Protest after French Police Murder Chinese Man (26.3.2017)

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During the evening of March 26, 2017, French police – apparently responding to an alleged ‘domestic disturbance’ in the District 19 area of Paris, shot dead 56 year old father of five – Mr Liu Shaoyao (刘少尧), after he had gone to the door holding a pair of scissors. Mr Liu had been preparing fish for dinner when the police knocked on his door. His wife and five children later stated that the evening had been peaceful as usual, until the police had ‘violently’ smashed open the door to their home – and shot Mr Liu dead. Within days, thousands of people had taken to the streets of Paris protesting this latest incident of French police brutality against ethnic minorities.  The French police state that a neighbour had reported a disturbance in the Liu home and when the police entered the dwelling – Mr Liu is said to have attacked the police with a pair of scissors (described by the police as a ‘knife’). Mrs Liu and her family reject this interpretation of events, and as a consequence, three of the police officers involved were suspended whilst the matter was investigated. Unusually, however, this case has caused an ‘official’ intervention from the government of the People’s Republic of China in a form of a ‘protest’ to the killing, and a demand that the matter be properly investigated. Most Western reports of this incident have got Mr Liu’s name wrong, and have not bothered to provide his name in Chinese script.

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Within days, many Parisians of all ethnic backgrounds, took to the streets in protest, but there was a solid presences of thousands Overseas Chinese people present who are citizens of the PRC. The US colony of Taiwan (through its State media) was quick to distance itself from the protests – stating that the PRC was directly behind the agitation. As reported in Chinese language media, on April 3rd, 2017, over 6000 Chinese people, gathered in Republic Square, to protest the murder of Mr Liu Shaoyao, with Mrs Liu and two of her daughters in attendance.

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French Authorities state that there are currently between 200,000 to 300,000 Chinese people living in Paris, but Chinese cultural groups and association have reported a marked increase in racial and criminal attacks upon Chinese people living in the city, in recent years. The PRC Government has called for the immediate ‘protection’ of all Chinese Nationals living in France, whilst the police carry-out their investigation into the behaviour of its officers. On the March 28th, at one point in the protests, fire-crackers were thrown at the police – which led to the police attacking the demonstrators. However, it was later discovered that the disturbance was caused by a ‘non-Chinese’ element in the crowd.

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Interestingly, certain strands of the French media (which are viewed as racist) have stated that the police had done a good job with its handling of the Liu case, and that if Chinese people do not like living in France – they should go back to China. These rightwing newspapers also stated that the Chinese protests and violence were not due to a spontaneous outpouring of grief over a murdered and innocent man – but rather due to Chinese criminal gangs operating in France in the name of the PRC Government, acting to strengthen China’s influence in the country. According to French news sources (reported in China), the Russian news programme ‘Sputnik’ expressed agreement with this bizarre ‘conspiracy’ theory. Of course, as long as this kind of racist myth-making is allowed to obscure the actual facts of the matter, the real reasons behind the case of the tragic death of Mr Liu Shaoyao will go unreported and unseen.

Chinese Language reference:

http://weibo.com/p/230418b259e57c0102x8dk

http://www.sc115.com/hb/282944.html

English Language Reference:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-39416804

London UKIP Watch: You Know When the Nuttals are in Town!

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Soviet Soldier Stands Guard Over the Soviet War Memorial – London

There’s a certain ‘feel’ to London that is not only unique in the UK, but probably unique in the world. It is a feeling of tolerant togetherness, where ‘difference’ in ethnicity and upbringing being the common currency of the city. Today, out of the millions travelling through this great city, both Gee and myself encountered two White, bigoted members of the rightwing and racist UKIP – whose current shaven-headed Fuhrer Paul Nuttal – launched UKIP’s agenda of hate for the 2017 General Election in London, last night. A handful of educationally challenged morons found their way to a seedy part of town last night to reminisce about Adolf Hitler, and perfect their hate-speech and sound-bites for the inevitable BBC interviews. Unusually for us, as a mixed race progressive couple (wearing Soviet symbols on our jackets) we were stared at on the London Tube, and were the subject of sneers, glares and lewd comments. Of course, we ignored this pointless provocation and went about our way. This never happens in London unless you end-up in a Chelsea crowd, or similar well-known racist football teams. One man got his phone out, and let his 10 year old son listen to the English national anthem, stating that Nigel Farage was the saviour of Britain – and that his son must learn the lyrics as a ‘protection’ against multiculturalism – looking at our family as he said it. Another educationally challenged UKIP supporter tried to look behind my dark glasses to check-out my race – as he looked at my Chinese-looking children! Beating the crap out of these people would be easy, but it would also break the law. The best method is to intellectually expose UKIP and the racist far-right for the ignorant and hate-filled morons that they are. These are ignorant working class people are brain-washed by the bourgeoisie to follow the fallacy of racism, and manifest a false consciousness. Socialism is progressive and scientific whilst fascism is premised upon mythology and ignorance, whilst Communist are more moral than rightwing thugs and stormtroopers. UKIP – get out of our city – we do not want you in the same place that has a Soviet War Memorial!

