The Sangha Kommune (僧伽公社) Defined


Ch’an Master Caotang siad:

There is nothing special to leadership – essentially it is a matter of controlling the evils of biased information and autocracy. Do not just go by whatever is said to you first – then the obsequities of petty people seeking favour will not be able to confuse you.

After all, the feelings of a group of people are not one, and objective reason is hard to see. You should investigate something to see its benefit or harm, examine whether it is appropriate and suitable or not; then after that you may carry it out.

True Record of Sushan (Song Dynasty)

The Chinese Buddhist monastic community is referred to as a ‘Sangha’ (Sanskrit for ‘spiritual community’), whereby men and women form a voluntary association premised upon following a strict set of rules known as the ‘Vinaya Discipline’. Within this community, there is ‘equality’ between all members, with the leaders being those who have followed these rules for the longest times. This is because such people are thought to have more experience at adhering to the Vinaya Discipline (which includes celibacy and vegetarianism), and are therefore able to effectively advise all others through the difficult times they my face in their practice. As those with little experience have less to share, they are not considered leaders whilst more experienced practitioners live in the vicinity. Of course, this is a relative matter depending upon the size of population of a community, and the length of time it has existed, and the quality of the masters (male or female) that have led it. Those who cannot keep the Vinaya Discipline (of over 200 rules) generally choose to leave on their own accord, with those who confess breaking the major rules being asked to leave and expelled from the monastic community (due to the bad example they set). However, the term ‘Sangha’ is often more loosely applied to the devout or dedicated lay community, the members of which follow at least 5, 8 or 10 vows as a life routine, and who regularly visit the local temple and volunteer their time in worthwhile social or charitable activities. In this manner, the monastic Sangha teach and guide the lay Sangha, and the lay Sangha applies the Buddha’s teachings of compassion, loving kindness and wise action to the outside the temple, and thereby expand the Buddha-Dharma beyond the temple. As the Buddha originally taught that there is no ‘difference’ in enlightened essence between the monastic and lay community, the monastics do not consider themselves ‘superior’ and the lay community does not consider itself ‘inferior’ to one another. The principle of ‘Sangha, therefore, denotes a sacred space defined and maintained through the principles of psychological and physical self-discipline and learning, premised upon a general attitude of mutual respect. The Sangha, in both essence and function, is a model for a ‘commune’ operating through the vigorous principles of  equality’, ‘discipline’ and ‘wisdom’. These are the principles embodied within this blog – regardless of the scope of its subject matter.


The term ‘Kommune’ is taken from the German word for ‘Commune’, and is directly related to the principles of Scientific Socialism, as formulated by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Indeed, within German language editions of the works of Marx and Engels, the term ‘Kommune’ is often encountered. This type of ‘Kommune’ is also a voluntary association, albeit distinctly ‘modern’ in origination, and designed to serve the Revolutionary needs of the Proletariat – or the mass of peasants forced to work in the industrialised factories produced by the oppressive capitalist system. Working 12 to 16 hours a day, strictly by the clock, whilst being dictated to by brutal managers and the movement and operation of monotonous machines, these peasants were transformed into self-disciplined and highly exploited automatons of industry, waiting for the right historical epoch to free themselves from their endless toil for little reward. Just as the collective mind is ‘dulled’ by endless hours of repetitive toil, it is ‘freed’, ‘activated’ and ‘expanded’ when encountering the strictures of Scientific Socialism, and a non-resisting ‘false consciousness’ is replace by a resisting ‘true consciousness’. Generally, when the mind is freed from the straitjacket of oppression, the body soon follows, even though it is equally true that if the body is freed by a Revolution caused by others, then the mind soon follows! In these post-modem times, proletariat ‘true consciousness’ is much more amorphous in manifestation, particularly as factory work becomes ever less prevalent in the West. Although the modes of capitalist exploitation change with the epoch, the nature of capitalist exploitation (and class distinction) remains exactly the same. Striving for the establishment of a ‘Kommunistic’ society remains the duty of all right-minded working class people across the globe, with the Marxist principle of ‘Internationalism’ replacing nationalism and racism, etc. The point is that the ‘true consciousness’ of the working class is premised entirely upon non-hatred for one another, as this hatred has been imported into the working class by the very capitalists that exploit them! By rejecting capitalism, the working class is rejecting the greed, hatred and delusion that underlies all capitalist thought and action. This working class mission is no less ‘sacred’ than its Buddhist counter-part, and shares exactly the same essence. The author of this blog strives to agitate for the peaceful achievement of both inner and outer Revolution amongst by any means necessary (to quote Malcolm X).


