USSR: Photographs of Lee Harvey Oswald in Minsk (BSSR) – 1959-1962


Lee Harvey Oswald and Fellow Minsk Workers

(Research and Translation by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

Translator’s Note: The Warren Commission made much of Oswald’s sojourn to the USSR just prior to the murder of JFK. The US Authorities tried to amass as much information about this stage in Oswald’s short life, as a means to fabricate ‘probable cause’. Bear in mind that Oswald never stood trial, and his guilt was never ascertained in a court of law. The reason the US Authorities were pursuing this line was because of the ‘witch-hunt’ pogrom initiated against all ‘Socialists’ and ‘Communists’ living in the US since the end of WWII. This pogrom had existed in a less intense form prior to WWII, but following the Soviet victory over fascism during the Second World War, the US Authorities embarked upon a fully comprehensive ‘disinformation’ campaign that re-wrote Soviet history to give the false impression that Soviet Communism was no different to German National Socialism, and that everyone who adhered to Marxist-Leninist ideology were morally repugnant and pursuing a political path of utmost ‘evil’. Rather illogically, and in no way acting inaccordance with established legal practice, the US Authorities declared that Oswald’s association with ‘Communism’ proved that he had the ‘motive’ to pull the trigger and incentive to murder President John F Kennedy. In fact, this approach means nothing from a legal perspective, and is defined as ‘hearsay’. In short, the assumption that Oswald killed Kennedy because he was a ‘Communist’ is inadmissible as evidence in Court, and yet it is this assumption that is used to ‘judge’ Oswald and a priori suggest that he is guilty. As a consequence, anyone who ‘questions’ this assumption is falsely presented as ‘supporting’ the murder of JFK, rather than questioning a faulty legal procedure. Although the recent release of a number of previously ‘secret’ JFK Files strongly deny Oswald’s involvement, there are still elements of the US Establishment who are keeping to script and trying to ‘sell’ the old and tired idea that ‘absence of evidence’ is indeed ‘proof of culpability’. The article below gives a different side to Oswald, and highlights his time in the Soviet Union. Interestingly, he did not partake in any shooting clubs, did not visit any firing ranges, and appears never to have owned a fire-arm of any sort whilst living in Minsk. There is no evidence within Russian language sources that Oswald was being ‘trained’ to assassinate JFK whilst visiting the USSR. This is important as the Warren Commission suggests that whilst acting alone and aiming from the Book Depository Building, Oswald managed to fire three of the best rifle-shots ever recorded at a moving vehicle that was not entirely clear in his sights. In summary, being a Communist does not imply ‘Criminal intent’. ACW (11.1.2018)

The recent release of the JFK Assassination Files in the US not only shed doubt on whether President John F Kennedy was shot by a lone gunman – but question whether Lee Harvey Oswald was involved at all. He was ‘set-up’ as a ‘patsy’ or fall-guy’ because he was known to be a Communist (this was true even when serving in the US Marine Corp). There is no logical reason why a Socialist like Oswald would murder one of the most progressive and potentially leftwing Presidents the US has ever known. It appears that the US Intelligence Services co-opted Oswald’s name in the fabrication of a cover-story to divert public attention away from the fact that the US Political System had conspired to kill its own democratically elected leader. Nptice also how Lee Harvey Oswald was treated for his visit to the USSR between 1959-1962 – compared to Bill Clinton who spent a week in the Soviet Union in 1969. The former was oppressed and murdered for his political views, whilst the latter became the ‘elected’ 42nd President of the United States!

Lee Harvey Oswald described his political views as being ‘Marxist-Leninist’, and stated on live US TV that he was being framed for the murder of President John F Kennedy, because he had lived in the Soviet Union. When only 19 years old, Oswald was discharged from the US Marine Corp, and travelled to the UK, and then on to Helsinki, where he obtained a five-day tourist visa from the Embassy of the USSR. The motivation for this journey was to develop his understanding further about Socialism, an interest he possessed even before joining the US Marines. He arrived in Moscow on October the 16th, 1959, and informed the tourist agent assigned to assist him, that he wanted to defect. Following an initial refusal, Oswald is said to have suffered a ‘breakdown’ and was briefly hospitalised in the USSR. Following this episode, the Soviet Authorities relented and he was granted Soviet Citizenship. It was made clear to him that as an ex-member of the US Military, he could not stay in Moscow or Leningrad for security reasons, but must relocate to ‘Minsk’. Russian language records state that Oswald did not know where Minsk was, and thought that it might be in Siberia (the Soviet Officials laughed).