Vote Jeremy Corbyn to Save the UK in 2017!

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Communists and Socialists quite rightly criticise and condemn the Labour Party for its history of co-operation with capitalism and the Bourgeois State. This is an appropriate dialectical approach designed to shake Labour out of its apathy, and guide it in a leftward direction. However, across the range of Communist and Socialist viewpoints, whilst Labour is condemned, generally speaking, Jeremy Corbyn – a known Socialist – is considered the only viable alternative to further Tory destruction, or Liberal Democrat duplicity. Many Comrades are calling to support Jeremy Corbyn, but not necessarily the Labour Party. The point of this is that Jeremy Corbyn possesses the ideological wherewithal to pull Labour back to left, and in so doing, re-invigorate the NHS and the Welfare State, whilst working to break the habitual link between the UK and US imperialism. This will put an end to British troops (and British weaponry) killing innocent foreigners in the name of US capitalism. The anti-Union laws will be repealed, the elderly will nolonger have to pay for their care, and the odious ‘Academy’ system replaced with proper schooling. Jeremy Corbyn has a firm reformist foundation to support his political vision, as the British people have already successfully carried-out the most difficult of Revolutionary actions – voting to get-out of the rightwing, anti-Socialist European Union (EU). It has been incessant EU directives from Brussels (via Washington and Berlin), that have decreed the privatisation of ALL nationalised industries and Socialised medical system – a move that has included the dismantling of ALL welfare systems. Notice as these public services have been taken away from the people, the tax-burden of the people hasn’t reduced, but rather massively increased. This money has been used to finance illegal wars, and bail-out the greedy bankers that caused the recent recession. Jeremy Corbyn has the ability to put Britain back on its own two-feet independent from the US and EU. This is why Communists and Socialists will be voting for Jeremy Corbyn in the 2017 UK General Election! Join this progressive movement and help sweep Theresa May’s Tory Government into the dustbin of history.

Northern Hakka Gongfu (Email 29.4.2017)

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Email from WL – 24.4.2017

Dear Adrian,
The body conditioning clips led to footage on the 8 Step Praying Mantis, which is a northern style, but the form looked something like a version of Hakka mantis. I’ll try to find the clips and send the links to you.
Kind regards,
Waiman

Email to WL – 29.4.2017:

Thanks Waiman! There’s probably alot of this type of stuff on Youku – I will check when I get the time. Of course, the other issue is that of ‘limited’ transmissions to the West – and some Westerners assuming that their incomplete knowledge is in fact ‘complete’. This is why the Western imagination has been fired by certain lineages of Hakka Southern Praying Mantis, simply because these are the styles that taught Westerners when teaching outsiders was frowned upon. Consequently, the broader reality of Hakka martial arts particularly, (and Chinese martial arts generally), was obscured (and continues to be ‘hidden’ in many ways from the Western view), leaving Western magazines and journals to print authoritative stories about this or that style being the ‘legitimate’ or the ‘superior’ version, and all others being ‘inferior’, or ‘made-up’. Of course, from the early 1950’s to the early 1980’s, the Western debate on Chinese martial arts evolved around the US colony of Taiwan, and the British colony of Hong Kong – a narrative that excluded Mainland China (with Eurocentric racist tales of deficiency and degeneration) and ignored one fifth of humanity. In reality, the Qing forces (aided and abetted by the Western Church and colonial powers) during the middle 19th century, destroyed much of the Northern Hakka martial culture in Guangdong province – and Chiang Kai-Shek’s invading forces of Taiwan in the late 1940’s, massacred tens of thousand the of resisting Hakka people and their Northern martial arts on the island (not to forget the indigenous Taiwanese victims).
Once, I sat with Master Chan’s widow, and she said that our Hakka ‘Banana Village’ in Sai Kung had been established for 9 generations – with Master Chan being the 10th generation. We think that our Hakka Chan clan migrated Southward with the retreating Ming Dynasty as it started to lose ground to the invading Jurchen (i.e. ‘Manchurians’), before settling on a remote coastal area a long way from Beijing. Whereas other Hakka started to grow sustainable forests for charcoal production in the area, the Chan clan took-up banana growing. These changes signified a shift from rice production to other forms of livelihood – and this is when the distinct ‘Iron Ox Cultivates Land’ came into being as an activity separate from everyday farming in the paddy fields (but premised upon it), as a distinctive aspect of Hakka gongfu practice. In the old days, working in the fields was so arduous that extra body-conditioning was not required for martial arts training. The agricultural effort produced a strong and yet relaxed body, with a mind that was both calm and alert. There was also the principle at work of being one with the ox (showing kindness to animals), and oneness with nature (the Daoist element of Hakka living). Incidently, there are rumours that Mao Zedong was a Hakka – and I once read a text he wrote calling upon peasant people not to ‘kill’ their oxen for the rich people to consume as ‘meat’. He said the ox was far more important to ordinary people as a living tractor that cultivated the land to grow rice and consequently feed millions. Although many Hakka people eat meat, I have always been aware of a kindness to animals that runs through the centre of the Hakka culture. On the other hand, many Hakka are devout Buddhists and do not eat meat. Master Xu’s Hakka Triple Unity Boxing has movements that are exactly the same as our ‘Ch’an Dao’ style and I note that parts of his system originated in Shandong province. When I wrote my Hakka martial arts article, I had communicated with a number of Mainland Hakka gongfu masters who all told me the same story – namely that their arts originated in Northern China. This is exactly what Master Chan had told me, and it seems to be a Western myth encouraged by ignorance of the subject matter, that suggests that Hakka martial arts originated in the South.
All Best Wishes
Adrian

The Dangerous ‘Myth’ of Private Health

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The private health industry is premised upon making money, and not on making people better. The private health industry does not care about the individuals that pay through the nose for medical treatment, but only about making monetary profit out of each ‘customer’ (note: not ‘patient’). This requires the creation and maintenance of a ruthless ‘risk assessment’ policy that deems the most ill people, (i.e. those ‘most’ in need of good medical treatment), as being the most ‘expensive’ to treat. In other words, those who genuinely need a compassionate and comprehensive health system, are termed ‘non-profit worthy’, and excluded from the private health system, through an indifferent bureaucratic procedure premised upon a ‘legal fiction’. The excuse is always the same ‘your monthly private health insurance premium does not cover the projected cost of the treatment you need’. What this actually means is ‘our profit margins will be threatened if we treated everyone inaccordance with their ‘actual’ medical needs’. Of course, when an entire workforce of a country contributes a regular tax-payment into a ‘not-for-profit’ government ‘national’ health scheme, all costs can be easily met, and delivered free at the point of use. The private health system cannot be sued should its employees make medically related ‘mistakes’ – as happens regularly in private hospitals. Furthermore, when mistakes are made by private hospitals, patients are usually transferred into NHS care to put the problem right. If the NHS is abolished, the idea of comprehensive healthcare will disappear into the greedy hands of the self-serving private medical providers, that are not held ‘legally’ accountable for the dire lack of service they provide, or the mistakes they make. When the NHS has gone, the weak, ill, vulnerable, elderly, very young and disabled will be excluded from private health insurance and so suffer terribly as a consequence. Also excluded will be the bulk of the working class who do not earn enough money to ‘quality’ for private health cover. This was a major issue of the 2015 General Election, and yet the Tories were re-elected. Will things be different in 2017?

How Facebook is Assisting the Tories to Bring Down the British NHS

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This is a screen-shot of an advertisement that Facebook transmitted through everyone’s personal account without their knowledge or consent of the individuals concerned, on 27.4.2017 – this is how Facebook makes its money since it started to ‘float’ its shares on the stock exchange, through unsolicited advertising.  Such obviously rightwing adverts demonstrates Facebook’s fascistic political agenda, which supports racist US foreign policy, and of course the oppression of the Palestinians by Zionist Israel. Here, British citizens – who already ‘pay’ for free medical treatment at the point of use (through taxation) – are encouraged to give-up this Socialist approach to collective health, and pay again for ‘private’ health through greed-orientated insurance companies. These insurance companies do not care about the health of the individuals, but rather about making and retaining obscene amounts of monetary profit for private use only.