Having defined two interpretations of ‘Kommune’, it is important to also emphasis the pivotal notion of ‘education’ and the training of the human mind to discern a relevant ‘truth’ in any given situation or circumstance. Learning in a classroom, through a book, encounter groups, political meetings, protest marches, meditation sessions, or the internet, are all crucial aspects of ‘refining’ the memory and ‘honing’ the intellect. The thought processes (and emotionality) must be ‘calmed’ for the sake of ‘wise’ action and non-action when young, so that avoidable errors and mistakes are reduced to the minimum, and progressive activity increased to the maximum (to selflessly benefit humanity).  This is not always easy, and the ability to recognise non-efficient thought-patterns and behaviours should also be cultivated as a means toward achieving self-forgiveness, and the forgiveness of others. The important point is that the mind should be kept in a positive frame of operation, so that the body can be used for various types of ‘enlightened’ political, cultural and social action. The physical body must be clearly (and cleanly) directed by the mind (the seat of volition), and kept physically fit through appropriate activities. This psycho-physical training sets the stage for the refined individual to understand the frequency and quality of inner and outer energy, and immediately understand the best action (if any) to take, or instantly ‘know’ when others are ‘lying’, or presenting ‘untruth’ as ‘truth’. This ability can be further used to generate ‘correct’ work that counters the lies of a society motivated entirely by greed, racism and an indifference to the suffering of humanity and other life forms. Therefore, this ‘Sangha Kommune’ blog is a work in progress that covers a bewildering array of topics, opinions, and research data. By taking a step back away from its content – the general reader will begin to understand the underlying (and motivating) paradigm. This is essentially a ‘Kommunist’ zone where all beings are automatically ‘freed’ at the point of contact. The need for money is already ‘transcended’, and the energy frequency of the Sangha Kommune should be used by all to achieve a state of permanent ‘freedom’ in all circumstances. This is a space of permanent Cyber Kommunism, and ongoing Revolutionary activity in the form of ‘exposing’ and ‘dissolving’ the bourgeois system and its redundant mode of capitalist organisation.


Ch’an Wuzu said:

The Ch’an community is a place for the moulding of Sages and ordinary people, and for nurturing and developing potential ability. It is a source of teaching,. Even though many people are living together, gathering in kind, they are guided and made equal. Each has a transmission from the teacher.

Now in many places they do not strive to maintain the standards of the Sages of the past. Biased feelings of like and dislike are many, with people bending others to what they personally think is right. How should later students take an example?

Records of Equanimity (Song Dynasty)

Appreciating Revolutionary Beauty


Artist: Su Zihan (苏梓寒) – 

To my mind, commenting on ‘beauty’ (wherever it manifests) is a Revolutionary act that breaks-up the control of racism through society and the world. A woman (or man for that matter), may be ‘beautiful’ in many ways, but this acknowledgement does not necessarily mean that there should be an element of ‘possession; involved. For me, beauty exists for beauty’s sake – free and freeing – for everyone to benefit from. Of course, I am talking not just about physical beauty (which is a matter of opinion anyway), but also about inner beauty – or perhaps the beauty associated with pure ‘ordinariness’. At the sametime I am certainly not denying the beauty of the female form – but would add that the net allows for a kind of ‘art gallery’ appreciation of another’s manifestation. Generally speaking, when you leave an art gallery – you generally do not take the exhibits home with you! The natural ‘distance’ the net creates prevents an appreciation of beauty falling into ordinary lust and desire – which are absolutely fine within their proper context. Beauty has many levels of appreciation that can be obscured by the immediacy of sexual desire – which necessarily exists to perpetuate the species!

