Lanxi Peasant Woman Raises an Abandoned African-Chinese Child Named Bobby


This is the Story of His Chinese Grandmother

Original Author Yu Jun (俞俊)

(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

Translator’s Note: This is an English translation of the original Chinese text entitled ‘兰溪农妇抚养混血弃儿 6岁巴比和他中国奶奶的故事’, which was published in early 2013.  It is a very heart-warming story from China about an abandoned African-Chinese boy abandoned by his biological parents and taken in and loved by a Chinese grandmother. Perhaps Bobby’s Central African father (or his Chinese mother) might one day read this story and know that his son has survived in China and done very well for himself due to the kindness of local Chinese people. ACW 25.11.14

Zhejiang Daily News: Hu Lian Village (of the Cypress Rural Community area), is about one hour’s drive from Lanxi City, which is situated in Zhejiang province. Here, a story concerning an elderly person and a young child is well known amongst the local people.

The elderly person concerned is named Sheng Mai Juan (盛美娟) and is an ordinary rural woman; whilst the male child is called Bobby (巴比 – Ba Bi). Bobby’s father is from Central Africa, whilst his mother is from China – but his biological parents have abandoned him. In the beginning there was no familial relationship between these two people, but regardless of skin-colour, regardless of nationality, regardless of ethnic and cultural differences – love prevails! It is as if fate had bound them together.

The Local Story

“Bobby – your uncle is here to see you!”

Bobby was taken to the home of Sheng Mai Juan, (who was close to sixty years of age at the time), who had heard about Bobby’s plight and wanted to meet him. Sheng Mei Juan stood-up and greeted Uncle Hao (好), as a very happy and boisterous dark-skinned child jumped and skipped around with a big smile that revealed his two missing front-teeth. Sheng Mei Juan looked with love into Bobby’s eyes and that moment led to them living together for the next two years, with Bobby becoming part of Sheng Mei Juan’s family. Sheng Mei Juan says:

Bobby is very lively, and well behaved. My son was employed with Bobby’s father at Yiwu, and he said that he never saw Bobby’s mother. Bobby was always with his father. In October 2010, Bobby’s father asked my son to look after Booby while he went away on business – but he never returned.

Sheng Mei Juan’s son and daughter both work at Yiwu, and there is also a grandson who is studying at school. With Bobby in the house as well, there was increased economic pressure. Finally, the son – Sheng Xiao Yang (盛晓阳) – said enough was enough and that they could no longer cope with an extra person in the house. They tried to place Bobby at a local orphanage, but Bobby could not settle and had to return to the Sheng household, where he was taken to live with the grandmother. Sheng Mei Juan explains:

“I am a simple peasant woman and when I first met Bobby I was a little stunned. I had no idea how to raise an African-Chinese child!”   

Sheng Mei Juan then explained how Bobby’s eyes were full of happiness and joy, and how she immediately started to feel an emotional bond with him, which was helped by the fact that the other villagers also liked him. Sheng Mei Juan continued:

“I could not understand how his parents could bear to be parted from him!”

Schooling Trouble and Success

Sheng Mei Juan realised that if a child has no parents, registration, or nationality, life can be very difficult. Shen Mei Juan explains:

“Trying to get Bobby into a school – I do not know how many times I was reduced to tears!”

Bobby had not gone to nursery or elementary school, and could not read and write. How could he be allowed to grow up in this manner? Therefore Sheng Mei Juan took Bobby everywhere to try and find help. The local education department made an exception for Bobby and he was enrolled in a local primary school. For Bobby to go to school, finance was required, but Sheng Mei Juan had no fixed income. Instead, Sheng Mei Juan went to the local village of Bedding Factories Workers – who donated 1800 Yuan. She said:

“I am old and do not know how long I have left. Bobby’s needs an education to makes his future life better – I cannot sit by and watch him drop out of school, but I do not know how his fees will be paid.”  

Fortunately, Sheng Mei Juan was liked and respected locally, and many people came to her aid and offered her comfort. Her belief in Bobby was well placed, as Bobby’s end of term report was an ‘A’, his teacher said:

‘Bobby’s classmates like him very much and think he is cute. He is very clever and has an incisive mind. His ability to learn is very good. He looks after his pocket money and does not waste it, and his ability to look after himself is first-rate. With regards to his health, he often has an upset stomach.’   

The headmaster – teacher Jin (金) said:

“This is a good school that cares about its pupils.”

He further explained that Bobby was a very good child and the teachers and volunteers helped him with clothing and blankets. Bobby views his humble rural school as a paradise! He is now fluent in Mandarin and says:

“I am happy at the school, where it’s the best place to play.”

Hope for the Future

Sheng Mei Juan now has other worries. She is concerned about the future. She says:

“Bobby does not have a family of his own. After school he has to go to work, and then get married and settle-down, how will he achieve all this on his own? I heard that Bobby’s African father is a PhD, and I cannot understand why he has abandoned his son. My son – Sheng Xiao Yang – has sent him many emails but has not received any replies.”

For Bobby to be formally adopted (and become a ‘Chinese National’) his birth-parents need to be found. They have to legally agree to give up custody of their son. However, if they are never heard of again, Bobby could be adopted into the Sheng family if the authorities agree that he has been abandoned. Sheng Xiao Yang has photographs of Bobby’s father – as well as business cards – but this is not enough to legally prove his identity. This being the case, another way for Bobby to get Chinese Citizenship is through his Chinese mother – but very little is known about her. Sheng Mei Juan says:

“If Bobby’s real parents cannot be found, or if they do not want him, then I will adopt him. I am willing to do this for him so that he can have a better life. Although I am old, I will face this responsibility one day at a time.”


©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2014.

Original Chinese Language Article:

兰溪农妇抚养混血弃儿 6岁巴比和他中国奶奶的故事



























作者: 网络编辑:俞俊

Kim Jong Un: Father and Son Happy to Marry Dancing & Singing Wives


Original Author Yan Zhao Wei (阎兆伟)

(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

Translator’s Note: This is an English translation of the original Chinese language text entitled ‘金正恩父子为都啥乐意找能歌善舞的妻子’ or, ‘King Jong Un: Father and Son Happy to Marry Dancing & Sing Wives’. The tone of the article is inquisitive, whilst also presenting interesting facts about this reclusive country. It is revealed, for instance, that despite the fact that the North Korean regime was originally premised upon the Soviet model of Marxist-Leninist thinking, both the founder of regime – Kim Il Sung – and his son – Kim Jong Il – both exhibited typical Confucian attitudes with regards to leadership and their relations with the opposite sex. Kim Jong Il had four wives, for instance, whilst Kim Il Sung refused to recognise the validity (and off-spring) of his first marriage! Of course, these attitudes are really the continuation of Korean feudalistic thinking within a framework of supposed Socialist development – a contradiction that cannot be correct, as imperialistic attitudes such as this belong to the historical stage of feudalism, which pre-exists the development of both Capitalism and Socialism! ACW 22.11.14

Korea is a mysterious country. It is mysterious because if you want to learn anything about the country, it is virtually impossible to gain any knowledge from North Korean official sources. Instead, knowledge must be gained from foreign news agencies, or from intelligence sources to form an opinion. This often means that what is believed to be true about North Korea is mostly speculation. The North Korean people are strange, however, as they appear to accept and ‘enjoy’ (享受 – Xiang Shou) the suffering, and retain an attitude of continuous brooding – this helps to maintain the sense of ‘mystery’ about North Korea in the eyes of the outer world.

