JFK – the Soviet View


A current righting delusion in the US states that President Donald Trump had all the JFK Assassination  Files ‘released’ because of his own curiosity and an innate thirst for the ‘truth’ – this is incorrect. In fact, another rightwing warmonger – President George HW Bush – (following the public interest sparked by the 1991 releasr of Oliver Stone’s film ‘JFK’) signed into law the ‘President John F. Kennedy Assassination Records Collection Act’ on October 26th, 1992, which stipulated that all relevent files on this subject must be made ready and released into the public domain by October, 2017. President Trump is simply following the established law and is NOT responsible for the release of these files.

According to the 2,800 files released so far, the following points of interests have been established regarding the position of the USSR toward the assassination of President Kennedy (I have added Russian-language sources which support these conclusions):

1) The position of the USSR was that President John F Kennedy was a ‘progressive’ who was willing to compromise and negotiate with the Communist Bloc, and seek-out a positive ‘common ground’ for peaceful interaction between capitalist and Socialist models of existence. The death of Kennedy, therefore, was considered a tragedy in Moscow (despite an increase in Cold War rhetoric and the recent ‘Bay of Pigs’ [failed] invasion of Cuba, and the ‘Cuban Missile Crisis’).

2) The FBI and/or CIA gained intelligence which stated that the murder did not involve Communist Cuba or the USSR, and that on the contrary, the USSR was concerned that with the murder of JFK being blamed on the Soviet Union, a US General might decide to fire nuclear missiles at Moscow out of a misplaced sense of revenge.

3) Soviet Intelligence countered with the opinion that an ultra-rightwing Clique (led by Lyndon Johnson) had conspired to kill President Kennedy as he was considered ‘soft’ on Communism.

4) The CIA did not agree that a ‘single gunman’ had killed Kennedy – and only followed this ‘official’ line in public. It was ‘unclear’ whether Lee Harvey Oswald was a) involved in the shooting, and b) if involved, had operated alone or with others. The CIA knew Lee Harvey Oswald could speak Russian, was a Member of the Communist Party and had known contacts with Soviet Officials, and yet he was allowed to roam freely throughout the USA. This has led to speculation that he may have been a ‘double agent’ working for US and ‘set up’ to take responsibility for the murder of JFK (thus protecting the actual assassins).

5) It was J Edgar Hoover (the Head of the FBI) who propagated the ‘myth’ of Oswald being the ‘lone gunman’. In fact, the JFK Files suggest that Lee Harvey Oswald was ‘innocent’ and had nothing to do with the murder of President Kennedy. Indeed, Oswald was a ‘Socialist’ and had travelled to the UK, Scandanavia and the Soviet Union. However, far from being an ‘enemy’ of the Kennedy family, Oswald worked for Robert Kennedy and served him loyally, even preventing earlier assassination attempts planned against JFK. Oswald had suffered a psychological breakdown in the USSR and received medical help before being given a flat and a job in Minsk. He was taken under the wing of ‘Stanislav Shushkevich’ (Станислав Шушкевич), who taught him to speak Russian and how live and work in the USSR. Stanislav Shushkevich would later become the first President of an independent Belarus. Oswald was known to be a quiet person dedicated to the serious study of Scientific Socialism.

6) For decades, the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA)  was viewed as being under the direct control of the USSR, and served as an internal security threat. The US rightwing clique was preparing to publically blame the CPUSA for colluding with, or carrying-out the assassination. This fabricated allegation would then be used as the reason to ‘ban’ the CPUSA altogether, and simultaneously ‘cut-off’ all diplomatic relations with the USSR.

7) This action would serve as a prelude to a full-scale military invasion of Cuba, and open military aggression against the USSR (and Communist Bloc).

8) This US rightwing clique implicitly believed that President Kennedy had ‘secret’  connections with the CPUSA, and that this Communist influence had served to ‘disarmed’ the Kennedy Administration, steering the US on to a path of ‘peaceful coexistence’ with the USSR – a path considered ‘un-American’ by the US rightwing clique.