Photograph Extracted From:

Plotinus and his Assessment and Definition of Matter

Christian theology separates reality into a physical world and a spiritual realm – or a disembodied (intangible) soul that stands in opposition to a world of tangible physical matter. The ancient Greeks did not think this way (even though Christian theologians hijacked and distorted many Greek philosophical terms), and modern science does not accept this religious dichotomy (primarily because such a religious notion cannot be perceived and measured). Plotinus – being probably the last great Greek philosopher – also did not make use of this Christian thinking (in fact, he criticises it one text) – and many may be surprised by the fact that he appears to view existence as comprising of of a gross or ordinary realm of matter, which is directly related to the realm of rarefied thought, perception and understanding – which is representative of ultimate matter. This ultimate matter is the formless reciprocal within which all thought forms take shape as definite objects – but ordinary matter is unsatisfactory and unreliable because it is not constant and always in a state of flux (an argument very similar to the ‘impermanence’ theory of the Buddha). Plotinus also does not know ‘how’ thought forms (which can be sensed by an appropriately trained mind), are able to take physical shape. On the face of it, this seems like ‘idealism’, but I suspect that it is not, as Plotinus also recognises that the world of physical matter also creates and conditions itself in a manner independent of the human mind that perceives its activity (again, similar to the Buddha’s idea of dependent origination)  The reason I think it is not ‘idealism’ is because thought is itself a very subtle frequency of physical matter. In modern terms this is the equivalent of stating that matter is gross energy, whilst consciousness is subtle energy. It could also be expressed as consciousness being a certain frequency of light energy, whilst physical matter is congealed light energy – or light energy slowed down (again, another frequency of light energy). Whatever the case, I suspect Plotinus fully understood that the world of matter was primary for biological life, and that through this biological existence, the rarefied state of conscious awareness that Plotinus undoubtedly experienced, could only be realised if the physical body (and the mind it contains) was trained in the right way. What is certain is that Plotinus does not at any point posit the idea that human consciousness pre-exists physical birth and post-exists physical death. For Plotinus, transcendence as he defined it, is realised through a physical incarnation, and not in-spite of it.

How Plotinus Makes Use of the Material World


I include below two extracts from the ‘Enneads’ (Gk: ‘the nines’) – or what might be referred to as the ‘nine categories’ of the life work of the great Greek philosopher Plotinus (204-270 CE). I doubt Plotinus – who did not even care about the state of his physical body – would have cared much whether his words were passed on or not. We owe a debt of gratitude for the preservation of these essentially beautiful words, to the untiring efforts of the main student of Plotinus – namely ‘Porphyry’.  In my opinion, far too much is said about Plotinus that diverts the student of inner development away from the correct path. Although, for instance, often and continuously referred to as the ‘founder’ of neo-Platonism, Plotinus had a teacher – Ammonius Saccas (of Alexandria in Egypt) – and if anyone was responsible for creating a ‘new wave’ of Plato’s philosophical understanding, it was Ammonius Saccas and not Plotinus, but neither man, I suspect, would have recognised the term ‘neo-Platonism’ – stating that what they follow is the ‘correct’ or ‘true’ lineage of Plato (as originally taught to Plato by Socrates, and eventually passed on to Aristotle), which has been precisely and exactly passed down through the generations over hundreds of years. In this respect, this approach is very similar to the spiritual lineages of Chinese civilisation, whereby a qualified master carefully teaches a few good disciples over many decades, to follow a systematic path of physical discipline and psychological development. Plotinus advocates a relationship with the physical world that involves an understanding of it as incomplete, but otherwise definitely existing in nature, in a sense that its ‘heaviness’ can keep the average person anchored firmly to the temporal realm, with no ability to ‘see beyond’ its superficial manifestation. Regardless of the sophistication of his method, that is the rarefied and clear dissection of perception and non-perception – Plotinus NEVER denies the existence of the material world – he simply uses it as the springboard for his method. If there was no material world (which is often admitted as being ‘beautiful’ by Plotinus), there could be no transcendent method. The point is that the realm of ideas (for Plotinus) exists within the material world, but also appears to exist as if disembodied from it – and yet it is only within a human-body, that the reality that Plotinus believes lies beyond its material limitations, is realised. This is a point often missed by those who would have use believe that Plotinus ‘rejects’ the relevancy or existence of the material world, he certainly does not. For all its limitations and inconsistencies, without a material world that provides (through evolutionary development) a conscious being to appreciate it, there can be no ‘transcendent’ system of philosophical insight. Therefore, it must be truthfully stated (as Plotinus does), that a continuously changing beauty exists beyond any concepts of ‘static’ beauty, and that such a beauty with regards to that which lives is ‘beautiful’, but that even that which is ‘dead’ is also ‘beautiful’ when viewed in a certain way. Although Plotinus advocates (for a time) a ruthlessly ‘looking within’, he does not permanently ‘reject’ the physical world he strives to ‘look beyond’. He fully admits that once a higher view of existence is attained, it must be applied not only to the realm beyond material existence, but also to the material world itself. The beauty of insight is applicable to both form and void, and yet lies also beyond form and void (with no inherent contradiction). For Plotinus, true beauty is arrived at through a strict and disciplined life-style and form of meditation – and yet once inner and outer unity successfully realised – it has absolutely nothing to do with the method through which it has been attained.