On January 5th, 1960, Oswald received the relatively large amount of 5000 rubles from the Red Cross as a means to relieve hardship during his re-settlement. As a Soviet Citizen, Oswald arrived on January 7th, 1960, in Minsk (Belarus Soviet Socialist Republic – BSSR), and stayed for two months at the fashionable ‘Minsk’ Hotel (Room 453 – 4th Floor). Following this, Oswald would spend most of the next two and half years living in a flat in the vicinity Minsk Victory Square. On January 11th, 1960, Oswald visited the ‘Minks Lenin Radio Plant’ where he would be employed for the rest of his time in Minsk. He was paid 700 rubles a month, and on the 5th of every month, he received a further 700 rubles from the Red Cross. Oswald mentions that the factory floor was dominated by a large picture of Lenin which all employees had to stand and appraise from 11am – 11:10 am – a procedure Oswald did not favour. Two points of oddity exist here, which originate from within Oswald’s diary.

Firstly, there was no need for the Red Cross to grant sums of money to Oswald when the USSR possessed one of the most comprehensive Welfare Systems in the world. The Constitution of the USSR guaranteed all people living within the USSSR – whether ‘foreigner’ or ‘Citizen’, the right of full access to the Welfare System. Oswald received ‘free’ medical care and was given benefit payments whilst being re-settled. He was allocated a ‘flat’ in a modern (post-WWII reconstructed) part of Minsk, for which he was charged a nominal rent only after he started working full-time. Furthermore, the USSR had full employment and everyone was given a job suited to their abilities and needs. There was no competition for jobs as is the case in the capitalist West. Secondly, as a Marxist-Leninist, who had presumably read at least some work related to Marx and Lenin, Oswald would have appreciated the need for political education amongst the people. Standing to attention for ten minutes during a mid-morning break is the minimum a Soviet Citizen could do as a means to ‘appreciate’ and ‘remember’ where all the material benefits they enjoyed, had historically originated. Prior to the rise of revisionist Khrushchev, Lenin’s portrait may well have rested alongside that of Joseph Stalin. Whatever the case, Imbuing a sense of innate respect for the Soviet State was an important part of Soviet identity. Oswald was young, of course, and there is no guarantee that his diary was not ‘altered’ or ‘adjusted’ to give a negative impression of the USSR – the very country Oswald had given-up his US Citizenship to enter.

On January 8th, Oswald recorded in his diary about a meeting he had with the ‘Mayor of the City’ Sharapov (Шараповым), who promised him a free apartment and separately warned of ‘uncultured people who sometimes offend foreigners.’ Lee did not have any special conflicts, however, with local residents, but he was given the promised apartment quite quickly. Already by March 16th, 1960, Oswald recorded in the ‘Diary’:

‘I’m getting a small one-room apartment with a kitchen and a bathroom. Near the Plant (8 minutes walk). Beautiful view from two balconies to the river. Almost free of charge (60 rubles per month). This is a dream for Russians.’

A separate, albeit ‘small’ apartment was considered very highly by most of the Minsk citizens, who appreciated everything the Soviet State provided. In addition, the American guest was placed in an excellent post-war home, almost on the main avenue of the city, with a view not only of the river, but also of the headquarters of the Red Banner Belarusian Military District. Oswald’s new address was – Ul. Kalinin, 4, ap. 24. A year later, ‘ul. Kalinin’ is renamed the ‘Communist’ (Коммунистическую), under this name it continues to exist today. The photo of this apartment house, apparently made by Oswald, is contained in the materials of the Warren Commission. During his ime i Minsk, Oswald would marry ‘Marina’ and have a child before decding to return to the USA during May, 1962.