9) A formerly ‘hidden’ medical report states that there were at least two entry wounds to President Kennedy’s head – one at the back (that had killed him), and another in through the throat. The throat shot aligned with a bullet hole found in the windscreen of the car, and suggests a shooter situated on the over-pass.

Russian Language Sources:



Raphael Samuel – The Lost World of British Communism Exposed


‘It is a curious fact that in the years of the Cold War, when the Party was defending some terrible causes as well as some noble ones, and when, in trade union branches and on street corners, members were having to make a case for the indefensible, the Party was in better shape morally and organisationally than it is today, when its positions are no longer impossibilist, and when it is a great deal more modest about itself.’

(Raphael Samuel – The Lost World of British Communism – Page 43)

This book is comprised of three articles written by Raphael Samuel between 1985 – 1987 (and published in New Left Review). The author died in 1996 – one year before the rise of the neo-conservative ‘New’ Labour, but he lived to see the collapse of the Soviet Union (in 1991). Whether Raphael Samuel was ever a ‘true’ Communist is open to doubt, as his book is as much an attack upon the Marxist-Leninist ‘Communist’ Movement, as it is a presentation of a blinkered history. Of course, this attack is camouflaged as ‘discussion’, but it is important to note that Samuel left the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB) in 1956, at the young age of just 21. Although broughtup in a ‘Communist’ family, (the entire ‘moral’ justification behind Samuel considering his own rhetoric ‘knowledgeable’), the fact remains that his understanding at that time (which obviously was not ‘formulative’) remains dialectically immature, and may account for why Samuel continuously refers to CPGB rules and regulations passed, abandoned or reformed during the 1920’s! That is, Samuel exercises the habit of presenting the CPGB through the history, data and information he has subsequently encountered after leaving movement. Therefore, this is not a truly ‘biographical’ account of the CPGB – as asserted on the cover’s publicity blurb – and any history of Samuel’s direct involvement with the CPGB is understandably childish recollections of long ago, with no historical value.

Raphael Samuel is writing as a bourgeois historian who has fully accepted and endorsed the capitalist status quo, but who maintains a ‘nostalgia’ for what he considers a lost past. Samuel seeks to draw the reader into this inverted would of bourgeois illogicality whereby what he thinks about the CPGB (and International Communism) is the only viewpoint of the world worth having. This is very similar to a ‘cult mentality’ that is all-pervasive and beyond rational examination. Raphael Samuel’s entertaining, and at times informative take on the history of the CPGB is over-all ‘wrong’ simply because it is a bourgeois distortion. He takes (as his ideological basis) not the Marxist-Leninism allegedly of his youth, but rather the rightwing rhetoric of Trotsky and US Cold War disinformation. Samuel possesses the ability to simultaneously sentimentalise the CPGB whilst denigrate and misrepresenting its history and political function within British society. His continuous allusions to Joseph Stalin being a dictator is never once balanced with any reference to the suffering the Soviet people suffered during the ‘Great Patriotic War’ (1941-45), or the fact that it was Joseph Stalin and his command of the Red Army that eventually destroyed Nazi Germany. Again, this ‘anti-Slavic’ undercurrent is well-hidden behind the fact that Samuel had a relative who is ‘Russian’.

What I find interesting is how Samuel, describing himself as a historian influenced by Marx, could not see in the 1980’s, the blatant misrepresentation of Soviet history and policy that is easily visible to the more perceptive of us today. Even if Raphael Samuel argued that we possess a better vantage point now – post-USSR – than he did then, I would have to counter with the work of Alexander Werth and ER Carr (both British historians), who never identified themselves as ‘Communists’, but who as ‘objective’ historians, continuously worked to expose US and British Cold War lies against the Soviet Union and the character of Joseph Stalin. Grover Furr in modern times has investigated and exposed this ‘pseudo-history’ to a much greater extent, together with such modern Russians historians as Lyudo Martens, etc. Raphael Samuel could not have been much of a ‘Marxist’ historian if he could not dialectically ‘see through’ the vagaries of Trotskyism and the deceit of US Cold War ideology, unless, of course, Samuel actually supported Trotskyism and related that support to rightwing capitalism as practised by the USA.