‘He that has the strength, let him arise and withdraw into himself, foregoing all that is known by the eyes, turning away for ever from the material beauty that once made his joy. When he perceives those shapes of grace that show in body, let him not pursue: he must know them for copies, vestiges, shadows, and hasten away towards That they tell of. For if anyone follow what is like a beautiful shape playing over water- is there not a myth telling in symbol of such a dupe, how he sank into the depths of the current and was swept away to nothingness? So too, one that is held by material beauty and will not break free shall be precipitated, not in body but in Soul, down to the dark depths loathed of the Intellective-Being, where, blind even in the Lower-World, he shall have commerce only with shadows, there as here.’

Plotinus: 1st Ennead – 6th Tractate – 8th Section

‘Withdraw into yourself and look. And if you do not find yourself beautiful yet, act as does the creator of a statue that is to be made beautiful: he cuts away here, he smoothes there, he makes this line lighter, this other purer, until a lovely face has grown upon his work. So do you also: cut away all that is excessive, straighten all that is crooked, bring light to all that is overcast, labour to make all one glow of beauty and never cease chiselling your statue, until there shall shine out on you from it the godlike splendour of virtue, until you shall see the perfect goodness surely established in the stainless shrine.

When you know that you have become this perfect work, when you are self-gathered in the purity of your being, nothing now remaining that can shatter that inner unity, nothing from without clinging to the authentic man, when you find yourself wholly true to your essential nature, wholly that only veritable Light which is not measured by space, not narrowed to any circumscribed form nor again diffused as a thing void of term, but ever unmeasurable as something greater than all measure and more than all quantity- when you perceive that you have grown to this, you are now become very vision: now call up all your confidence, strike forward yet a step- you need a guide no longer- strain, and see.’

Plotinus: 1st Ennead – 6th Tractate – 9th Section

A Palestinian Response to Israeli Brutality (c. 1984)


‘Palestinians think that Western perspectives of terrorism are absurdly distorted. They believe that the West judges the issue with much emotiveness but but with little understanding of its context. Moreover, its view is almost entirely one-sided. A guerilla with a gun is more “newsworthy” than an air-force pilot spraying napalm over a refugee camp, but is he more of a terrorist? The eleven Israeli athletes who were killed at the Munich Olympics are remembered all over the world, but how many people recall the four hundred refugees who were  killed in the Israeli vengeance raid three days later?

