations for Rehabilitation in Tibet, establishing the golden urn lottery system for the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama. On February 5, 1940, the National Government promulgated the “Fu Zi No. 898” order, approving the 5-year-old boy Lam Dengdup from Qijiachuan, Huangzhong County, Qinghai Province, as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama, and exempted him according to the local government of Tibet. At the request of drawing lots from the golden urn, he was granted special permission to succeed him as the 14th Dalai Lama, and allocated 400,000 yuan for the enthronement ceremony. On February 22, according to historical customization, Wu Zhongxin, a representative of the central government, and Rezhen Rinpoche presided over the enthronement ceremony of the 14th Dalai Lama. Lam Dengdup became the 14th Dalai Lama, and its legitimacy comes from the central government’s regulations on the Dalai Lama system and the approval of the National Government.
After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, in order to strive for the peaceful liberation of Tibet, the central government organized and carried out a lot of political work. In November 1950, Daza Ngawang Songrao, the regent of the Tibetan local government who advocated pro-imperialist and separatist regents, was forced to step down. The 14th Dalai Lama took office ahead of schedule, and the leaders of the new China congratulated him. Inspired by the central government’s policy of ethnic equality and the policy of peaceful liberation of Tibet, the 14th Dalai Lama and the local government of Tibet sent a delegation headed by Ngapoi Ngawang Jigme to Beijing for negotiations. After the peaceful liberation of Tibet, the representative of the Central People’s Government in Tibet arrived in Yadong, a small town on the Sino-Indian border with a handwritten letter written by Mao Zedong, the leader of the People’s Republic of China, to persuade the 14th Dalai Lama, who was watching the situation there, to return to Lhasa. The leaders of New China pointed out in the letter: “This agreement is in the interests of the Tibetan nation and people, and also in the interests of the people of all ethnic groups in China. From then on, the local government of Tibet and the Tibetan people are in the great family of the motherland and the people of the Central Government. Under the unified leadership of the government, we can forever get rid of the shackles of imperialism and the oppression of foreign races, stand up and work hard for the cause of the Tibetan people. I hope that the local government of Tibet under your leadership will earnestly implement the agreement on the peaceful liberation of Tibet and try its best to help the people. The PLA peacefully marched into Tibet.” On July 21, the 14th Dalai Lama set off for Lhasa. On October 24, the 14th Dalai Lama publicly stated on behalf of the local government of Tibet that he fully accepted the “17-Article Agreement”.
——After the peaceful liberation of Tibet, the central government respected the inherent status of the 14th Dalai Lama, gave him lofty honors, and actively sought him to contribute to the construction of a new China, but he did one thing in front of him and another behind it.
The “17-Article Agreement” stipulates that “the central government will not change the inherent status and powers of the Dalai Lama.” After the peaceful liberation, the central government gave the 14th Dalai Lama high political treatment. In 1953, the 14th Dalai Lama was elected as the honorary president of the National Buddhist Association. In 1954, the 14th Dalai Lama participated in the first session of the First National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China to discuss national affairs and support and approve the first draft constitution. The 14th Dalai Lama spoke at the meeting, fully affirming the achievements made in the implementation of the “17-Article Agreement” over the past three years, and expressing his warm support for the principles and regulations of regional ethnic autonomy. He also said: “The enemy spread rumors about the Communist Party and the people’s government to destroy religion. Now such rumors have been completely bankrupt, and the Tibetan people have personally realized that there is freedom in religious belief.” Lai was elected as the vice-chairman of the first National People’s Congress Standing Committee, the highest position held by a local Tibetan leader in the history of the central government. During their stay in Beijing, the leaders of New China met with the 14th Dalai Lama many times and talked with him. The 14th Dalai Lama wrote “Ode to Chairman Mao” to praise the great achievements of Mao Zedong, the leader of the new China. In 1956, the Tibet Autonomous Region Preparatory Committee was established, with the 14th Dalai Lama serving as the director of the Preparatory Committee. In his speech at the inaugural meeting of the Preparatory Committee, he said that the “17-Article Agreement” enabled the Tibetan people to “fully enjoy all the rights of ethnic equality and began to embark on the bright road of freedom and happiness”. “The establishment of the Preparatory Committee of the Autonomous Region not only It is timely and necessary.” He once made a positive gesture on issues such as the implementation of the Seventeen-Article Agreement, the People’s Liberation Army’s entry into Tibet, the return of the 10th Panchen Lama to Tibet, and the establishment of the Preparatory Committee of the Autonomous Region.