Dishonesty runs through this book from start to finish. The reader who feels entertained by Samuel’s descriptive antics and paradoxical turn of phrase, will continue to read regardless of the anti-Communist views being expressed. Writing in the midst of rightwing Thatcherism and the whole-sale Tory attack upon the British Welfare State, NHS, Social Housing and free education, Raphael Samuel remains oddly ‘mute’ on what is going on around him. It is as if he is busy living the bourgeois ‘good life’ in a state of splendid isolation, and divorced from reality. He is busy interpreting the CPGB through its 1920’s rules and regulations, and his brief (and immature) experience in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s. He appears completely unaware of the social and cultural devastation sweeping through the Tory Britain of the mid-1980’s, or indeed the slow disintegration that was beginning to unfold in the Soviet Union during this time. He also misses the most important of historical and political points relevant to the time within which he lived, namely that the CPGB remained the only sole and genuine representative of the working class in the UK, and never faulted in this task. This continued in 1988, when key CPGB Members – together with the Morning Star newspaper – left the by now disintegrating CPGB – forming the Communist Party of Britain (CPB). Raphael Samuel sees none of this coming. He is too busy explaining his path toward the acceptance of capitalism and the bourgeois status quo, and when he looks back at his youth, how he now remotely perceives a past image of the CPGB, mistakenly believed to be existing in the present moment, albeit modified so a to seemingly corrupt its character.

CIA Documents Suggest Hitler Survived WWII and Fled to Latin America (1954)!


Hitler allegedly imitated his suicide and disappeared under the name of Adolf Sittelmayer. Declassified US documents from the archives of the CIA indirectly confirm that the Nazi leader Adolf Hitler did not commit suicide in 1945, but fled to Latin America.



An American intelligence informant in 1955, reported that former SS Officer Philip Citroen allegedly met with Adolf Hitler after the end of the Second World War, whilst hid in Colombia under the surname ‘Sittelmayer’. The agent’s report states that Citroën contacted the Führer about once a month. This happened during business trips from Venezuela to Colombia. Attached to the report documents is a photograph of Citroen with a man like Adolf Hitler, taken in 1954 in Tunja (Colombia). After some time, according to the informant of the CIA, Hitler moved to Argentina. According to the official version, Afolph Hitler and his wife Eva Braun committed suicide on April 30, 1945 in Berlin during the storming of the German capital by Soviet troops. Their bodies were burnt in the garden of the Reich Chancellery.

Russian Language Reference:



14th Dalai Lama Re-Brand Bad for Business! (2016)


(Research and Translation by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

Translator’s Note: The Communist Party of China (CPC) pursues (in the name of the people) a clear Marxist-Leninist (Maoist) path of socio-economic development, in the ongoing development of Socialism in China. It does not endorse or pursue any religious or spiritual paths, but upholds the Constitutional Right of every individual person living in China to pursue (or not to pursue) a religious or spiritual path, purely as a private matter of personal interest. Therefore, the Tibetan ethnic community living in the Autonomous Region of Tibet (and elsewhere in China), possesses a right to pursue the teachings of historical Tibetan Buddhism (or not), and the CPC considers it its duty to ensure that the material conditions are present for this Constitutional Right to be correctly applied within Socialist society. As a private, personal pursuit, religions and spiritual groups have no need for political power, or to interfere with the processes of secular politics (as the 14th Dalai Lama and his clique continuously try to do in China). As a consequence, to protect the Tibetan and Han Chinese people from the corruption of the 14th Dalai Lama, (and other similarly corrupt individuals in the service of the US), the CPC has initiated the ‘Living Buddha’ Project, whereby each practising Buddhist of advanced age (and known disciplined existence), will be assessed and officially recognised for their life-time of peaceful devotion to a non-violent path, and loyalty to Mainland China. The CPC-recognised category of ‘Living Buddha’ does not imply any recognition of ‘mysticism’ or ‘theistic’ states, but is simply the acknowledgement that some advanced Buddhist practitioners have attained a calm and peaceful mind within a disciplined body. ACW 4.12.2017