Logic dictates that the ‘First Lady’ (第一夫人 – Di Yi Fu Ren) of a country, should be very famous, as her presence attracts extensive interest from the world media, as well as ordinary people. Often this attention is greater than that afforded to her husband – the president, or prime minister, etc. When travelling abroad, the leader’s wife often acts as his right-hand, and is seen to take the initiative in formal engagements and initiate introductions.

North Korea’s office of ‘first lady’ is as mysterious as the country she represents. Foreign media reports abound with stories relating to the marriages of Kim Jong Il (金正日). It is asserted that he had four marriages – which included one wife ‘to play around with’, an ‘intermediate’ wife, and two others. As a teenager, Kim Jong Il was very good and married a film actress – having a child with her. However, his father (and founder of the North Korean State) Kim Il Sung (金日成) refused to recognise this marriage, despite the fact that this film actress gave birth to a son named Kim Jong Nam (金正男). This meant that Kim Jong Nam – despite being the eldest son of Kim Jong Il – could not follow in his father’s footsteps and inherit the leadership of North Korea.

Kim Jong Un was the child of Kim Jong Il’s ‘legal’ (法定 – Fa Ding) wife. Although this lady was Kim Jong Il’s ‘legal’ wife, she was never officially recognised whilst he was alive. Even the foreign media did not speculate on this matter. However, it turned-out that North Korea’s ‘First Lady’ – and the mother of Kim Jong Un – was a beautiful Japanese-Korean dancer. Photographs of her performing can be easily found online. None of this was known until the death of Kim Jong Il and the succession of his son – Kim Jong Un. For some unknown political reason at that time, the story was brought to light in North Korea (and the world). Kim Jong Un’s mother is Ko Young Hee (高英姬), and when her son came to power, a eulogising film was made about her in North Korea and released in May, 2012. It was only screened for the members of the Korean People’s Army and leading cadres. The film features key events from the lives of Kim Jong il and Ko Young Hee, and in so doing, the mystery surrounding the subject was finally lifted for some North Koreans.

During the tenure of Kim Jong Un, the mystery surrounding this matter seems to have eased a little. This is evident from the fact that in public places, there is always a beautiful and elegant young lady who discreetly follows Kim Jong Un as he goes about his duties. Obviously this has led to much speculation amongst the foreign media. The speculations have been that this woman was either Kim Jong Un’s sister – or his wife. Later, this woman was indeed revealed to be Kim Jong Un’s wife. It also transpired that this mysterious woman was a very famous singer.

This relative openness may well be the result of Kim Jong Un’s studying abroad and gaining far more experience than his father – who never flew on an aeroplane…

On July 25th, 2012, the Korean Central News Agency announced that the Supreme Leader of North Korea – Marshall Kim Jong Un and his wife Li Xue Zhu (李雪珠) – attended the opening ceremony of a new amusement park. Soldiers, builders, and female workers presented Kim Jong Un with bouquets of flowers. Kim Jong Un stated at the time that even greater efforts must be made if:

‘The people are to enjoy the benefits of the most favourable conditions available for cultural life.

The foreign media immediately seized upon the fact that this woman was the ‘First Lady’ of North Korea, and in so doing the countries of the developed world saw through the mystery – even though for many North Koreans, reliable information about their own country is often scarce to come by, or thin on the ground. Now, in contemporary North Korea, the veil of mystery surrounding the ‘First Lady’ has been lifted regarding two generations – namely Kim Jong Il and his wife Ko Young Hee, and Kim Jong Un and his wife Li Xue Zhu. Ko Young Hee was a dancer, whilst Li Xue Zhu was a singer – therefore it can be truthfully said that for both leaders of North Korea, they preferred ‘First Ladies’ who were dancers and singers.

How is it that two leading political figures such as Kim Jong Il and Kim Jong Un are willing to accept dancers and singers as their wives? The fact of the matter is that beauty is everywhere and the human heart is unpredictable and knows no bounds. Marriages based upon ‘love’ and ‘affection’ cannot be ‘planned’, such as is the case of ‘arranged marriages’.  Father and son are obviously both happy to have wives who are performers – simply because they are able to perceive the beauty of their hearts. As the people of North Korea are diverse, this ‘realisation’ reflects the beauty of the North Korean nation. This is why the ‘First Lady’ of North Korea can be a singer – for this fact Kim Jong Un can be forgiven.


©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2014.


Original Chinese Language Article



按道理,国家的“第一夫人”应该都很有名气的。国人对“第一夫人”的关注度甚至超过总统、总理之类。往往“第一夫人”的穿戴,会引领国内妇女穿戴的新潮流。开放国家的“一把手”出国访问,夫人似乎从来不离左右。出于礼节, “一把手”往往会主动把“第一夫人”介绍给多方。












North Korea – White Top Mountain Family Lineage


Original Article by Hei Tianshi (黑天使)

Translator’s Note: This is an English translation of the original Chinese text entitled ‘白头山血统’, or ‘White Top Mountain Family Lineage’.   This blog article explains the history and principles of the North Korean political concept of the White Top Mountain Family Lineage – a recent development in the DPRK that guarantees that complete political power remains firmly within the family of the descendants of the founder of the North Korean State – namely Kim Il Sung. In this clear and concise description, reference is made to declassified Soviet files that shed light on the historical conditions regarding the Korean resistance to the presence of the imperial Japanese forces, and the circumstances surrounding the founding of the DPRK. This information reveals certain and surprising facts that are often at variance with official positions and political announcements.   ACW 19.11.14

The White Top Mountain Lineage (白头山血统 – Bai Tou Shan Xue Tong) takes its name from the birthplace of the late North Korean leader Kim Jong Il (金正日), and specifically refers to ‘Kim Jong Il and his male descendants’ (金正日的子孙 – Jin Zheng Ri De Zi Sun). In August, 2013, North Korea – for the first time in 39 years – modified the ‘Established Ten Great Principles of Party Ideology’ (树立党的唯一思想体系十大原则 – Shu Li Dang De Wei Yi Shuang Ti Xi Shi Da Yun Ze). In its revised form, the Ten Great Principles now read:

‘It shall be the will of the Korean Worker’s Party’s revolutionary Bloodline – the White Top Mountain Lineage will continue and last forever.’      

In April, 2014, in order to strengthen the cohesion of the White Top Mountain Lineage of the Kim family, the younger sister of Kim Jong Un – Kim Ru Zhen (金汝贞) – was renamed ‘Kim Yo Jong (金与正. On April 8th, 2013, Kim Jong Un placed the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) Armed Forces on full alert, and to undergo further military training in preparation for the defence of the White Top Mountain Lineage.

1- Interpretation of the Name


Kim Il Sung (金日成) was born in the Mangyongdae area of Pyongyang, and he is the ancestor of Kim Jong Il. As Kim Jong Il was born on White Top Mountain, this area serves as the designation for his lineage of descendants. In order to strengthen the Kim family lineage, Kim Jong Un’s sister – Kim Ru Zhen – loyally changed her name to Kim Yo Jong. Kim Il Sung founded the DPRK, and Kim Jong Il was his son, and Kim Jong Un is his grandson. The formal establishment of the White Top Mountain Lineage is an act of securing and strengthening the cohesion of the nation through the male line of the Kim family.