This is the post I made on Facebook recording yesterday’s events:

‘Facebook carried two commercial posts today – one advertising health insurance, asking all UK citizens to abandon the NHS and sign up for private medical cover – whilst the other featured a video of the unelected Tory prime minister Theresa May in a video asking for your vote, because the party that privatised the NHS is apparently the party that cares for families! The Tory party does possess one unique distinction that it shares with the Liberal Democrats – namely it was found guilty of Crimes Against Humanity by the UN in 2016 – for the deaths of at least 10,000 British disabled people since 2010 (some estimates state 80,000) – due entirely to Austerity-led benefit and medical cuts. The Tories and LibDem policies made the UK the only country in Europe to be charged with, and subsequently found ‘Guilty’ of such a crime (outside of Nazi Germany).’

Hakka Gongfu: Iron Ox Cultivates Land (鉄牛耕地)

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By Shifu Adrian Chan-Wyles (PhD)

Ch’an Dao Martial Arts Association

For hundreds of years, and probably longer, the ‘ox’ has been an important and central aspect of rural Hakka farming life. A good and strong ox was far more valuable as a ‘living’ agricultural machine, than as food, and would generally be very well looked after into old age. The Hakka men and women who guided the plough and the ox through the fields, had to innately understand the nature of the ox, and the strength and weaknesses it exhibited. This included learning how to hold and guide the plough, and develop from a young age, the strength and agility to perform this task correctly. Many Hakka farmers went bare-foot to grip the earth in a more efficient manner, often wearing trousers cut-off at the knee (exposing the lower legs). Moving with the plough as it broke-through, cut-up and turned the earth, required a good sense of balance, and ability to keep moving in a fluid manner, and to suddenly stop and start as required. The legs had to be strong, solid and yet supple and able to change direction and rhythm. The lower-back and pelvic-girdle had to be strong and supple, and able to move in all directions without causing injury to the spine or joints. This suppleness and strength had to also spread through the middle and upper spine, be present throughout the shoulder-girdle, and suitably expressed through the neck, arms and hands. When all this was accomplished, the head sat squarely upon the shoulders, tilting and moving as required to retain balance and direction. The hands had to develop an iron-like grip that both held the plough strongly, whilst being supple enough to guide and steer as required. Over-all, the mind and body of the Hakka farmer had to be as one with the ox and land being cultivated. Ploughing a field using an ox, required the Hakka farmer to be incredibly fit and strong, as well as intelligent, calm, and attentive to the job at hand. Furthermore, the Hakka farmer developed a respect for nature and for the animal that faced all the hard-labour.

This ox-inspired ability and strength of the Hakka farmer formed the basis of the mind and body conditioning of Hakka martial arts (of which there are many). When working on the fields, there was no need to carry-out extra body-conditioning training for martial arts practice – as the fitness and strength was already present and maintained through the agricultural life-style. However, as Hakka people migrated into areas where hard physical farming was replaced with other means of livelihood, the fitness and strength gained in the fields was codified into a set of martial-related exercises that logically conditioned the entire body from head to toe. This is how the qigong exercises known as ‘Iron Ox Cultivates the Land’ (Tie Niu Geng Di) came to be ‘separate’ from Hakka farming, and formed a distinct martial training regimen. Within the Hakka Ch’an Dao (禅道) System (also known as ‘Chan Gar’ [陳家]), this technique is more commonly referred to as ‘Iron Vest’ (鐵衫 – Tie Shan) training, which develops a tough and deflecting exterior (surrounding and protecting a relaxed and healthy interior). Just as the ox ‘touches’ the ground, so does the Hakka martial artist whilst performing various press-ups, sit-ups, back-raises and squat-kicks, etc. These movements build bone-density, as well as muscle strength, together with strong but flexible ligaments and tendons. Just as these various exercises ‘strengthen’, so do they ‘loosen’ the body.  The press-up, for example, signifies the ox placing its head low to summon the strength to pull the plough through the hard ground. The ox uses the stomach muscles to contract and relax as the plough moves, gets stuck, and is freed again. As the legs sink into the earth, the ox bends the knee and extracts the limb – this is the squat-kick, and as the broad back carries the plough and the farmer – this is the back-raise of the gongfu practitioner.  Finally, for many Hakka gongfu practitioners, standing in ‘Horse Stance’ (馬步 – Ma Bu) is actually holding the ‘Ox Stance’ (牛步 – Niu Bu).