The 14th Dalai Lama sits in the centre of a huge multi-million dollar business venture in the West (which also extends into certain parts of Asia). Although ostensibly a humble Buddhist monk who has taken vows of simplicity and poverty, the 14th Dalai Lama generates a substantial income from ‘selling’ the Buddha’s teachings (which were originally given ‘free of charge’ to humanity in ancient India), in book, CD and DVD formats, as well as through numerous ‘paid’ public performances. As with any profitable business, the 14th Dalai Lama’s public image is very important to him (and the people who surround him – i.e. his ‘business advisors’). This is because the 14th Dalai Lama and his clique manufacture a fabricated history and culture of the Tibetan region of Mainland China, and misrepresent Tibet Buddhism, all in the name of supporting US foreign policy, and generating a vast financial income. Since defecting to (capitalist) India in 1959, the 14th Dalai Lama has set about (with US assistance) to establish what must be referred to as his ‘brand’, and like any ‘brand’, the professional ‘advertising’ team that surrounds the 14th Dalai Lama is always looking at minimising any risks to his ‘sellability’ in the general market place. Part of his ‘brand’ has been the continuous (decades long) demonization of Mainland China, together with his attempts to infiltrate the Buddhist monasteries of the Tibetan region of Mainland China, and spread his distorted version of CIA-produced pseudo-Buddhism.

Although the 14th Dalai Lama is not popular in Tibet, the Government of China has always been active in building the socio-economic structure of Tibet and preserving and strengthening all aspect of Tibetan culture – including protecting genuine Buddhist lineages and practises. This policy is part of the general ‘Socialist’ reconstruction of China designed to help all people develop to their fullest potentials. In this regard, the Government of China has striven to protect the Tibetan people from the criminality of the 14th Dalai Lama and his clique of corrupt lamas. This type of Buddhism has been generated in the West and has nothing to do with indigenous Tibetan culture. This is why this corruption must not be allowed to infiltrate Tibet or any other parts of Mainland China. However, whilst working to expose the 14th Dalai Lama and his antics, the Government of China is very much supportive of legitimate Tibetan Buddhism and its preservation in the face of this external threat. This is why every lineage of Tibetan Buddhism has been carefully recorded, and its masters and key disciples ‘officially recognised. Those designated ‘Living Buddhas’ have been discretely scrutinised and their status confirmed through Government investigation. This has led to a list being published of those considered to have attained enlightenment, and consequently their status of ‘Living Buddhas’ being confirmed. The 14th Dalai Lama is not on this list because a) his corrupt and worldly behaviour that continuously ‘breaks’ his monastic vows, and b) because he does not reside in Tibet (or any other part of Mainland China). Of course, as soon as this list of ‘Living Buddhas’ was published, the 14th Dalai Lama issued a public statement condemning the announcement, and (without any sense of irony or humility) lamenting the fact that he was not included on this list.

Word from the West suggests that after this announcement the 14th Dalai Lama’s income took a dramatic dive, and he was forced by his share-holders to issue a statement in an attempt to repair the damage to the commercial value of his image. The Government of China has taken this action to eradicate any vestige of ‘false’ Tibetan Buddhism that has infiltrated central and eastern areas of Tibet. Zhu Weiqun (朱维群) – the Director of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference – has stated that part of the money earned by the 14th Dalai Lama is illegally siphoned from his Western banks accounts into Mainland China, and used to perpetuate false teachings, anti-Government propaganda, together with the brain-washing of young (and other vulnerable) people – with some ‘forced’ to set fire to themselves whilst being filmed. Many Westerners also make massive profits from the 14th Dalai Lama’s illicit activities and his Office comes under intense pressure every time his brand suffers a down-turn on the international market. Whilst lying about ‘Human Rights’ in China, the 14th Dalai Lama is personally ordering young people to ‘self-immolate’ in his name, but the problem he has had in recent years is from those who have survived (and been cared for by the Chinese State) – including a number of misguided Westerners – who have admitted they were brain-washed and forced into setting themselves on fire following direct orders from the 14th Dalai Lama. Mainland China is a modern, Socialist State that rejects all forms of separatism, racism and terrorism. Tibet is now a vibrant part of Mainland China, with its people experiencing greatly improved standards of living, literacy and life-expectancy. In short, Socialist Tibet has eradicated the backward and unjust feudal system within which the 14th Dalai Lama was born, and the Tibetan people suffered without end.