Oswald and his New Apartment




Oswald (far-left) and Alexander Sieger [Александр Зигер] (far-right)


Oswald and his Wife (Russian) Marina





Marina Oswald (nee: Prusakova) [ Марина Николаевна Прусакова]

Russian Language Source:

Racist New York Police ‘Assault’ 84 Year Old Chinese Man! (2014)


The 84-year-old Chinese man named Huang Jing (黄镜), was walking along 96th Street on Broadway (in Manhattan) at 5pm on the 19th of January (2014), when the United States police suspected him having crossed a road whilst the traffic-light was ‘red’. There then followed a misunderstanding due to a language barrier. Huang Jing was born in Mainland China and can only speak Cantonese and Spanish.  As Huang Jing could not understand what was being said – he was beaten to ground by a number of police officers and suffered a wound to the back of his head – which was later treated in hospital (receiving stitches).



Chinese Language Articles:

The Boxer Urising (义和团运动) and the Fight Against Hunger in China


A Starving but Brave ‘Boxer’ About to be publically Beheaded (c. 1901)

The Boxers did not ‘rebel’ – they collectively ‘rose-up’ together against the presence of Western imperialists in China. The Eurocentric racism aimed at China is so endemic and ingrained in the Western psyche, that a movement of indigenous peasantry rising-up against a polluting and corrupting Western presence in China (between 1899-1901) is still referred to in many English sources as a ‘rebellion’. As the Chinese peasantry never attacked the imperial ruling house of China – their martial arts-based uprising cannot be truthfully referred to as a ‘rebellion’. The Chinese peasant armies – inspired by folk-religion and magic spells, deployed traditional Chinese martial arts against modern rifles, machine guns and cannon, and despite being technically outgunned, achieved stunning successes in their early campaigns against the Western and Japanese imperialist forces (that had invaded China decades before). Following the eventual defeat of the Boxer Movement (i.e. the ‘Righteous Harmonious Fists’), the imperialist forces of the UK, US, Czarist Russia and Japan massacred around 50,000 innocent men, women and children in Beijing – after the city had surrendered. This unbelievable figure stands side by side with the mass-rape policy that all foreign troops engaged in (an act of brutality supported by the numerous Western missionaries operating in the area). China’s inability to stand-up to this racist and destructive foreign presence at the time, eventually led to wide-spread hunger and famine – as Western (Christian) missionaries bought-up all the supplies of rice, and only issued meals to Chinese people who had converted to Christianity. The brave man in this photograph is emaciated due to the presence of Western imperialists in his country – moments later he lies dead on the ground with his severed head lying near-by – for daring to confront this malignant threat.

A Palestinian Response to Israeli Brutality (c. 1984)


‘Palestinians think that Western perspectives of terrorism are absurdly distorted. They believe that the West judges the issue with much emotiveness but but with little understanding of its context. Moreover, its view is almost entirely one-sided. A guerilla with a gun is more “newsworthy” than an air-force pilot spraying napalm over a refugee camp, but is he more of a terrorist? The eleven Israeli athletes who were killed at the Munich Olympics are remembered all over the world, but how many people recall the four hundred refugees who were  killed in the Israeli vengeance raid three days later?

No people are naturally terrorists, least of all the Palestinians who have no military tradition of their own, and it is futile to condemn them without examining what has led them to use violence. As any Palestinian will say, the propulsion comes from a combination of frustration and desperation. Sami al-Karami, a Palestinian living in Canada, has explained: “The non-violent methods are very beautiful and very easy, and we wish we could win with these methods. Our people don’t carry machine-guns and bombs because they enjoy killing. It is for us the last resort. For twenty-two years we waited for the United Nations  and United States for liberty, freedom, and democracy. There was no result. So this is our last resort. This is the only to get back to Palestine.” This insistence on the failure of the international community is widespread among Palestinians. They point out that since 1947 the UN has ostensibly been in favour of an Arab state in Palestine and that since 1948 it has voted annually for the repatriation of the refugees. In both cases it has failed to implement its own resolutions and the Palestinians feel that as the international community has ignored them, they have no special obligations to the international community.’

Extracted From: Dispossessed: The Ordeal of the Palestinians, by David Gilmour – Pages 159-160 – Sphere Books Limited, re-print 1984. (Originally published by Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd 1980).