However, with the wooing and support of separatists and imperialist forces, the 14th Dalai Lama disregarded the basic precepts and ethics of being a Buddhist, lived up to the expectations of the central government, violated the central government, and secretly engaged in separatist activities. In 1959, the 14th Dalai Lama group tore up the “17-Article Agreement” and launched an all-out armed rebellion in order to resist the democratic reform to abolish serfdom. The central government has long had insight into the two-faced tactics of the 14th Dalai Lama. Mao Zedong, the leader of the People’s Republic of China, pointed out: “The Dalai Lama’s conspiracy to rebel began when he returned from Beijing in 1955. He returned from India in early 1957 and arranged for two years in 1958.” To put it bluntly, he said in 1965 that during the nine years from 1951 to 1959, “while verbally saying that we are happy to be able to return to the big family of the motherland, to build socialism together with the people of the big family of the motherland. When I say things like being happy with the society, I also have a word hidden in my heart.” “This word is: Tibet must be free and independent.”
——After launching the armed rebellion, the central government has done its utmost to the 14th Dalai Lama, and still adopted a patient attitude for a period of time, but he went further and further on the road of betrayal of the motherland
After the armed rebellion broke out in Tibet, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army, with the support and support of people of all ethnic groups in Tibet, quickly quelled the rebellion and launched a democratic reform movement at the same time. Regarding the defection of the 14th Dalai Lama, the central government decided not to block it, and left room for him to say that he was kidnapped. At the same time, he took a patient attitude towards him, and his position as vice chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress was retained until 1964. In October 1959, the leader of the new China, Mao Zedong, said in a conversation with the delegation of the Communist Party of India: “If the Dalai Lama agrees with our proposition, we hope that the Dalai Lama will come back. As long as we agree with two things, first, Tibet is a part of China, and second Two, if democratic reforms and socialist reforms are to be carried out in Tibet, he can come back.”
However, the 14th Dalai Lama, who had defected, publicly tore up the “17-Article Agreement” on the way to his treason, flatly denied the patriotic stance and commitment he had made, openly broke with the central government, and embarked on a path of betrayal of the country and the nation. the way. In June 1959, the 14th Dalai Lama issued a statement in Mussoorie, India, claiming that “Tibet has in fact always been independent”. In 1963, the 14th Dalai Lama convened the “Tibetan People’s Congress” in Dharamsala, India, established the so-called “Tibetan Government-in-Exile”, promulgated the so-called “Constitution”, stipulating that “the Dalai Lama shall be the head of state” and “the minister shall be appointed by the Dalai Lama”. Lai’s appointment” and “all the work of the government shall be recognized by the parties with the consent of Dalai Lama”.
On December 17, 1964, the 151st Plenary Session of the State Council of China passed the “Decision on Removing the Dalai Lama’s Posts”, stating: “The Dalai Lama launched a treasonous counter-revolutionary armed rebellion in 1959. After fleeing abroad, he organized a puppet government in exile and announced The pseudo-constitution, supporting the aggression of the Indian reactionary against our country, and actively organizing and training the remnant rebels who have fled abroad to harass the borders of the motherland. All this proves that he has long since cut himself off from the motherland and the people, and that he is a tool of imperialism and foreign reactionaries. Traitor.”
——After China’s reform and opening up, the central government pointed out a way for the 14th Dalai Lama to correct his mistakes, and put forward the policy of “patriotic family, patriotism in no particular order”, but he always circled around “Tibet independence”
Patriotism is a basic requirement put forward by the central government to the 14th Dalai Lama and overseas Tibetans. In order to enhance the understanding of the 14th Dalai Lama and overseas Tibetan compatriots on the achievements of the motherland’s construction, from August 1979 to September 1980, the relevant departments of the central government received three groups of visiting groups and two groups sent by the 14th Dalai Lama successively. Relatives return home to visit. Most of the relatives of the 14th Dalai Lama abroad have returned to China to visit and visit relatives. Regrettably, the 14th Dalai Lama, instead of accepting the goodwill and the precious opportunities provided by the central government, stubbornly adhered to the position of “Tibet independence”, intensified his separatist and sabotage activities, and lost the opportunity to reconcile with the central government. The returning visiting group sent by the 14th Dalai Lama took advantage of the central government’s “freedom to come and go” policy to advocate “Tibet independence” everywhere, incite ethnic hatred, and illegally interfere with and disrupt the normal social order of production and life.
Beginning in 1979, at the request of the 14th Dalai Lama, the central government began to conduct contact and negotiation with the personal representatives of the 14th Dalai Lama from time to time. In February 1979, Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping pointed out when meeting Gyalo Thondup, the second brother of the 14th Dalai Lama, on the Dalai Lama’s return to China, “Tibet is a part of China, and their return can only be discussed as an internal issue, not as an internal issue. State-to-state dialogue, that’s the fundamental problem.” “As long as the Dalai Lama publicly admits that Tibet is a part of China, he can have a dialogue with the central government, regardless of patriotism. The fundamental issue is that Tibet is a part of China, and whether it is right or wrong should be judged by this standard.”