No people are naturally terrorists, least of all the Palestinians who have no military tradition of their own, and it is futile to condemn them without examining what has led them to use violence. As any Palestinian will say, the propulsion comes from a combination of frustration and desperation. Sami al-Karami, a Palestinian living in Canada, has explained: “The non-violent methods are very beautiful and very easy, and we wish we could win with these methods. Our people don’t carry machine-guns and bombs because they enjoy killing. It is for us the last resort. For twenty-two years we waited for the United Nations  and United States for liberty, freedom, and democracy. There was no result. So this is our last resort. This is the only to get back to Palestine.” This insistence on the failure of the international community is widespread among Palestinians. They point out that since 1947 the UN has ostensibly been in favour of an Arab state in Palestine and that since 1948 it has voted annually for the repatriation of the refugees. In both cases it has failed to implement its own resolutions and the Palestinians feel that as the international community has ignored them, they have no special obligations to the international community.’

Extracted From: Dispossessed: The Ordeal of the Palestinians, by David Gilmour – Pages 159-160 – Sphere Books Limited, re-print 1984. (Originally published by Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd 1980).




Alan Watts: Consciousness and Matter Entwined

The following video is part of a lecture by Alan Watts. He is discussing and describing the interconnectedness between mind and matter. Of course, different people who hear this lecture, will comprehend its meaning through their current level of understanding, My view is that Alan Watts is acknowledging the existence of a material world standing in opposition to the mind that perceives it – but that this material world is unknown to humanity, if humanity does not possess a mind that can perceive it. Furthermore, mind is not ‘separate’ from the world of matter, but is an integral part of it. This is an evolutionary view of existence (despite its apparent ‘transcendent’ nature), which logically suggests that mind emerges from matter (as a function of the physical brain), although Alan Watts only implies this and does not openly state it. Listen carefully and you will see that this lecture is not only inaccordance with modern science, but is also the description of existence and perception described by the Buddha (particularly found within Early Buddhism), where the Buddha posits a physical world that stands in contrast to the human mind that perceives it – and defines human suffering as being the product of a ‘faulty’ internalised view of this material world. The Buddha rejects any and all attachment (formed in the mind) to this external world (experienced through the senses), and expands upon this position by stating that the idealism expressed as theistic religion is also non-existant (as in the Buddha’s time – as in today – theistic religion is often presented as an ‘answer’ to the suffering of the world). The Buddha states this with certainty because he says that he followed all the meditative paths to their complete end – and discovered that there was no ‘atma’ or Brahmanic ‘soul’ lurking somewhere in the deepest recesses of the mind. When abiding in an enlightened state of mind, karma nolonger exists, rebirth nolonger exists, and a divine (and ‘unseen’) world nolonger exists. The physical body and all social and cultural expressions are also changing, and nothing is impermanent. Assuming things are unchanging is one of the major roots of human suffering for the Buddha. Even the physical world – which the Buddha describes as developing through dependent origination – and which may appear stable for thousands of years, still changes over-time, sometimes tremendously in times of natural calamities. Religion – for the Buddha – is an imagination about something that does not exist in reality. What Alan Watts suggests is that we are left looking at the physical world and the mind that perceives it. The question then becomes not one of realising a divine entity that stands in opposition to matter – but is in fact the ability to ‘see through’ the apparent ‘subject-object’ dichotomy, and rediscover the unity of mind and matter. Alan Watts talks about ‘stilling’ the mind to give the perceiver a break from the mind’s continuous clutter of obscuring thought and feeling. When the mind is ‘still’ its ‘oneness’ with the material universe is clearly reflected. Alan Watts, I suspect, is mixing Western notions of Japanese Zen with modern, Western concepts of science, and he does this very well, but the point he is missing is that from the perspective of Chinese Ch’an, there is a stage of development he does not know about and therefore is missing in his analysis. This reflects two things; 1) the limitation of Japanese Zen, 2) the Western lack of knowledge of Chinese Ch’an. The stage Alan Watts is missing is that both ‘thought’ and ‘stillness’ has an origin in the mind which must be ‘penetrated’ [through hua tou enquiry) for the empty mind ground to be fully realised. It is not simply the case – as Alan Watts suggests – that the mind transitions from ‘movement’ to ‘stillness’. This very much has the ring about it of the distorted ‘Zen’ taught by such people as DT Suzuki both before and after WWII.