Dr Shiro Ishi (1892-1959) – Japanese War Criminal – Absolved by the USA

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Within Japanese language sources, Shiro Ishi’s name is written as ‘石井 四郎’ and pronounced ‘Ishi Shiro’.  Within Chinese language sources, his name is infamous and written using the same Chinese ideograms –  石井四郎 – but pronounced ‘Shijing Silang’. At the peak of his career, he held the military rank of Lieutenant General, and the post of Surgeon General. He served in the Kwantung Army of the Japanese imperial forces that were tasked with the invasion and subjugation of the Chinese nation. Specifically, he commanded Unit 731 of the Kwantung Army – a ‘secret’ biological and medical experimentation military unit, that specialised in all forms of human experimentation.

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Although known to have been active during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) in the Manchurian area of north-east China, there is some speculation that its operations began as early as 1931, when Japanese imperial forces first began to agitate in that area. However, Unit 731 was officially formed around 1935 (under the title of the ‘Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army’), and operated out of a huge 150 building complex situated in Harbin city (present-day Heilongjiang province), with Shiro Ishi being personally in-charge of its development and function.

ペスト撲滅隊(1942年)

Generally speaking, the victims of Unit 731 were Chinese men, women and children – estimated by some historians to number around 250,000 – but there is also evidence that a smaller number of Soviet POWs were also used. Shiro Ishi devised a method of vivisection that involved a human subject being dissected alive whilst fully conscious and without any form of anaesthetic. The point of these experiments was to see how long a subject could remain ‘conscious’ as parts of the body were removed, and when finally rendered ‘unconscious’ through shock and intense pain, how long the body could continue to ‘live’ whilst suffering massive trauma and blood loss. Often these highly disturbing sessions were photographed and filmed, whilst Japanese administrators kept meticulous observational notes.

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It was not uncommon for Shiro Ishi to insist that pregnant Chinese women be rounded-up from the local area, and subjected to vivisection. This involved their unborn baby being ‘cut-out’ of the womb and then subjected to dissection – as the mother looked-on – waiting for her own demise upon the operating table. In other experiments, Shiro Ishi would induce strokes and heart attacks in his victims, or expose their bodies to very low temperatures. Victims were also exposed to biological weapons to test the effectiveness of various lethal compounds. The effectiveness and range of high-explosives were tested on firing ranges comprised of concentric circles of wooden posts dug into the ground at specific intervals from an explosive device that was detonated at a centre-point. Tied to the posts were men, women and children, whose bodies were damaged to varying degrees, with most severest nearest the detonation, and the least damaged the furthest away.  Despite the death-toll and the hideous nature of Shiro Ishi’s War Crimes, he was never put on trial at the end of WWII. Instead, he negotiated immunity from prosecution with the United States government in return for handing-over all the data he had amassed experimenting on, and murdering Chinese people (and others) throughout the 1930’s and 1940’s. He lived-out his life in Japan as a respected war hero.

Chinese Language References:

https://xa0007.blogspot.co.uk/2014_04_01_archive.html

http://4travel.jp/travelogue/10592899

 