2 – Generational Lineage


In March, 2009, Kim Jong Il announced that General Kim Jong Gak (金正阁) [First Deputy Director of the Governing Board of the Political Bureau] – who was responsible for the ideology, training, and discipline of the DPRK – had been elected on behalf of the parliamentary candidates, to the Supreme People’s Assembly. At this time, he said:

“Let us use guns to defend the Mangyongdae and Baitoushan ancestral family lineage.”  

On February 16th, 2009, on the occasion of Kim Jong Il’s birthday, the Korean Worker’s Party newspaper entitled ‘Labour Action News’ (劳动新闻 – Lao Dong Xin Wen) mentioned the ‘blood inheritance’ issue and said:

The family lineage of White Top Mountain will be the revolutionary force that will usher in a bright new future.’

Provisions of the Kim Family Hereditary Regime

On August 12, 2013, a North Korean media source revealed that the DPRK, after 39 years, amended the Ten Great Principles of Party Ideology (referred to as the Ten Principles), which serve as the Statutes and Constitution that govern the operation of the Korean Worker’s Labour Party. According to this report, North Korea revised the Ten Principles by altering the 1st paragraph of Article 10 which states that the sole leadership of the Korean Worker’s Party will be governed by the White Top Mountain Lineage and its future generations. The 2nd paragraph of Article 10 states:

‘It shall be the will of the Korean Worker’s Party’s revolutionary Bloodline – that the White Top Mountain Lineage will continue and last forever.’    

The 2nd paragraph also states:

“The revolutionary path of Kim Il Sung must not be attacked or slandered in anyway, and all opposition must fought against and eradicated – even if there is just a shred of evidence – all must be resolutely confronted and destroyed.”

According to a national policy researcher with South Korea’s Institute of Analysis, the DPRK’s official recognition of the White Top Mountain Lineage in the Ten Principles is an attempt to instigate a ‘cult of personality’ around the Kim family. Paragraph 2 of Article 10 further states:

‘The kumsusan Sun Palace (which holds the bodies of Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il) will forever be considered a scared place, and it shall be resolutely defended.”

And Article 3 states:

‘The portraits, film footage, and political ideology associated with the great personages of the White Top Mountain Lineage shall be revered and treated with the utmost respect at all times.’

And so on. Here, Kim Jong Un is referred to as a ‘White Top Mountain Lineage Great Person’. Whilst in Article 4 stipulates that the DPRK regime (and its leader) should refer to the ideological works of Kim Il Sung, and the general work of Kim Jong Il. This means that the Party should shape its policy and approach according to this doctrine, and that every decision should be measured to ascertain its correctness through this analysis.

3 – The Sacred Site of the White Top Mountain

The DPRK states that White Top Mountain is synonymous with the Long White Mountain (长白山 – Chang Bai Shan) situated in northeast China. The designation ‘Long White Mountain’ is premised upon the Manchurian name ‘Goromin Sanggiyan Alin’ and transliterated as ‘White Top Mountain’. The name is also derived from the Jurchen language. According to the DPRK, the Joseon Dynasty Records state:

‘The Long White Mountain – according to the barbarian people – was also known as White Top Mountain, the two names refer to the same place.’

Chinese records state that ‘White Top Mountain’ refers to the main peak of Long White Mountain, whilst South Korean and North Korean sources state that ‘White Top Mountain’ refers to the entire Long White Mountain range. The Long White Mountain is situated in northeast China’s Jilin province, on the border between China and North Korea. It is a dormant volcano that has a lake formed in a crater on its summit. This is called Lake Divine-sky Pool (湖天池 – Hu Tian Chi), which is surrounded by sixteen peaks. The Songhua (松花), the Yalu (鸭绿), and the Tumen (图们) Rivers all start here.

4 – Birthplace of Kim Jong Il


Official Information

According to the latest official information from the DPRK, Kim Jong Il’s birthdate is on the 16th of February, 1942. He was born at the ‘White Top Mountain Secret Training Camp’ (白头山密营 – Bai Tou Shan Mi Ying), in Samjiyon County, which is in the North Korean province of Ryanggang.  According to official DPRK records:

During the early morning of February 16th, 1942, the sky was clear and a silvering layer of snow covered the dense forest and the rooves of the wooden houses that comprised the secret training camp. His arrival was declared by two beautiful rainbows that instantly appeared in the sky, together with a bright star. Suddenly a bird (like a Magpie) flew across the sky – a leader has arrived to save humanity – Kim Jong Il is born!’

Kim Jong Il was three and a half years old when his father – King Il Sung – led the military force which advancing on Pyongyang and freed the Korean peninsula from Japanese occupation. In the 1980’s, Kim Sung Il inspected the White Top Mountain region, and officially named the summit of the mountain ‘Jong Il Peak’ (正日峰 – Zheng Ri Feng). These three Korean characters were inscribed on six granite blocks (each block measuring two meters square), which were fitted together to make one large installation.

Not far from the camp can still be seen the slogans written over 50 years ago, by members of the North Korean People’s Revolutionary Army, during the anti-Japanese armed struggle. The volunteers were excited at the birth of Kim Jong Il, and the fact that his arrival was announced by a bright star in the sky. The slogans read:

‘The bright star over White Top Mountain announces the arrival of the Perfect General, and illuminates all for 3000 miles!’

‘White Top Mountain receives the arrival of the Perfect General, who manifests the correct law upon the earth.’

‘Due to the leadership of the Perfect General Kim Il Sung, our nation – which is the first nation amongst nations – was born.’

‘The North Korean people cried with joy, and praised the birth of Kim Jong Il!’

‘The successor to the Perfect General – Kim Il Sung – was born on White Top Mountain!’

‘How wonderful! A bright star announces the birth over White Top!’

White Top Mountain Secret Camp


The White Top Mountain Secret Camp Appears on a 2009 Banknote – the background is a view of White Top Mountain. This is the area known as the Three Deep Ponds (三池渊 – San Chi Yuan) is to the west of Lion Peak (狮子峰 – Shi Zi Feng), and Little White Mountain (小白山 – Xiao Bai Shan). This is where Kim Il Sung led the resistance against the Japanese invaders – and the building structures from that time are still existent. These buildings – which consist of a command centre and guardroom – were originally constructed during September, 1936, as the secret camp was being developed.   Not far from here, and hidden amongst the pine trees, is a simple wooden house with two doors – it is here that Kim Jong Il was born. The peak behind the wooden hut is named ‘Jong Il Peak’, and it has an elevation of 1,797 meters. This peak stands firm and strong – and is symbolic of the example that North Korea sets as a distinct nation. Engraved on this cliff face – in large red characters – are the three words ‘Jong Il Peak’.

Related Questions

According to the North Korea’s official position, as well as opinion around the world, Kim Jong-Il’s birthday falls on February 16th, 1942. However, history records state that Kim Il Sung – from April 9, 1941 – was away with the guerrilla army, which had crossed into northeast China. According to this information, this would mean that Kim Jong Il’s mother was pregnant for over 300 days – which cannot be accurate. This is why the exact date of Kim Jong Il’s birth is still a matter of debate.