Taijiquan for Self-Defence

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Shifu Adrian Chan-Wyles – High Horse Stance

Before assessing Taijiquan and its use for self-defence, certain logical ground rules must be established. Although in modern times Taijiquan can be used in a sporting or competitive setting – testing form and pushing hands through a point-scoring system – in philosophical essence and historical development, Taijiquan is not a sport, but a fully comprehensive martial art premised upon the principles contained within Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). A Taijiquan form – regardless of style or length – equally emphasises both health maintenance and martial ability. However, according to the needs of each martial school, a short Taijiquan form might be used to emphasis health, whilst a long Taijiquan form might be used to emphasis self-defence – in either case – the opposite attribute is never abandoned, but merely re-organised through assigning a particular training prominence. Logic dictates that an individual can only participate in self-defence if a) they have trained in self-defence, b) experienced realistic martial situations, and c) gained an all-round appreciation of combat. Of course, Taijiquan self-defence IS NOT and never has been in anyway similar to modern combat sport, and cannot be compared to it. Taijiquan is far more subtle in principle and advanced in technique to be limited to this form of martial interaction. From a philosophical perspective, comparing Taijiquan with modern combat sport is a category error. Having made this clear, it is also important to understand that in many traditional Chinese martial arts schools, young people (and beginners in general) undergo a thorough training in a robust (external) martial arts method that toughens the bones, ligaments, tendons, muscle mass and inner organs, whilst simultaneously strengthening the mind. These systems of martial training involve extensive body-conditioning and bare-knuckle fighting (alongside weapons training), and quickly prepare a person for individual, community or national self-defence. These styles use (to varying degrees) a sophisticated brute force to destroy the enemy. It is only after mastering this dangerous, rugged and arduous path that a successful student is introduced to Taijiquan as a means of self-defence. This means that a martial arts student who can already hold their own in a violent encounter is fit to train in Taijiquan as a method of self-defence. Without this background in hard physical training and experience in real combative situations, it is very difficult for a student to understand Taijiquan at its most advanced levels. This is because Taijiquan was developed by martial artists that had survived a life-time of martial encounters, before creating Taijiquan as the summation of all their experience.

The Taijiquan form is NOT the method used in combat – but is merely the means through which the advanced technique that must be used in combat (in any manner suitable to the situation) is preserved and conveyed from one generation to the next. In this regard, the techniques of Taijiquan represent the ‘internal’ (i.e. ‘yin’) refinement of the ‘external’ (i.e. ‘yang’) martial systems, but it is the external systems that serve as the functional foundation of Taijiquan self-defence. Having made this clear, I am aware of Daoist priests in China who have never trained in any external style of martial arts, but who are renowned as being very effective (and dangerous) martial artists. How can this be? This can happen if an individual leaves society and lives a very pure and austere life-style free of the money and relationships that define ordinary existence. This form of meditative existence also requires an expert guidance from a fully qualified master. This type of mastery of Taijiquan is possible but is very rare.

However an individual arrives at Taijiquan mastery, the fact remains that the bones and joints are aligned (allowing the bodyweight to drop unhindered into the ground – creating an equal and opposite rebounding force), creating a rounded posture that deflects any incoming force – making the bones appear to have the density of concrete (thus damaging the opponent’s attacking limbs). This is internal iron vest. The musculature – although extensively trained though external exercises – is fully relaxed, but is able to contract at the exact point of impact of an incoming blow (protecting the inner organs) – this is external iron vest. The rebounding force generated from dropped bodyweight (referred to in the Chinese language as ‘combat qi’), can be instantaneously moved anywhere around the skeletal frame by an act of ‘will’ (or ‘intention’), and emitted through any part of the body without the requirement of ‘tensing’ muscles to generate the force. This allows for the massive generation of force where none would seem likely. This basic explanation maybe extrapolated through the individual movements of the Taijiquan form – using each set for particular self-defence applications – or deployed in free combat.