Whilst living a life of dishonesty and decadence in the West, the 14th Dalai Lama has acted like a monarch without a throne, using his ‘imagined’ psychic abilities to (falsely) choose ‘reincarnations’ of previously great lamas – even within Western bodies with no cultural connection to Tibet, or Tibetan Buddhism. This has led to allegations of ‘child abuse’ committed by the 14th Dalai Lama and his clique – one example of which involved kidnapping and brain-washing of one Osel Hita Torres who was abducted at just 14 months old when his parents visited India. He is now studying film in Madrid and has denounced the Buddhist order that elevated him to guru status. ‘They took me away from my family and stuck me in a medieval situation in which I suffered a great deal,’ said Torres, 24, describing how he was whisked from obscurity in Granada to a monastery in southern India. ‘It was like living a lie’, he told the Spanish newspaper El Mundo. Records state that between 1980 and 1994, the 14th Dalai Lama personally confirmed ‘214’ Living Buddhas in monasteries and temples across China – with no authority from the Government of China. Many of these declarations have proven ‘false’ and issued as a means to undermine the Government of China. Today, the 14th Dalai Lama is no longer able to act this way in Mainland China – with the Government of China refusing to acknowledge his very worldly mind-set as being ‘enlightened’.

The Communist Party of China (CPC) has taken decisive steps to remedy this bourgeois pollution in our country, and will not tolerate these attempts at infiltrating our Socialist System. People in China are better-off than at any time in history, and are fully supportive of the CPC and stand in opposition to the 14th Dalai Lama and his clique. Chinese Buddhists are reminded that the Constitution of the China Buddhist Association specifically states that Buddhism exists to support the building of Socialism in China, and is an ally in this task. As a consequence of this, people such as ‘Wang Fei’ (王菲 – aka ‘Faye Wang’), Zhao Wei (赵薇), Li Lianjie (李连杰 – aka ‘Jet Li’), and Liang Chaowei (梁朝伟 – aka ‘Tony Leung’) who have donated money and mistakenly associated themselves with various (and potential ‘Living Buddhas’) in an ‘egotistical’ manner, are making an error of interpretation, and confusing the 14th Dalai Lama’s continuous search for profit,  with the peaceful and non-worldly existences of truly spiritual men and women in China, who live with no concern for money or interest in the shallowness of those who possess celebrity status. (In this regard, even members of the dangerous Falun Gong Cult have tried to associate themselves with the Pro-Tibetan Movement). In the meantime, the Government of China is striving to constantly update the official list of Living Buddhas – with 870 being in recognised in the first batch. As reliable information becomes available, more names will be verified and added. As Buddhists are generally patient and humble – this process is not a problem. It is ony in the minds of those infected with angst that this process is viewed as deficient. The point is that the time of the 14th Dalai Lama doing what he wants in mainland China is well and truly over.

Chinese Language Reference:


How the Soviets Developed Supersonic Passenger Flight (Ту-144)


Soviet Ty-144 

I (and my family) recently visited the permanent Brooklands Concorde Exhibition (in Surrey), and was enthused with the ‘futuristic’ design and technology that we saw close-up, and the simulated Concorde flight that we took. Although now decommissioned and very much a museum piece (despite that fact that there is nothing in the world of commercial aeroplanes that comes close to a functioning Concorde today), I was surprised to learn that the British and French governments ‘co-operated’ to build a supersonic aircraft that cost far too much to design, build and fly, and which no commercial airline in the world would buy. Why would two former imperialist powers emerging out of the destruction and bankruptcy of WWII, waste valuable financial and material resources upon a project that due to its lack of commercial viability, was guaranteed to be an economic failure?