In addition, the actual birthplace of Kim Jong-Il remains a mystery. According to official records in North Korea, Kim Jong Il was born on the border between China and North Korea, on the ‘Long White Mountain’, at the ‘White Top Mountain Secret Camp’, because this is known as the place where Kim Il Sung led guerrilla forces from. However, there are contradictions related to these facts. For instance, in the first half of 1940, almost all of Kim Il Sung’s family – that is his parents and his wife – were living in the Soviet Union. As they travelled between the South Camp (situated in Vladivostok) and North Camp (situated in Khabarovsk) during this time period, it is likely that Kim Jong-Il’s birth place was not at the ‘White Top Mountain Secret Camp’.

According to the declassified documents of the former Soviet Union, Kim Jong-Il was born on February 16th, 1941, in Khabarovsk at the nearby Wei-ya-te-si-ke-ye (维亚特斯科耶) Barracks. At this time, his father – Kim Il Sung – was Commander of the Independent Soviet Far East Front Army 88th Infantry Brigade (also known as the Northeast Anti-Japanese Training Brigade). Kim Jong-Il (and his father) did not return to North Korea until 1945. Kim Jong Il’s Russian name was ‘Yuri Irsenovich Kim’ (Юрий Ирсенович Ким).

It appears that because North Korea’s legendary monarchal ancestor ‘Tan Jun’ (檀君) is believed to have been born in the Tianchi Lake area – on eve of Kim Jong Il’s 40th birthday (February 15, 1982), North Korean officials announced the ‘White Top Mountain Secret Camp’ version of his birth place. Even the toys that Kim Jong Il played with as a child were presented, from small to large, (including daggers and pistols), which were arranged at the legendary birth place for all to see.   This was done to establish in the minds of people the unquestionable principle of the “Only successor’ (唯一后继者 – Wei Yi Hou Ji Zhe).

5 – Counter-Attack Drill

In Korea, the Supreme Leader – Kim Jong Un – in the eyes of most people, it is like the Sun in the sky, to whom everyone should look up to. Although the Kim family has an unparalleled status in North Korea, it cannot be ruled out that a scattered few may threaten this power with heretical beliefs and opinions.

In order to prevent this from happening, and guarantee the safety of the Supreme Leader, in April 2014, the North Korean authorities held the ‘Kim Jong-Un Counter-attack’ drill. It is understood that this operation was unprecedented in scale, and that almost everyone was involved including the North Korean security ministries, the Central Organ of the People’s Army, and even heads of departments. This North Korea operation may seem elaborate, but it is not without reason, since the former DPRK leaders (and heroes) Kim Jong-Il and Kim Il Sung, (as well as North Korea itself) have been subjected to numerous attacks in the past.



©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2014.

Original Chinese Language Article:;jsessionid=ee67bdf08fde20282f5e66aaeaca9479.n2


“白头山血统”源于已故朝鲜前领导人金正日的出生地位于白头山,寓意指的是“金正日的子孙”。 2013年8月,朝鲜时隔39年首次修改了《树立党的唯一思想体系十大原则》。修改后的《十大原则》规定:“应将劳动党和革命的血脉——白头山血统永远延续下去”。2014年4月,为了集中金氏家族的“白头山血统”的凝聚,金正恩妹妹由金汝贞更名金与正。2014年4月8日消息,朝鲜劳师动众演练金正恩遇袭,力保白头山血统延续。

1) 名词释义



2) 世袭血统



2013年8月12日,一名对朝消息人士日前透露,朝鲜时隔39年首次修改了《树立党的唯一思想体系十大原则》(简称《十大原则》),据韩国媒体介绍,《十大原则》在朝鲜的地位高于宪法和劳动党章程。据报道,朝鲜修改后的《十大原则》第10条第1款规定,应深化树立劳动党的唯一领导体制的事业,并世代延续。第2款还规定,“应将劳动党和革命的血脉——白头山血统永远延续下去” 。第2款规定“对诋毁或抹杀金日成同志革命传统的反党行为,哪怕只有一丝一毫的迹象,也要进行坚决的反对和斗争。”据一家韩国国策研究所的研究员分析,朝鲜新修订的《十大原则》强调了白头山血统,并明文加强了对朝鲜三代领导人的偶像化。



3) 圣地白头山


“长白山”之名源自满语“Goromin Sanggiyan Alin”意译,“白头山”之名也源自女真人。据朝鲜《李朝肃宗实录》载:“长白山,胡人或称白头山,以长白故也” 。



4) 金正日诞生地




在金正日三岁半时,父亲金日成身先士卒的击退日本侵略者,挺进平壤,解放了日本占领的朝鲜半岛。 上个世纪80年代,金日成视察白头山地区,把其中一座山峰命名为“正日峰”,“正日峰”三个朝文大字,由六块两米见方的花岗石板吊装拼缀而成。







虽然根据目前北朝鲜的官方说法,以及国际间通用的资料,金正日的生日是1942年2月16日。然而,有史学专家分析说,金日成在1941年4月9日就跟着游击队,越界进入中国东北地区作战,照这样算来金正日的母亲怀胎超过300天,有悖常理。所以,金正日到底是什么时候出生的,至今仍是让人争论的问题之一 。


根据前苏联解密文件的记录,金正日是1941年2月16日在哈巴罗夫斯克(伯力)附近的维亚特斯科耶军营出生的。当时他的父亲金日成任苏联远东方面军独立第88步兵旅(又称东北抗日联军教导旅)营长。金正日直到1945年才随父亲回到朝鲜。金正日幼年时的俄语名字是尤里·日成诺维奇·金(俄语:Юрий Ирсенович Ким,英语:Yuri Irsenovich Kim)。


5) 反袭演练






Tragic Photographic Evidence of the Invading Japanese Army Unit 731

Soviet POW Dissected Alive

Soviet POW Dissected Alive

Translator’s Note: This is an English translation of the original Chinese language article entitled ‘日军侵华731部队罪证:活体解剖高清照片 惨绝人寰!’, or ‘Tragic Photographic Evidence of the Invading Japanese Army Unit 731’. When WWII came to an end in China – the US military became aware that the Japanese had been carrying-out illegal germ warfare and biological experiments on living human beings – and meticulously recording their findings. The US granted the ‘doctors’ involved immunity from war crimes prosecution (and US citizenship), if they agreed to handover all their findings and share their knowledge with the US government. ACW 16.11.14

This is the recording of the war crimes committed by the Japanese army section known as Unit 731 through a high quality photograph showing the image of a Soviet POW being dissected alive by Japanese ‘medics’. Unit 731 experimented on Chinese, Koreans, and Soviet POW’s, as well as others. Unit 731 operated during World War II as part of the Japanese invading army’s Guangdong Epidemic Prevention Department of Water Supply. This was a top secret Japanese governmental unit designed to appear helpful on the surface, whilst pursuing a ruthless programme of vivisection experiments on living human beings. Its full name was Japanese Guangdong Army in Manchuria No. 731 Prevention Department of Water Supply. Evidence of the Japanese Unit 731 existence is located in ruins in the Pingfang district, of Harbin province. Unit 731 operated during the Sino-Japanese War and the WWII period. The Japanese fascists operated Unit 731 as a biological and germ warfare research programme, which carried-out experiments on living human beings. In reality, Unit 731 – as a medical military unit – was not only killing people through its experimentation, but was also introducing illnesses into Chinese society between 1931 and 1945. This is an example of yet another massacre carried-out against the Chinese people by the Japanese fascists.