The Design of Taijiquan Movements


Taijiquan is often misunderstood outside of China, and sometimes even within China. Why are Taijiquan movements designed the way they are? Taijiquan is a martial arts style premised upon the ancient ideas that define Tradition Chinese Medicine (TCM). Therefore, the movements of Taijiquan are both ‘martial’ and ‘medical’ in origination. The movements are simultaneously rounded and elongated to allow the energy channels that carry blood, nutrients and oxygen (qi) to be loosened, strengthened and freed from unnecessary psychological and physical tension. When these energy channels are fully ‘opened’, then qi energy flows unhindered, and the inner organs are literally soaked in health-giving nutrients. The movement can be performed slowly (although not always) as a means to build awareness and concentration that penetrates the parts of the body being moved whilst remaining aware of the central requirement to remain ‘rooted’ to the ground through the legs and feet (even if the legs and feet are moving). Kicking stimulates the energy channels of the legs, as do stances such as ‘Monkey Pushes Away’, and ‘Snake Creeps Down’, etc. For the energy channels throughout the limbs and torso to be fully opened, the major and minor joints must also be open and rounded. All this requires a system-wide relaxation of muscular tension. Once the energy channels are opened, qi energy flow is enhanced and assisted by the maintenance of a rounded posture (that moves forward and back – up and down). Bodyweight is dropped into the ground through the centre of the bones (creating the unbreakable ‘root’), whilst the resultant rebounding force creates a reservoir of effortless power that can be channelled anywhere throughout the skeleton and emitted through any part of the body as required. Breathing is deep and full, taking oxygen in from the outside and circulating it through the energy channels. The term ‘Taiji’ refers to the ‘Grand Ridge-pole’, which despite its cosmological implication, actually refers to the spine in the human body. Essential nature (jing) – along with qi – is guided up the spine from the genital area, up and around the top of the head to the upper jaw (traversing the Governing Vessel), and then travels down the from lower jaw and the front of the body (the Conception Vessel) back to the genitalia – where the two energy channels meet between the genitalia and the anus. All other energy channels in the body feed off of these two central meridians – and by circulating and nourishing sexual energy (jing) and vital force (qi), these two substances integrate and merge together (thus transforming one another), whilst both feeding into ‘shen’ or ‘spirit’, which means the building of a strong mind that perceives its own empty nature, whilst realising this emptiness contains all things (including jing and qi). Taijiquan looks peculiar to the Western mind because it is an encapsulation of an entirely different way of viewing the world. Its harnessing of dropped bodyweight and rebounding force is not only ingenious, but also very difficult to master. This type of power emits the bodyweight anywhere and at anytime through an advanced understanding of the body-mind nexus. It is a higher form of physics that transcends the usual localised muscular tension and superficial joint leverage utilised by many other fighting systems. As such, combat efficiency within Taijiquan can take a considerable time to master, and only then if one has access to a master that has been thoroughly trained in its use. Due to the difficulty of this kind of training, and the dedication required to master it, many people simply practice Taijiquan for health and have no real understanding of its combat ability.

Why China Will Defend North Korea: China-DPRK Friendship & Co-operation Treaty


People have asked why China will come to the aid of North Korea if the West (i.e. the US-led UN), attack North Korea – and the answer is one of treaty and legality. A diplomatic agreement exists between Mainland China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). This agreement is entitled in the Chinese language as ‘中朝友好合作互助条约’ – which translates into the English language as the ‘China-DPRK Friendship and Co-Operation Treaty’. It is also informally known in the Chinese language as the ‘中华人民共和国和朝鲜民主主义人民共和国友好合作互助条约’ or ‘People’s Republic of China and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Treaty of Friendship and Co-operation’. This Treaty was ratified on July 11th, 1961 in Beijing, with Zhou Enlai representing Communist China and Kim Il Sung representing Communist North Korea. This important Treaty has been automatically renewed twice, and is now valid until 2021.

The Treaty primarily guarantees full military (and other assistance) to the other Contracting Party when the Contracting Party is in a State of War. The parties do not participate in any alliance, group, action or measure that is hostile to the other party. In the economy, culture, science and technology,full cooperation is to be carried-out. Both sides agree to grant where relevant – full economic and technical assistance. From the date of signing (1961), this Treaty is valid and binding to both sides for 20 years, and has been renewed in 1981 and 2001. Either side can request an alteration to the terms, or an annulment of the Treaty in writing 6 months prior to each intended re-newal date.