No Gay Concentration Camps in Chetnya


When Lenin came to power in 1917, he abolished the entire body of oppressive Czarist law and replaced it with a progressive Socialist system conducive to the well-being of the the ordinary people. The Czar – following virtually every European legal code – overtly ‘banned’ homosexuality, and had strict punishments for anyone caught practising it (like in Victorian England, this proscription applied only to men – as female homosexuality was not considered a ‘real’ phenomenon). By abolishing the Czarist legal code, Lenin became one of the first leaders in the world to ‘decriminalise’ homosexuality. This is a point often ignored by bourgeois gay movements that support capitalism and do not want to accredit Soviet Communism with any progressive achievements in the area of LGBTQ rights. This was a vital step forward for gay rights, and it was initiated by a Russian system applying the Scientific Socialism of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. This was followed in 1926 with legislation protecting children from paedophilia, and any men (but not women) that sexually prayed upon children. In 1934, no anti-gay laws were passed in the USSR, but the 1926 legislation was confirmed (as a means to protect children). Bourgeois rhetoric on this matter often (deliberately) mistranslates the nuance of the original Russian language, and try to import an imagined ‘anti-gay’ agenda. This Cold War misrepresentation was further applied to modern Russia following the 1991 Western-inspired ‘collapse’ of the USSR – when Boris Yeltsin overtly ‘legalised’ homosexuality inaccordance with bourgeois law. However, as the Russian Orthodox Church was allowed to yet again interfere in State politics following 1991, this church’s anti-gay theology began to make its presence felt throughout Russia. Of course, the religiously friendly Western powers conveniently ‘ignore’ this fact, as to criticise the bigotry of the Christian church is thought to be a Marxist attitude (and against the interests of capitalism).

As the US and EU unleash a rightwing and racially motivated offensive against Russia, the latest ‘false flag’ attack involves allegations of ‘gay concentration camps’ in Chetnya. Interestingly, these stories originated in the rightwing (and anti-Muslim) Russian newspaper ‘Novaya Gazeta’ which was founded in 1990 by the traitor Mikhail Gorbachev as a means to directly attack the Soviet system along bourgeois, capitalist lines. This newspaper allowed the anti-Communist attitudes of the capitalist West to infiltrate every corner of Soviet life, and assisted in the collapse of Soviet social cohesion. Today, Novaya Gazeta represents the current attitude of the US and is therefore, pursuing an anti-Putin agenda. The ultimate aim of Novaya Gazeta is for Russia to lose its sovereignty and independence, and become a subservient part of the European Union. As the West is currently Islamophobic, Novaya Gazeta has launched an attack of Islamic Chetnya – using ‘false’ allegations of gay oppression in that small country. As usual, there are no independent Russian or Chetnyan language reports, and no substantiating evidence whatsoever. Chetnya is being picked upon because it is Islamic, whilst the Russian Orthodox Church – the real home of anti-gay attitudes – remains untouched. Novaya Gazeta is part-owned today by Russian oligarch Alexander Lebedev, who propagates his neo-liberal agenda (with his son Evgeny Lebedev) through the British newspaper the pair joint-own – The Independent and The London Evening Standard, This is how the false stories of anti-gay oppression has spread into the West through the British media. The Lebedev family are deceptively described as ‘liberals’, but this is a front for their rightwing, anti-Islamic, racist agenda, which is designed to ferment war between Russia and the West.