The US knew about Japanese aggression in China prior to WWII, but chose to turn a blind eye toward it, whilst simultaneously always looking for a greater influence in Chinese affairs. When the US eventually went to war with Japan, it did so to protect its own colonial property in the Philippines and elsewhere in the area. Today, Japan and the USA are staunch allies in an anti-China alliance. The people of China must unite and invest in the future of the country to prevent what happened in the past, happening again.


©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2014.



Original Chinese Language Article:

日军侵华731部队罪证:活体解剖高清照片 惨绝人寰!




North Korea’s Hereditary Leadership is a Clean Break with Communist Ideology


Translator’s Note: This is an English translation of the original Chinese language text entitled ‘朝鲜规定主体世袭 与共产主义划清界线’, or ‘North Korea’s Hereditary Leadership is a Clean Break with Communist Ideology’. Its subject matter covers the alteration of the North Korean constitution in 2013 – which used to strictly follow the ideology of Marxist-Leninist Communist thinking – with the removal of all references to the concept of ‘Communism’ and to the principle of ‘Dictatorship of the Proletariat’, and replaced them with the notion of the autocratic rule of the Kim family. The Chinese author quotes a South Korean source critical of the DPRK regime – but stops short of directly criticising North Korea. This article points out the apparent divergence from Marxist-Leninism doctrine that this DPRK move suggests, and implies that it is absurd for North Korea to assert that it alone is the only remaining ‘true’ path to Communism, whilst it has instigated what amounts to a retrogressive return to a feudalistic hierarchy premised upon a ‘top down’ Confucian imperial system. The author further states that the DPRK action is very different from Chinese Socialism – as China threw-off its imperialist system in 1911 and has never returned to it – and that if North Korea can behave in this way and re-write the rules associated with Communist ideology, it should grant the same liberal approach to the other Communist countries (such as China, Cuba, and Vietnam, etc) it routinely attacks and demeans through its aggressive political rhetoric. ACW 14.11.14

North Korea has this year (2013) amended the ‘Ten Great Principles’ (十大原则 – Shi Da Yuan Ze), particularly in the section dealing with the ‘Subject of Great Revolutionary Undertaking’ (主体革命伟业 – Zhu Ti Ge Ming Wei Ye), where the subsection entitled the ‘Great Undertaking of Communist Ideology’ (共产主义伟业 – Gong Chan Zhu Yi Wei Ye), has been deleted, along with all guidelines relating to the ‘Dictatorship of the Proletariat’ (无产阶级专政 – Wu Chan Jie Ji Zhuan Zheng), and replaced with the affirmation of the principle of the North Korean institution of the ‘White Top Mountain Family Lineage’ (白头山血统 – Bai Tou Shan Xue Tong) – which formally enshrines and legitimises in DPRK law – the continuous exercising of political power by Kim Jong Un (金正恩 – Jin Zheng En) and his family, through the sustaining of a hereditary regime. According to South Korean media opinion, this move is more in keeping with the old doctrine of feudalistic ‘dynastic rule’ (王朝国家 – Wang Chao Guo Jia), rather than with the correct following of Marxist-Leninism in the modern world. This DPRK action appears to be a retrospective step that breaks completely with established Communist (Marxist-Leninist) ideology, and reintroduces the tyrannical concept of a robe wearing emperor.

According to a researcher from the South Korean Policy Institute, the North Korean decision has instigated the ‘White Top Mountain Family Lineage’ so as to legitimise and strengthen the Kim family, and to justify the past actions of the regime’s founder – Kim Il Sung (金日成 – Jin Ri Cheng), his son Kim Jong Il (金正日 – Jin Zheng Ri), and his grandson Kim Jong Un – three generations to date. This suggests that the DPRK has made a complete break with Marxist-Leninist ideology, and instead has established a rule by dictatorship where the thinking of the Kim family is considered more important and superior to the thinking of Karl Marx and Lenin, etc. The South Korean researcher further stated:

“Despite this movement away from orthodox Communist ideology, the DPRK still maintains the principle of ‘Unity with the South through Communisation (对南赤化统一 – Dui Nan Chi Hua Tong Yi)’ route.”

Obviously this patriarchal lineage of three generations (that will continue into the future through its family bloodline), has no other precedent in any Socialist country, particularly when compared to the path of Socialism with Chinese characteristics. In the world today it cannot be truthfully said that there is a Capitalist Bloc and a Socialist Bloc standing in isolated opposition to one another. This is because there is a mixing of systems and the continuous breaking of previously established boundaries. China’s official policy is one of respect for North Korea’s self-determination, as well as an equal respect for country’s that follow different political paths. This is important as it acknowledges the different stages of socio-economic development that all nations transition through with a tolerant attitude.  This position demonstrates China’s attitude of respect toward the world community.

North Korea’s Hereditary Leadership is a Clean Break with Communist Ideology: [Road State Network –]


©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2014.


Original Chinese Language Source Article:

朝鲜规定主体世袭 与共产主义划清界线




朝鲜规定主体世袭 与共产主义划清界线来自[道州网]





North Korea – the Only Surviving Red ‘Communist’ Country!


Translator’s Note: This is an English translation of the original Chinese language text entitled ‘当今世界上唯一幸存的毛共产主义红色国家朝鲜!!!’ Or. ‘North Korea – the Only Surviving Red ‘Communist’ Country!’. It is an article placed on a typical blog found on the Chinese internet authored by ‘阿桑’, or ‘A Sang’. This Chinese author has placed a scanned article from the North Korean (i.e. DPRK) press on her blog, which features an interview with the North Korean leader – Kim Jong Un – regarding the issue of the arrest, trial, and execution (by firing squad) of former government minister Jang Song Theak. The Chinese author has translated the original Korean text into the Chinese language in an article dated the 31.10.14. The Korean article presents the North Korean case for its opinion that it alone is the only ‘true’ Communist country in the world that follows correctly the teachings of Marxist-Leninism, and Maoist thought. It further states that China, Cuba, and Vietnam have departed from the ‘true’ Red Road and through misconstrued reform, have become the lackeys of the capitalist West. Jang Song Theak apparently acted without orders by advocating free-market economic reform in North Korea – which is against DPRK law. The Chinese author – writing in China – appears to agree with the general thrust of this article, a unique position not shared by the majority of the Chinese people. In the spirit of openness and education, this article has been translated into English to further understanding and encourage peace between all nations. ACW 13.11.14


Following the complete collapse of the first socialist country in the world – the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) – the world communist movement has disintegration, and the European socialist bloc has disintegrated. At this time, the General Secretary of the Romanian Communist Party (and President of the Socialist Republic of Romania), the great leader of the Romanian people – Nicolas Ceausescu – was a deemed a ‘traitor’ member of the brutal and barbarous Communist Movement and shot… Many Communist countries that survived the collapse of the USSR, have changed ideological direction and given-up the Red Flag! China, Cuba, Vietnam and other countries have abandoned the Red Road of true

Communist ideology, and instead have moved astray and embraced the wrong direction of the capitalist free-market economic system that emphasizes privatization! Only the heroic Korean people and the Korean Labour Party continue to advance along the correct course of Scientific Socialism and Communism, which is the essence of Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought! As the only real Socialist country left in the world, North Korea had many struggles in its early years against the USA. Red Communist survived in North Korea in the face of US imperialism and that of its allies – who were working hand in glove with one another. This pressure has continued to exist from the United States and South Korean lackeys of imperialism, compounded by the policy of Chinese exclusionism. North Korea’s struggle along the Red Road has been arduous as can be imagined, but Comrade Kim Jong-un, together with the WPK and the support of the Korean people, still stubbornly deals successfully with this pressure from all sides; meaning that today’s North Korea, as a Communist country, still stands firm in the East! Recently, following the arrest of former DPRK leader of the General Assembly Jang Song Theak, the leader of the Korean Labour Party – Comrade Kim Jong-un – made a brief speech clearly aimed at China, he said:

“Reform and opening up is an imperialist conspiracy aimed at the slaughter of the Socialist system. North Korean law clearly states that advocating privatization and free-market economics is an act of aggression aimed directly at the Communist Party. This conspiracy denies free education, free medical care, free housing, free pension, free welfare provision, free distribution of work, and the right to self-defense. The abandoning of nuclear missiles is counter-revolutionary. Jang manipulated the media talking openly about reform. He would say anything to gain attention, claiming that North Korea needs reform, but reform does not protect the people’s sovereignty or national sovereignty. An open country has no protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STD) or acquired, immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). This means that the life and health of the people become a money-making machine, as a large number of expensive drugs have to be imported to fight the decadent diseases. Not only does this policy of reform destroy people’s lives, it also earns high profits, as, for instance, a large number of AIDS patients would need continuous treatment. Such openness is against the human rights of the Korean people, and the advocate of such a policy should be put to death! Jang is a traitor and usurper of the Communist system and must be punished, or the motherland and the people will suffer. Private ownership is a fool’s paradise that will not feed the people, but rather go on self-indulgent road that is most destructive; as rich and poor live in two completely different worlds. Privatization is bound to lead to a second revolution. The free-market is the main object of privatization, and exploits the flesh and blood of the working people. This is a cheap betrayal of the country’s valuable natural resources. If a government cannot protect the interests of the motherland and the people against working hand in glove with domestic and foreign capitalists, as well as the big landlord class; the interests of the people will be crushed and stolen, allowing a group of vampires to suck the life-blood from the people, and ride on the heads of the people, defecating and urinating as they go. Our regime will be destroyed by this madness and a new ruling class allowed to develop. Kill all who advocate privatization! We want progressive reform, but privatization is not progressive reform. Privatization subverts the political and economic foundation for the Party and of Socialism. A few tricks to get people’s wealth out of their own pockets. Privatization as a reform is a sham and a fraud. Privatization as a reform is aggressive and treats the people no better than animals!”






Kim Jong Un Expresses Sympathy with North Korean War Veterans

Translator’s Note: This is an English translation of the original Chinese language text entitled ‘金正恩慰问朝鲜战争老兵(高清组图)‘, or ‘Kim Jong Un Expresses Sympathy with North Korean War Veterans (High Definition Photographs)’. Although the remembrance ceremony in question occurred two years ago, it is a fitting memorial to the hundreds of thousands of North Korean troops both men and women – who fought and successfully defended their homeland during the US-led imperialist adventure of the United Nations aggression during the Korean War of 1950-1953. It is an interesting point that North Korea has never fought in another war since then – but the Western powers continue with their habit of war monger to this present day. ACW 11.11.14




The Pyongyang 59th anniversary celebration marking the commemoration of the DPRK victory in the Korean War. North Korea’s leader – Kim Jong-Un – sincerely offers sympathy and condolences to the war veterans. Source CFP:

International Online Reports: August 1st, 2012 (Exact Time of Photography Not Specified)


在平壤举行的庆祝朝鲜战争胜利59周年的纪念活动中,朝鲜领导人金正恩慰问老兵。图片来源: CFP


China Verses USA: Two Early Battles in the Korean War

Translator’s Note: This is an English translation of the original Chinese text entitled ‘盘点解放军境外十大歼灭战 美军死的很冤枉’ or, ‘PLA Record of Service Overseas – the USA’s Unjust War of Annihilation and the Casualties Caused’. This interesting document lists ten battles in the Korean War, and analyses the PLA’ s victories, performances, and tragic sacrifices. I present here the English translation of the first two major engagements of the PLA in the Korean War listed in this article – the first is against the US trained and armed South Korean Forces at Fei Hu Shan, and the second is against the US Marines at Yun Shan. It is obvious that many Western histories of the Korean War are hopelessly inaccurate and the product of skewed thinking and political bias.  The reality is that the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army – enthused as it was by Communist ideology – inflicted defeat after defeat on the best military forces the capitalist West had to offer.  The Chinese text is a refreshing break from the usual Western narrative which depicts comprehensive military defeats of US forces as a ‘disguised’ victory. I have retained the original Chinese text for the reader’s general interest. ACW 9.11.14

First Engagement: Battle of Fei Hu Shan (飞虎山)

Date: November the 2nd, 1950

Location: North Korea (DPRK) – Fei Hu Shan

Chinese victory: UN vanguard of two South Korean Divisions repulsed suffering 15,000 casualties.

Chinese People's Volunteer Army

Chinese People’s Volunteer Army

On October the 25th, 1950, the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (志愿军 – Zhi Yuan Jun) – numbering 200,000 – formally entered the Korea War. At that time, the Leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea [朝鲜 – Chao Xian] (DPRK) – Kim Il Sung (金日成) was concerned that as war-planes and tanks had not been able to turn the tide of war, how could a Chinese army comprised solely of ‘volunteers’ be successful? Due to the dire military situation in North Korea at that time, Kim Il Sung was of the opinion that his country was ‘finished’ (完了 – Wan Lao)! The commander of the Chinese Volunteer Army – Peng Dehuai (彭德怀) – laughed out loud at this suggestion, and firmly rejected its implications. Not long afterwards, (on the 2nd of November, 1950), the vanguard of the United Nations Forces – consisting of the 53rd and 55th Divisions – was advancing toward the area Fei Hu Shan (飞虎山), where the 25th and 29th Divisions of the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army was awaiting in ambush. At Fei Hu Shan the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army rapidly attacked the UN Forces that were heading northward with the intention of threatening the sovereign security of the Chinese border. In just three days, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army held the desperate UN Forces in a death-grip that destroyed two entire South Korean Divisions. This encounter demonstrated that beyond its political rhetoric, the United Nations Forces, (led by the United States of America), was nothing more than a toothless tiger!

Success: The 25th and 29th Divisions of the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army were formed from the reorganisation of surrendered Guomindang (国民党) nationalist forces, to form a new army of heroic troops. In function, this new army adopted the Japanese tactic of rapid and aggressive deployment and advance, designed to quickly disorganise and destabilise the enemy. This is the application of ‘suddenness’ and ‘shock’ on the battlefield, which is highly effective during open terrain combat. In the Fei Hu Shan engagement, the Chinese Forces quickly encountered and destroyed the South Korean Forces headquarters, and rendered the South Korean Forces leaderless and confused. This initial action took away the South Korean command and control infrastructure. South Korean discipline then rapidly collapsed and the battle became a massacre.

Failure: The Chinese 38th Army was unable to effectively co-ordinate its advance with the Fei Hu Shan offensive due to intense snow blizzards. This meant that it could not advance rapidly to the Fei Hu Shan area and cut-off the escape route of the retreating South Korean forces. Another factor which slowed down the 38th Army was its capture of a large number of US produced tanks – which none of the Chinese Volunteers could operate. This was a great pity, as these valuable vehicles had to be abandoned. A laughable excuse for the failure to advance is that the Chinese troops were so cold whilst fighting in the North Korean winter that the first thing they did following battles was to rob the warm quilted coats from the dead South Korean soldiers! Another error was the mistaking of the late arriving DPRK’s 8th Division, for a South Korean Division – at this time the two allies (China and North Korea) opened fire on one another’s positions.