Brooklands British Concorde (GBBDG) Prototype

As matters transpired, we were told that the British manufacturers of Concorde could not ‘sell’ their completed prototypes, and so had to ‘give’ British Airways a number of these supersonic aircraft for ‘free’. Even so, the tickets to fly from London to New York in just 3 hours (at Mach 2.04 – or 1,354 mph – 2,180 km/h at cruise altitude), were so expensive that only the very rich could afford to travel. This proved to be a business failure, as Concorde to never attract the general public, and become a popular mode of mass transportation. As a consequence, the Western Concorde worked the skies from around 1969 to their eventual grounded in 2003, operating at huge loses. Despite its progressive design and extraordinary technology, capitalist economic forces brought the life of Concorde to an end. We are now faced with the absurdity of a futuristic piece of technology literally ‘rotting’ in a museum!


Soviet Ty-144 in Flight

When I checked historical sources, I saw that the government of the United States was behind the initial financing of the Anglo-Fremch project to build a ‘faster tha sound’ passenger carrying aeroplane – as a means to equal the Soviet Ty-144 supersonic jet. Although the Soviet Union had suffered between 27 – 40 million dead and wounded during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), Joseph Stalin led the Socialist State in its recovery and development of nuclear power and space technology. Out of this monumental collective effort, the Soviet scientists and engineers eventually developed the ‘Ty-144’ passenger carrying, supersonic aeroplane. This aircraft was designed and built by the Tupolev Design Bureau throughout the 1960’s, was designed to demonstrate the superiority of the Soviet Socialist organisation of society. This project (like every Soviet innovation) was not designed to produce monetary profit, but rather to progress the social evolution of humanity. Whereas a single ticket to fly on the Western Concorde cost thousands of pounds, in the USSR, a traveller could fly from one side of the country to the other on the Ty-144, for the equivalent of just five British pounds. Although a piece of Socialist technology designed to carry unarmed civilians, nevertheless, declassified NATO Records state that the Ty-144 was considered a ‘military threat’ to Western capitalism, and was designated by the NATO code-word ‘Charger’. This code-word was to be used as and when the leaders of the Western (liberal) democratic countries decided it was time for NATO to ‘shoot’ the Ty-144 out of the sky.


Soviet Ty-144 Replete with ‘CCCP’ and ‘Red Flag’ Markings

The Ty-144 did not have such elements of the wing design as flaps and slats. Decrease in landing speed to acceptable values (​​of 350-400 kph) was carried out by a unique method for civilian aircraft, using the deflected toe on the fuselage and the unique front wing design. During the transition to supersonic mode, a complicated procedure was performed for transferring fuel to the centring tank in the cargo compartment, which compensated for the displacement of air pressure at the centre. Whilst flying at supersonic speed, it was recommended not to use the elevons – the control was carried out by changing the thrust of the engines. The aircraft did not have the thrust reversal of the engines, but it had powerful brake fans in the chassis, the initial speeding-off at landing, at the commander’s discretion, was effected by the release of a braking parachute. The Flight Manual forbade flights at night, although all the equipment needed for this was available. The aircraft used the most advanced scientific and technical solutions. At the disposal of the pilots was even an analog GPS-navigator – PIN (Projection Indicator Navigation Conditions). On a small screen, a map of the airfield was generated from a video tape, which superimposed the position mark of the aircraft; the geographic coordinates of the mark were calculated by an automated process, which processed data from the radio-navigation systems. Unlike the Western Concorde, the Ty-144 had an auxiliary power unit with the ability to start engines in mid-air, as well as the ability to power the aircraft and air conditioning whilst on the ground.