How South Korea ‘Disinforms’ About North Korea


Whereas North Korean State media reports factual news articles about South Korea (and its allies) to its own population, the same cannot be said about the behaviour of the South Korean media. Although there are many examples of this in ROC-produced Chinese language sources (designed to affect opinion outside of Mainland China), I reference just one here (see below), dated as 18.2.2016. The ROC does nothing through its own volition, but faithfully pursues US foreign policy in every move it makes against the DPRK. Therefore, ROC propaganda is a priori anti-Communist in nature, and designed to ridicule and disparage the DPRK at every turn. No mater what the story is about, the ROC reflects a highly distorted version with little grounding in material fact, whilst always alleging that DPRK media sources are being accessed and consulted. In fact, most ROC stories are purely fictional and have no corresponding DPRK media source – despite ROC claims. An assessment of the language used in these false-flag reports, and the thought processes behind them, appear distinctly ‘European’ in origin, and generated from a position of Western, racist attitudes – before being translated into the Korean and Chinese languages. The obvious candidate for these missives, is of course the CIA. The titles often allude to a certain ‘comedic’ quality assumed by Western racists to exist in their brand of Eurocentric prejudice. For instance, the article below carries the Chinese language title of ‘連5年榮獲「最佳穿著男士」的金正恩下令要送反北韓人士恐嚇包裹。(圖/翻攝自DPRK News Service推特)’. This states that Kim Jong Un has authorised an all-out ‘terrorist’ attack on any people holding anti-DPRK.  The apparent ‘comedic’ element is that Kim Jong Un has had himself ‘voted’ the ‘Best Man’ in the DPRK five years in a row! This headline portrays the DPRK as a despotic and tyrannical regime, run by an egotistical and maniacal mad man (shades of Team America). Straight-away the damage is done and the stage is set.  The article goes on to explain that North Korean leader Kim Jong-un issued a directive to the General Staff of the Korean People’s Army criticising the joint military exercise held by the United States and South Korea, demanding that there should be a ‘positive strengthening’ of the terrorist attacks upon South Korea. The fact that these US-ROC military exercises are designed to intimidate and terrorise the DPRK is not mentioned, and neither is the fact that the US and ROC forces routinely violate DPRK airspace and coastal waters – trying to goad the DPRK into a military show-down. The ROC then fabricates a non-existent ‘list’ of preferred terrorist activities aimed at anti-DPRK elements, supposedly authorised by Kim Jong Un – which includes the kidnapping of South Korean government, military and civilian personnel, sending intimidating parcels to ROC citizens, threats against personal safety, disrupting State and public facilities, and cyber-attacks aimed at the ROC government and financial sector. This reads exactly like an Islamophobic American list, aimed to ‘criminalise’ all Muslims throughout the world. The theatre may change, but the US racist rhetoric remains exactly the same. Indeed, this fallacious story was subsequently used to direct the ROC Parliament – to as quickly as possible – pass a law that would create an ROC-version of the US ‘Patriot Act’. This would involve the restricting of ROC civil liberties under the guise of ‘fighting terrorism’ – a terrorist threat that does not exist. The article then goes on to say that the joint US-ROC military incursions against the DPRK territory is required because the DPRK possesses nuclear weapons – certain of which the DPRK has recently tested. Of course, nothing is mentioned about US nuclear capability – or the permanent US military presence in South Korea.

Chinese Language Reference: (ROC assuming the DPRK is a ‘terrorist’ State)

British Imperialism During WWII: Invasion of Iceland (1940)


British Soldiers Occupying Iceland During WWII

The Churchillian propaganda of WWII is that Great Britain – this tiny island – stood alone between 1939 and 1941 (the year the US entered the war), and withstood the might of the Nazi German armed forces. What is not generally mentioned is that Great Britain ruthlessly retained and ruled one of the biggest empires the world has ever known, and possessed much greater access to natural resources and man-power than did Nazi Germany.  The ‘fortress Britain’ mythology was perpetuated by Churchill as a means to play-down the humiliating defeats suffered at the hands of the Germans in Europe and North Africa, and against the forces of imperial Japan throughout Asia. These military defeats were making Britain appear both politically and military weak in the eyes of the world, and so Churchill perpetuated the myth of a ‘struggling’ Britain fighting against the odds. This (false) sentimentalist version of British history is still taught today in UK schools, and more or less goes unquestioned. The fact of the matter, however, was that Great Britain was a major world power at the time of the breakout of WWII, and possessed incredible resources to fight a major war both inside and outside of Europe. Churchill was chosen as the war-time leader simply because he was a renowned imperialist who possessed the will-power to keep the British empire intact against external threat.