Second Engagement: Battle of Yun Shan (云山)

Date: December 11th, 1950

Location: North Korea (DPRK) – Yun Shan

Chinese victory: US 1st Marine Division engaged suffering 15,000 casualties

Chinese Casualties in the Korean War

Chinese Casualties in the Korean War

After the first battle (described above) the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army quickly retreated and MacArthur – the Commander of the US Forces – mistakenly presumed that China had only ‘symbolically committed troops’ and ordered the UN Forces to rush onward in a northerly direction, toward the Chinese border area. MacArthur sentimentalised the conflict by publically stating that the war will be over by Christmas. On the night of December the 11th, 1950, the US 1st Marine Division advanced into the Yun Shan area, and was surrounded by the 38th Chinese People’s Volunteer Army. This is how the first major engagement between US and Chinese forces began. After the US 1st Marine Division was surround by the Chinese forces, the US quickly rushed support into the area.  In turn, the Chinese forces launched an immediate and intensive offensive that was inspired through self-sacrifice and heroism. After suffering massive casualties, the US withdrew its forces from the area to prevent total destruction. The US used this tactic throughout the Korean War so that when obviously losing a battle, they could claim that they withdrew ‘voluntarily’ and therefore ‘never lost a battle’, etc. However, their retreat was blocked by the 175th and 180th Chinese Regiments, who fought tenaciously in an attempt to prevent the US forces from retreating southward in good order. So effective was this blocking action that the US forces lost 15,000 casualties – but the two Chinese blocking Regiments were reduced to just 5 men. The writer Wei Wei (魏巍) recorded their sacrifice in the following prose:

These are the most beautiful of people.’

When surveying the details of this tragic battle, tears cannot help but be shed.


©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2014.


盘点解放军境外十大歼灭战 美军死的很冤枉


















Original Article:



Chinese Soldiers in British Uniforms


During WW!, 140,000 Chinese men volunteered for poorly paid, and arduous duty in British Army Labour Battalions.  They were responsible for logistic supplies from the rear area in France, all the way up to the frontline – but were not allowed to be armed to defend themselves incase of emergency.  Thousands died through enemy action – but their sacrifice goes unnoticed even today in the UK.  How were they rewarded?  Around 20,000 Chinese wounded were allowed to come to the Liverpool area of Britain to receive medical care and to heal from wounds.  However, following the British victory in WWI, a wave of racist nationalism swept the land and prompted by the notoriously rightwing Daily Mail and Daily Telegraph newspapers (amongst others), the British government ordered the British Army to round-up the Chinese men at gun-point, and deport them on ships back to China.  This process took just two weeks to achieve and the population of Chinese people in the UK fell to around 300.  A similar round-up and deportation happened to the Chinese just following WWII in 1946 – and the Chinese presence did not pickup until the mid-1950’s when the then UK government invited Hong Kong Chinese people to settle in Britain.

World War One and the Working Class Holocaust


If an outbreak of war appears imminent, the workers and their parliamentary representatives in the countries concerned must do everything in their power to prevent war breaking out, using suitable measures which will naturally differ and increase according to the intensifying of the class struggle and the general political situation. If war should still break out, they must take all steps to bring it to a speedy conclusion and make every possible effort to exploit the economic and political crisis brought about by the war to rouse the people and thereby accelerate the downfall of the rule of the capitalist class.

(Statement Issued by the International Socialist Congress: Stuttgart – 1907 – with input from Lenin, Luxemburg, and Martow)

Total casualties – including military and civilian – are estimated to be around 17 million for the European conflict referred to in bourgeois historical narratives as World War One (WWI). This was essentially a Western European War between two competing empires – the British and the German – which saw many other countries dragged into the conflict through treaty obligation. The British side – known as the Entente, or Allied Powers – consisted of Great Britain, Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, East Africa, Belgium, France, Greece, Italy, the Empire of Japan, Montenegro, Portugal, Romania, Russian Empire, Serbia, and the United States of America. The British military authorities also recruited thousands of Chinese men to work (unarmed) in labour battalions serving on the front during WWI. The German side – also known as the Central Powers – consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungry, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. The theatres of conflict for WWI comprised of the Western Front (France and Belgium), the Eastern Front (the border area between Germany and Russia), Gallipoli (South Turkey), the War at Sea (in and around the Atlantic Ocean) and the War in the Air (including the infamous barrage balloons). Although military air forces were developed (on both sides) during WWI, the participation by these rudimentary and lightweight machines was limited to reconnaissance gathering, the dropping of a limited number of small bombs on enemy positions, and the occasional skirmish (or ‘dog-fight’) between opposing groups of biplanes.

World War One was a thoroughly bourgeois conflict that witnessed the ruling class of Britain confront the ruling class of Germany in a highly industrialised contest of destruction that saw the international working class massacred in its millions. The casualty figures were so appallingly high for WWI because the bourgeois military authorities, despite being the beneficiaries of extensive technological developments and innovations, failed to update and progress their thinking and planning for the use of these new weapons, and weapons systems. The modern use of massed infantry developed out of the old feudal habit of men bunching together on the battlefield for the maintaining of mutual defence on the battlefield, and projection of collective power toward the enemy. In these earlier times, infantry projectiles were limited to arrows and spears, and artillery to large rocks propelled through the air by various designs of catapult. When muzzle-loading, smoothbore muskets began to appear on the battlefields of Europe from the 16th century onward, and particularly in the 18th century with the developing of the ‘rifled’ barrel (which saw the addition of a spiralling formation within the barrel itself), the tactical and strategic use of massed infantry was developed to reflect these changes. Musketry by its nature, was relatively inaccurate in its function of inflicting death and destruction on the enemy. Furthermore, the reloading procedure was time consuming and problematic under combat conditions. As a consequence, large numbers of infantry men were required to train together in military marching drills (still retained in some regiments of the modern British Army for ceremonial purposes), that saw each man handle the use of the musket in an identical manner, whilst moving toward, away, or around the enemy whilst retaining good marching order in a mass military formation. For the musket to be effective, large numbers of men had to march up to a close distance from the enemy, fire (or discharge) their muskets simultaneously, and then reload as quickly as possible. The time it took to reload a musket after discharge, (a good soldier could perhaps fire and reload his weapon around three times a minute under combat conditions), was partially waylaid by the use of multiple lines of infantry – one drawn up behind the other – which allowed for one line to kneel-down whilst reloading, so that a line behind could fire from a standing position, etc. This procedure, and variants of it, allowed for a steady rate of fire to be produced by the massed infantry formation. The affixing of a short sword-like weapon (i.e. a ‘Bayonet’) to the end of the muzzle end of the musket provided the infantryman with a spear-like device for defending himself at close-quarters.