The Treaty was approved by Liu Shaoqi, Chairman of the People’s Republic of China on August 30, 1961, and was approved by the Standing Committee of the Supreme People’s Political Consultative Conference of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea on August 23, 1961. Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai and DPRK Prime Minister Kim Il Sung (as the representatives of the two sides) met on September 10th, 1961 in the North Korean capital of Pyongyang to exchange articles of agreement. In accordance with Article 7 of the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Cooperation between China and the DPRK, this Treaty entered into force on September 10th, 1961.

Chinese Language Reference:中朝友好合作互助条约

2014: South Korea Returns Remains of Chinese Volunteer Soldiers (Photographs)


On the morning of March 28th, 2014, the first batch of the remains of at least 437 Chinese Volunteer Soldiers – who died in the Korean War (1950-1953) – were respectfully returned by South Korean Forces to modern troops of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) during a sombre ceremony at Incheon International Airport. Mao Zedong deployed millions of Chinese Volunteer Army Soldiers into the Korean Peninsula in a successful bid to prevent the Communist State of North Korea being invaded and destroyed by US and UN Imperialist Forces. Although exact casualty figures for China are unknown – it is thought to be well over 500,000 (and probably many more). As the US and UN Imperialist Forces were nearly ousted from the Korean Peninsula – the bodies of many Chinese Volunteer Army Soldiers remained on the South Korean side of the 38th Parallel that separates capitalist South Korea from Socialist North Korea. Encouraged by their US colonial masters – the South Korean Government has decided to disinter the Chinese remains and clear the ‘enemy war cemeteries’, so that the land space can be used to build luxury flats, house for the rich and exclusive hotels.



South Korean Soldiers Respectfully Hand-Over the Coffins


PLA Soldiers Respectfully Receive the Coffins


Chinese Ambassador to South Korea – Qiu Guohong Covers the Coffins of the Martyrs with China’s National Flag


Each Martyr is Covered with the Flag of Communist China


Ambassador Qiu Guohong Respectfully Straightens the Chinese Flag


PLA Soldiers Respectfully Take Control of the Remains Martyrs


Both Sides Pose Infront of the Plane Returning the Remains


The PLA March the Martyrs Remains onto the Plane


Elderly Chinese Volunteer Army Veterans – Who Buried Their Comrades – Attended the Ceremony in South Korea


March 27th, South Korea Gyeonggi Province, Paju City – Chinese Volunteer Army Remains Stored in Temporary Shelters – South Korean Soldiers then Transported the Coffins by Train.


Communist China and Capitalist South Korea have been Negotiating for Over a Year – and Now the First Batch of the Martyrs are transported to Shenyang


July 27th, 2013 marked the 60th Anniversary of the Korean War Armistice. South Korea Decided to Return Over 300 Martyr Remains in 22 Train Cars


2006 it was Estimated that Around 180,000 Chinese Martyrs were Buried  Throughout Korea – with Very Few Returned to China


South Korea Organizes and Collects the Remains, Relics, and Records into coffins, Including Seals, Pens, Badges, Wallets and Uniforms.


The South Korean Ministry of National Defence is Responsible for the Excavation and Cleaning of the Remains,


Three Chinese Volunteer Army Veterans Pay Their Respect to Fallen Comrades in South Korea (2013)


The Hanzhong Cultural Association, Arranged this Visit of Respect


A Typical Chinese Volunteer Army Grave Marker

Chinese Language Reference:



Government Control of Social Media


Social media started-off free but has slowly become dominated by government regulation that limits and/or controls content. This creeping loss of freedom has been presented as being in ‘our best interests’. In reality, this process is to prevent the development of popular or mass movements of people (outside of the direct control of the police or the military) that may stand in opposition to the existing governmental and economic system. In-short, the government control of social media is a means to prevent a Revolution from happening – a Revolution premised upon the sharing of knowledge and instant communication over vast distances. To this end, just like other forms of mass control media, the government must filter, regulate and control what we think, when we think, and why we think it. The only difficulty governments have at the moment is being everywhere at once in their controlling power – but they are working on this!

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