Just one month before the Battle of Britain in June 1940, Winston Churchill ordered the Royal Navy to land Royal Marines on the shores of Iceland, and invade that small island nation.  This act of British aggression was justified by Churchill on the grounds that Denmark had already surrendered to invading Nazi German troops on the 9th of April, 1940, and that the British government wanted to prevent the Nazi German forces advancing into Iceland unopposed. Churchill’s government had been in negotiations prior to the invasion with the Icelandic government about the possibility of British troops being used to ‘defend’ Iceland, but the Icelandic government – viewing this as a blatant act of imperialist aggression on behalf of Great Britain – refused permission.  Iceland had gained its independence from Denmark after WWI, but retained the King of Denmark as Head of State, and as Iceland possessed no army, navy or airforce, relied upon Denmark for its national security. However, following Denmark’s defeat, Iceland formally declared its ‘Independence’ from Denmark on April the 16th, 1940 (requesting assistance from the United States). Despite protests of self-determination from the Icelandic government, Churchill eventually gave permission for Operation Fork to be launched at 4:00am on the 8th May, 1940, under the command of the WWI veteran Colonel Robert Sturges, who led around 800 men of the untested 2nd Royal Marine Battalion, supported by two Royal Navy cruisers and two destroyers. It is stated in historical accounts that the young Royal Marines selected, were still in basic training, with many not being familiar with the use of their particular weaponry. Together with this force was an Intelligence team, and unbelievably a ‘diplomatic mission’ sent by Churchill! The Royal Marines landed on May 9th, with the 70-strong Reykjavík police force offering no armed resistance – conveying the Icelandic government’s protest at the British violation of that island’s sovereign independence. These protests fell on deaf ears, and the British occupation of the rest of Iceland was completed without a shot being fired. It is reported that Icelandic citizens came to look at the British soldiers who had invaded their country. The British secured all the telecommunications, and began the immediate ’round-up’ of any ethnic-German people living in Iceland. In a bizarre twist, the British handed-over the occupation of Iceland to US forces in 1941 – an American presence that lasted until 2006. Even today Iceland still comes under the ‘protection’ of the United States.

Historical References:

Operation Fork-the invasion of Iceland

Gay Communism Goes West

A cursory examination of the lyrics of the Pet Shop Boys (PSB) reveals a familiarity with Marxist critique – perhaps even a Marxist-Leninist critique.  Of course, VI Lenin- the founder of the Bolsheviks and the inspiration behind the 1917 Russian Revolution – was one of the first world leaders to de-criminalise homosexuality (around 1918), and it is obvious that Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (the founders of modern Scientific Socialism) would have had no tolerance for the fabricated and sentimentalised hypocrisy of the pretence that is bourgeois ‘morality’.  The PSBs are obviously politically aware, and although I cannot speak for them, or have any knowledge of their political views, it is interesting that in their 1992 ‘Go West’ cover of the Village People classic, they seem to be suggesting that Soviet Communism should spread Westward, and create heaven on earth.  They got away with this because a year earlier, the Soviet Union had been voted out of existence by a Western-backed counter-revolution in Russia.  One of the PSB’s commented that the song ‘Go West’ sounds suspiciously like the Soviet National Anthem, and indeed it does.  The beginning of this video has the Swedish inscription:

Rappad Av Rosa Mannen

Which translates as:

Ripped Pink Man

Interpreting Ch’an – Basic Errors in Western Discourse


When a body of knowledge leaves its mother-culture and permeates into unfamiliar and very different cultures, errors of interpretation and understanding are bound to happen, and should be expected.  Of course, such errors do not exist only within Western discourse, which has tended to filter all new and incoming information not only through a Judeo-Christian rubric, (supplemented by a capitalist, political bias from around the middle of the 20th century onwards), but is also observable within various aspects of Japanese Buddhist discourse, particularly in relation to the ‘Japanese’ interpretation of ‘Chinese’ Buddhist history.  Whereas the erroneous Western discourse may be attributed in-part to cultural and historical differences, the Japanese erroneous discourse is primarily one of the deliberate ‘distortion’ of Chinese culture and identity, particularly since the Meiji Restoration of 1868, which saw a resurgent ‘nationalist’ Japan attempt to distance itself from its obvious Chinese cultural influences and origination.  This situation has been compounded by the fact that Western scholarship has chosen to follow the apparently ‘modern’ scholarship of Japan, with regard to interpreting and understanding Chinese history and culture, whilst refusing to ‘engage’ with Chinese scholarship, either ‘traditional’ (pre-1949), or ‘contemporary’ (post-1949).  This has created a situation whereby ‘Chinese’ history and culture has been inadequately interpreted by one culture (i.e. the ‘West’), through the erroneous scholarship of another (i.e. ‘Japan’), which is compounded by the fact that neither the West nor Japan are willing to admit the errors they have made (and continue to make) with regard to interpreting and understanding Chinese history and culture, and fully engage with Chinese academia to rectify these errors.