The View from China and the Impending Defeat of Bourgeois Labour

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Mainland Chinese language articles tend to speak politely and respectfully about Jeremy Corbyn (the grey-bearded old man), who is known to be a vegetarian, and care deeply about the well-being of British working class people, but is generally scathing about the bourgeois nature and direction of Labour Party itself. The Labour Party is very much viewed as a supporter of ‘capitalism’ and not a party of revolution, despite the fact that individual members of it have held Communistic and/or Socialistic viewpoints throughout its existence. However, Chinese commentators have also pointed-out that many truly revolutionary Labour Party members have either been ‘expelled’, or permanently side-lined from direct or active interaction with the electorate. As Jeremy Corbyn advocates an old style bourgeois Socialism that seeks to reform, but never to over-throw the capitalist system, his leadership appears doomed to failure, as his message is not getting through to the working class (that refuses to register to vote en mass), and is opposed by big business. The trans-national-corporations (TNC) will not allow an ‘old style’ Socialism to run the UK, because it will mean that their tax-burden will be increased to finance the Welfare System, the NHS, Education, Housing and Social Services, etc, whilst major industries would be ‘nationalised’ (to reduce costs to the general public) thus depriving the private business sector of huge profits. The British working class is notoriously apathetic (an attribute recognised by Karl Marx himself), and refuse to take part in revolutionary politics. The British working class , despite forming the majority of people in the UK, and being on the receiving end of all the suffering caused by Tory ‘Austerity’, refuses to mobilise and will not even participate in voting. The liberal democratic process, the Chinese narratives explain, exists to serve the class interests of the capitalist system, and therefore conspires to continuously disempower the workers. It is as if the British working class will not even ‘resist’ the exploitation imposed upon it. This is the product of hundreds of years of physical and psychological oppression imposed by the bourgeoisie upon the proletariat, to such an efficient extent that the British working class nolonger considers any other reality to be possible. Of course, even if the Tories were voted-out, the Labour Party is not a revolutionary party, and so the capitalist system would continue to function as usual. As matters stand, the polls suggests that the Tories will win the next election and cement their ‘Austerity’ policy as the new ‘norm’ for British capitalism.

Chinese Language References:

http://www.guancha.cn/tui-si/2017_04_20_404575_s.shtml

http://world.huanqiu.com/exclusive/2017-04/10513742.html

http://www.guancha.cn/tui-si/2017_04_20_404575_s.shtml

 

Gospel of the Lots of Mary: A Christian Book of Change? (c. 5th Century CE)

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‘The Gospel of the Lots of Mary, the Mother of the Lord Jesus Christ, to whom the Archangel Angel Gabriel brought the good news, he who will go forward with his whole heart, will obtain what he seeks, only do not be of two minds.’

Gospel of the Lots of Mary: Translated by Professor Anne Marie Luijendijk

The so-called ‘Gospel of the Lots of Mary’ is written in Egyptian Coptic (which uses the Greek alphabet) and contains 37 different chapters or ‘oracles’ designed to offer advice and guidance to those seeking assistance in their lives.  It is not a gospel in the traditional sense, as it does not follow the orthodoxy of the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman Catholic Church rose to prominence around the 5th century CE, and once it had gained Roman governmental support, set about ruthlessly suppressing and destroying the many other Christian sects that existed, but which followed very different interpretation and practises – all believed to have originated with Jesus Christ.

The book entitled ‘Gospel of the Lots of Mary’ had been heavily used, presumably by the Christian community it served, and was probably used as a random access, shamanistic (divination) device, by a Christian priest or ‘keeper’, whose job it was to consult the text whenever a follower approached with a question. The consultation process may have been as random as simply opening the book haphazardly, and reading the chapter discovered. Other than in its introduction, this oracle-text never again mentions Christian theology (other than calling upon the name of Jesus a handful of times). Each oracle, like its Chinese counter-part in the ‘Book of Change’ is written in a vague and yet precise manner, so that any advice it contains, could be used to interpret many different and varied circumstances. For instance, the book is more concerned about a person attaining happiness by not existing in a state of ‘two minds’, or what might be termed ‘duality’. The abandoning of dualistic thinking is viewed by this book as a movement toward the end of suffering. for instance, the book states:

‘Stop being of two minds, oh human, whether this thing will happen or not. Yes, it will happen. Be brave and do not be of two minds, because it will remain with you a long time, and you will receive joy and happiness.’

The codex is made up of eighty parchment leaves and is written in a well-trained hand in the Sahidic dialect, and it is through the handwriting that Professor Anne Marie Luijendijk (of Princetown University) dates the text to around the 5th century CE.  Luijendijk further suggests that the codex stems from the Shrine of St. Colluthus in Antinoë, where archaeologists have discovered many other oracular texts. As the Roman Catholic Church forbade the use of oracles amongst its followers, all such texts were suppressed and destroyed, so as to wipe-out any historical connection between early Christianity and the practice of oracle consultation. The Gospel of the Lots of Mary suggests that there was a thriving Christian culture prior to the rise of Roman Catholicism that extensively partook in the act of fortune telling, and that this superstition may well have been a corner-stone of early Christian practice. The parchment codex is housed in Harvard University’s Sackler museum where it has been kept since 1984.

References:

rosetta.reltech.org/TC/v20/TC-2015-Rev-Luijendijk-Jones.pdf

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