The bourgeois, if nothing else, is a class of conservatism, and this can be seen during their handling of the American Civil War (1861-1865), which saw the combined loses of the Union and the Confederacy reaching a staggering 750,000! Modern rifles, which were easier to reload and more accurate in their fire-power, were used by men who were trained to stand in the massed infantry formations more suitable to the use of the inaccurate early musketry around two hundred years previously. It is obvious that no lessons were learnt from this disastrous war, as just 49 years later – in 1914 – men were yet again being armed with much more deadlier weaponry and being trained by their bourgeois overlords to fight in an outdated and redundant fashion, that simply led to the unnecessary death of millions of people. It is a curious irony that although the bourgeois applied the scientific method to industry, developing ever more deadly weapon designs, they did not, as a rule, apply the same scientific thinking to the use of that new technology on the battlefield. This fact demonstrates the backward looking nature of the bourgeoisie as a whole, despite its revolutionary and progressive nature as a class which swept away feudalism, and prepared the ground for the development of Socialism. After all, in the modern era, it has been the bourgeoisie that has manoeuvred the societies under its control into the abyss of continuous and pointless wars – usually between competing heads of states (such as kings and queens), or more recently between secularised Christian countries, socio-economically undeveloped Muslim countries, etc. Tomorrow, the reasons for the bourgeois wars will change, but the wars themselves will continue. This is because by and large the true bourgeois barely get involved in the wars they start, but instead marshal the masses of the working class to fight and die in droves for causes that have no direct meaning or relevance to their lives.

This pattern of exploitation and oppression repeats itself over and over again throughout history and is made possible by the historical control the bourgeoisie possess and maintain over the institutions of society. The conditions surrounding WWI, however, were a little different, as the Second ‘Socialist’ International was in full function leading up to the conflict, after being established in 1889 – just six years after the death of Karl Marx. This International, (like the others based upon Marxist thinking), premised its existence upon the recognition of the international hegemony of the working class. This is to say that when viewed through the eyes of Marxist theory, national boundaries are viewed as delusionary bourgeois constructs, along with notions of race, nationalism, and other theories of social elitism and cultural exclusion. Every individual toiler, no matter where he or she lived, or was born, or had moved to, and no matter the colour of the skin, religion, or linguistic background, the key overarching attribute that united all these apparently disparate people was the fact that they were all, without exception, members of the historical movement known as the international working class, and that it was this working class which had each individual’s best interests at heart, whilst continuously agitating for the over-throw of the bourgeois state and the establishment of Socialism.  In the decades following the death of Marx, a working class consciousness had continued to develop and spread throughout bourgeois controlled Europe, and in particular in the years immediately preceding the outbreak of WWI in 1914, saw impressive electoral success – despite the presence of such hindrances as the Anti-Socialist Laws which had been passed in Germany. This arousal of working class consciousness unfolded hand in hand with the intensification of bourgeois angst and resistance, which threatened to boil over into an all-out war between the competing bourgeois countries. This situation was reflected by the fact that the various congresses of the Second International dedicated much thinking time to the solving of the problem of what policy should be adopted by the international working class within their respective countries, should war breakout between those countries. In other words, should the developing working class regress into the old pattern of simply following the lead of the bourgeoisie in time of war, and kill one another in the name of ‘nationalism’ for their respective countries? In the 1907 Stuttgart congress, the Second International – with the help of Lenin – issued what was thought of at the time, to be a definitive statement upon the matter (see opening quote). In essence, the Second International in 1907 called upon its constituent members to use every available means to prevent a war from happening, or to shorten a war by the same means should hostilities have already broken out.

This proletariat philosophy of ‘internationalism’ was placed in direct opposition to the bourgeois notion of ‘nationalism’, and its outdated notions of ‘deference’, ‘knowing one’s place’, ‘duty toward hierarchy’, and ‘unquestioning loyalty’ to the oppressive status quo. This was the situation as the world was heading toward war in the years leading up to 1914, at a time when the British Empire was engaged in a naval arms race with imperial Germany. The Second International prior to this time had gone from strength to strength, and had even managed to ideologically consolidate its rhetoric with the expulsion of the Anarchists from its ranks during the Zurich congress of 1893 – a decision that was fully ratified at the following congress held in London in 1896. The Anarchists were expelled from the Socialist movement for refusing to accept the need for some kind of state apparatus in the transition from a capitalist to a Socialist state, in preparation for the evolving of human society into a Communist system, etc. The strength of Socialist commitment, even at what might be called the eleventh hour at the time, can be clearly discerned by an anti-war speech delivered at the German Reichstag on the 2nd of December, 1912, by Eduard David – the Social Democrat deputy – which stated:

‘The masses used to let themselves be whipped up against each other and unresistingly herded into mass murder by those with a vested interest in war. But not any more. The masses will no longer submit to being the pliant tools and accomplices of any war interests.’

 Even as late as the 25th of July, 1914, the Social Democratic paper Vorwarts declared:

‘Not a single drop of the blood of a single German soldier must be sacrificed for the benefit of the war-hungry Austrian despots or for imperialist commercial interests. Comrades, we call upon you to express in immediate mass demonstrations the unshakeable will for peace of the class-conscious proletariat! Everywhere the cry must ring in the ears of despots – “We want no war! Down with war! Long live international solidarity”’

The First World War – which cost the lives of around 17 million people – began just four days later, on the 28th of July, 1914 with Austria-Hungary’s declaration of war on Serbia. This led to a cascade effect of bourgeois countries rushing to honour their treaty obligations, and initiating what can only be described as a four year holocaust of a generation of the working class. Despite its Internationalist agenda, many constituent members of the Second International returned to their respective countries and actively supported the national war efforts of the bourgeoisie. This action divided the working class yet again, and thousands upon thousands voluntarily joined the armed forces of their bourgeois overlords. This was the effective end of the Second International (which was formerly dissolved in 1916 – having failed in one of its key objectives). This failure abandoned the field to the bourgeoisie who rewarded the ‘loyalty’ of the working class by having them ‘walk’ or ‘run’ across the ‘no man’s land’ separating the trenches, into relentless artillery, machine gun, and rifle fire, as well as gas attack. This situation was compounded by horrendous living conditions in the trenches for the common soldier; poor food, lack of sleep, lack of hygiene, lack of medical care, and a sense of disinterest in their general well-being. The only alternative to running into concentrated machine gun fire, was to be subjected to a general court martial, and risk the likelihood of being shot at dawn for cowardice. This is how the bourgeois treat their own working class. If the working men survived this treatment, then they were often mowed-down by enemy gun fire, or blown to pieces by artillery shells. Of course, the bourgeois lie is that WWI was the ‘war to end all wars’, when in fact it was just another massacre of the working class in the name of bourgeois values. For the bourgeois system, warfare is a cultural habit and national pastime that uses the working class as fuel. In WWI, new weapons and obsolete military tactics combined to destroy the working class of all countries, as they were ordered to throw themselves into the attack for no reason beneficial to themselves. Today, the bourgeois system continues to eulogise war, and encourage its respect as an institution by sentimentalising all those killed in its pursuance, whilst those who survive the slaughter are risen to the status of ‘heroes’ in the adoring eyes of the public. Bourgeois war solves nothing other than the perpetuation of the bourgeois class with all its privileges and contradictions. As the 100th anniversary of the start of World One approaches in 2014, the millions who died should be remembered as a working class sacrifice during a brutal period of an intensification of bourgeois oppression, and not as the consequence of a willingness to die for a non-existent god, or a monarch who possesses no power. Although men often joined the bourgeois armies because they had no choice, the point is to change this so that the working class can take power away from the bourgeoisie – this is the only way that the routine massacre of the working class will cease.

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