It goes without saying that every distinct cultural grouping possesses the right for self-determination, and, of course, self-interpretation, but with regard to China’s own distinct historical and cultural identity, the West and Japan appear unwilling to apply this most ‘liberal’ and common-sense attribute.  Prior to WWII, China appeared ‘distant’ even to those colonial Europeans who lived there.  The Confucian-based education system was designed to exclude most Chinese people, and it certainly was not open to those non-Chinese who did not understand its ethos and functionality. Although a small number of Western scholars did attempt to engage this old style Chinese academia, for the majority of Europeans It appeared opaque and impenetrable.  Japan, by way of contrast, whilst pursuing a racist nationalist policy throughout Asia, was willing to modernise its institutions along Western lines, and that included reforming its academia away from that of Chinese dominated Confucianism.  Part of this drive for cultural independence from China was the whole-sale rejection of Chinese history and culture.  Japan quite literally ‘invented’ a new identity for itself, whilst mimicking the West culturally and militarily (a policy that would ironically lead it into a direct and disastrous confrontation with the West).  After Japan’s defeat in 1945 (caused in part by the dropping of two atomic bombs by the US), and the success of Chinese Communism in 1949, the US quickly reactivated Japanese nationalism, albeit operating in a new framework of enforced liberal democracy and rampant, US-style capitalism.  The US pursued this policy to create a Japanese buffer-zone between Communist China and the rest of Asia.  From that ‘Cold War’ point onward, the US would not allow any correction of either its own, or Japanese scholarship relating to China, and actively encouraged further misrepresentation and distortion.  The idea of this policy was to ‘conflate’ everything ‘Chinese’ with everything ‘Japanese’, so that the ordinary Westerner could not tell them apart, and had no independent access to Chinese academia to check the claims.  Although the internet has allowed for theoretical access to Chinese history from China, the obvious language barrier prevents the average Westerner from being able to engage directly with authentic Chinese culture without the aid of reliable translation.  However, more and more good quality translation is slowly becoming available about China in the West, and this is breaking-up the US-Japan monopoly upon interpreting Chinese history and culture.

Nazi German SS Tibet Expedition (1938-39)

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Nazi Germany had very good cultural links with a Tibet that had become ever more neglected by a self-serving, and Westward looking Nationalist regime, that if truth be known, was staffed by officials who preferred missionary Christianity to Chinese or Tibetan Buddhism.  Indeed, this Nationalist government, from its very inception in 1912, sought to destroy the Buddhist establishment, and clear Buddhist (and Daoist) temples to make way for Christian churches.  Perhaps one of the greatest crimes of the Nationalist regime in China was its 1928 destruction of the famous Shaolin Temple in Henan  Another was its courting of Adolf Hitler’s Nazi Germany that only abated when the US backed the Nationalists against the imperial Japanese.  Of course, as Germany occupied a number of concessions in China, and given the fact that Hitler had been in power in Germany since 1933, Nazi soldiers – and the dreaded ‘SS’ – were not uncommon sights in 1930’s China.  The Tibetan part of China, remote as it is from the capital Beijing, served as something of a staging post for the Nazi military and its racialised science.  The Tibetan nobility and high lamas generally maintained very good relations with the Nazi Germans – who, for some strange reasoning emanating from the warped mind of Adolf Hitler, assumed that the ‘White’ pure race of Aryans may well have originated in the Tibetan area (part of this madness might well have been to do with the Buddhist use of the swastika).  Later, the 14th Dalai Lama became very a close friend with the exiled Nazi War Criminal Heinrich Harrer, who in return for an amnesty from the Western allies for his war crimes (as a member of the Nazi Party and personal friend of Adolf Hitler), assisted the CIA to concoct a story about Tibet being ‘invaded’ by China.  Brad Pitt even played Harrer in a Hollywood film – eulogising the life of this Nazi.  As Tibet was already part of China, it was imossible for it to be invaded by China.  This would be like a country invading itself.

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