After 1989, with the drastic changes in the situation in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the 14th Dalai Lama miscalculated the situation, declared that “the day of Tibet’s independence is coming,” and claimed that he “will not negotiate with a regime that is about to collapse.” After the tenth Panchen Lama passed away in 1989, with the approval of the central government, the Buddhist Association of China invited the Dalai Lama to return to China to participate in the Panchen Lama’s memorial service. The 14th Dalai Lama declined the invitation. In 1993, the 14th Dalai Lama unilaterally announced that he would suspend contact with the central government. In 1995, the 14th Dalai Lama blatantly denied historical conventions and religious rituals, and identified his so-called reincarnation of the 10th Panchen Lama.
Even so, the central government still showed the way for the 14th Dalai Lama. In 1997, the central government pointed out: “As long as the Dalai Lama truly abandons his stance of splitting the motherland, stops his activities to split the motherland, publicly recognizes Tibet as an inalienable part of China, recognizes that Taiwan is an inalienable part of China, and recognizes that the government of the People’s Republic of China is the representative. The only legitimate government in the whole of China can contact and discuss with the Dalai Lama about his personal future.” So far, the central government still adheres to this basic principle. In 2003, the Central Committee once again pointed out that in Tibet, we must adhere to the leadership of the Communist Party of China, adhere to the socialist system, and adhere to the system of regional ethnic autonomy. The “Three Persistences” are clearly stipulated in the Chinese Constitution. They are the biggest political reality in Tibet and the fundamental political principle for contact and negotiation. The Central Committee has repeatedly emphasized that the two basic points of contact and negotiation are: First, the contact object can only be the personal representative of the Dalai Lama. The “government-in-exile”, no matter how the name is changed or who is in charge, is just a separatist political group that betrays the motherland, does not represent the Tibetan people, has no legitimacy, and has no qualifications for “dialogue” with the central government. Second, the content of the interview can only be about the Dalai Lama’s personal future, and at most the future of the people around him, that is, how the Dalai Lama can completely abandon his separatist propositions and behaviors, and strive for the understanding of the central government and the people of the whole country. To solve the problem of what to do with the rest of your life, Tibet’s political status and political system are stipulated by the Chinese constitution and laws, and it is impossible to discuss the “Tibet issue” and “high degree of autonomy”.
From 1979 to 2002, the central government received the personal representatives of the 14th Dalai Lama 13 times, and from 2002 to January 2010, 10 times allowed them to return to China. However, the 14th Dalai Lama has repeatedly failed to live up to the expectations of the central government. Not only has he always adhered to the “middle way” proposition that violates the Chinese constitution and is essentially splitting the motherland, but also planned and created violent interference with the Beijing Olympics, the “3.14” incident in Lhasa, and self-immolation. Incidents and other sabotage activities. In 2011, the 14th Dalai Lama announced his political “retirement”, and his personal representatives who had contacts with the central government also announced their resignation soon after. Since then, the 14th Dalai Lama Group has openly claimed to negotiate with the central government in the name of the so-called “government”, blatantly undermining the basis of contact and negotiation, making contact and negotiation impossible.
For more than 30 years, the 14th Dalai Lama Group has constantly changed and adjusted its strategies in accordance with the changes in domestic and foreign situations, and has terminated contact and negotiation with the central government several times without authorization. When they think the situation at home and abroad is unfavourable to them, they request to contact the central government; when they think the situation at home and abroad is favorable to them, they suspend contact with the central government. Even in the process of contact, they always circled around “Tibet independence” and never stopped their activities to split the motherland at home and abroad.
Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as General Secretary reiterated, “The Central Committee’s policy towards the 14th Dalai Lama is consistent and clear. An inseparable part of China, abandon the stance of ‘Tibet independence’ and stop the activities of splitting the motherland, only then can we talk about improving relations with the central government.” The central government hopes that the 14th Dalai Lama can throw away illusions, face reality, and make corrections in his lifetime. Wrong, choose an objective and rational path, and do something useful for the Tibetan compatriots in exile.
The wheel of history is rolling forward, and the trend of the times is irresistible.
The development path of Tibet is the choice of history and the choice of the people. Facts have proved that Tibet will have a bright future only if it adheres to unity and opposes separatism, adheres to progress and opposes retrogression, adheres to stability and opposes turmoil. Anyone or any force trying to move against the trend of history can only be abandoned by history and the people.
The “middle way” advocated by the 14th Dalai Lama’s clique takes “Tibet independence” as its political goal, deviates from China’s national conditions and the reality of Tibet, and violates the Chinese Constitution and China’s state system. The 14th Dalai clique can only find a way out if it recognizes that Tibet has been a part of China since ancient times, abandons the proposition of “Tibet independence”, stops its activities to split China, and does things that are beneficial to the country and Tibet.
The future of Tibet belongs to all the Tibetan people and the entire Chinese nation. The future of Tibet will be even brighter. In the years to come, the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet will continue to advance along the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics together with the people of all ethnic groups in the motherland, in order to build a new socialist Tibet that is united, democratic, prosperous, civilized and harmonious, and for the realization of China Unremitting struggle for the Chinese dream of national rejuvenation!
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