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Already in 1947, the American prototype Bell X-1 – for the first time in world history – overcame the sound barrier. Since 1954, there was the production of supersonic fighters such as the American F-100 and the Soviet MiG-19. The USSR was already developing plans for a supersonic passenger aeroplane when the British and French started showing their designs at airshows around the world. The Soviet motivation was to make fast plane that could traverse vast distances very quickly and efficiently, and which did not have to continuously land for refuelling. Work on creating a supersonic passenger airliner in the USSR began in the Tupolev Design Bureau in the early 60’s. The Tupolev Design Bureau was chosen as one of the most experienced in the field of passenger aircraft, especially jet aircraft. On July 16th, 1963, the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR No. 798-271 was issued. The Soviet State envisaged the creation of a supersonic liner with a cruising speed of 2300-2700 kph, with a practical range of 4000-4500 kilometres, which could carry around 80-100 passengers on board, or travel 6000-6500 kilometres with additional fuel tanks and just 50 passengers on board. The construction of the first prototype began in 1965, and a second copy for static testing was also built with it. The first flight of the Ty-144 took place on December 31, 1968 (it was carried out by the Tupolev EDO testor Eduard Yelyan), that is, two months earlier than the Western Concorde. The Ty-144 was the first passenger airliner in history to overcome the sound barrier, it happened (June 5th, 1969) at an altitude of 11,000 meters. The next symbolic milestone was breaking the 2 Mach sound barrier, which was achieved by the Ty-144 on May 25th, 1970, flying at an altitude of 16,300 m at a speed of 2,150 kph. The aircraft combined a huge number of advanced development and design solutions. For example, the retractable whilst in flight were the front horizontal plumage (PGO), which significantly increased manoeuvrability in the air whilst reducing the speed at landing. The Ty-144 could land and take off in 18 airports of the USSR, whilst the Western Concorde, whose take-off and landing speed was 15% higher, required a separate landing certificate for each airport. During the design period, tremendous work was carried out. Inparticular, the modelling of the wing was carried out in full-scale tests on a specially prepared MiG-21I fighter (a special flying laboratory designed for studying the wing of the Ty-144 aircraft). Mass production of the aircraft was carried-out at the Voronezh plant number 64. By the abandonment of operation, 16 Ty-144 aircraft were built (four more planes were still being built), which made a total of 2556 sorties and flew 4110 hours. However, despite this Soviet success, the Ty-144 never saw commerical deployment due to a number of tecnical issues that were difficult to over-come. After a near tragedy during a test flight in 1981, the Ty-144 project was finally cancelled in 1983. It is believed that the Western Concorde was premised upon Soviet designs, but that the Western engineers were able to iron-out (or completely alter) a number of design issues. After Brezhnev’s death, the attitude of the new leadership of the country to the plane changed. Preference was given instead to the simpler and more reliable subsonic IL-86 airbuses.

Russian Language Source:


The Chinese Anti-Falun Gong Cult World Alliance Welcomes Westerners


The Falun Gong cult does not represent China’s modern or traditional culture. People of Chinese ethnicity around the world understand this fact, but many in the West are ignorant to this fact. This should not be surprising, as the Falun Gong cult is a ‘racist’ anti-China construct, developed in the West as part of the US Cold War policy to bring-down the Communist government of China. What is interesting is that despite a steady stream of ‘fake news’ and ‘disinformation’ published through the CIA-financed Minghui Network (which includes the Epoch Times and NTDTV, etc), this policy will not be successful due to a world-wide Chinese solidarity and resistance. The Falun Gong cult will not prevail because the Chinese people world-wide will not allow it to prevail. In the meantime, the Falun Gong cult news outlets continue to function like any news network, broadcasting weather reports, banal cooking programmes and mindless reality TV shows. In between these programmes is issued a bizarre anti-China rhetoric of ever disparate false news stories and allegations of human rights abuses – this continues as Li Hongzhi orders one vulnerable teenager after another to self-immolate.

Laughably, the Falun Gong cult, as a means to justify its criminal behaviour, states that Li Hongzhi (its founder who has developed extensive health problems whilst living a life of luxury in the US), is the ‘omnipotent cosmic master Buddha’! If those who fall under his brain-washing spell give him enough money, and sign over their property to him, they too can achieve this wondrous state by ‘breathing deeply’! The reality of Falun Gong cult practice suggests quite another outcome. Falun Gong cult members are regularly deprived of food and water, tied-up, psychologically and physically tortured, and in the case of the very young – sexually abused. When individuals have managed to escape this dangerous cult, they have had to spend time in hospital as a means to try and regain their health, For many, however, the years of systematic abuse and suffering means that despite extensive and compassionate care, they can never regain their health. Even when qualified Daoist masters have assessed the Falun Gong cult technique – they have revealed at least 28 life-threatening errors and bad medical practices. Indeed, during March, 2006, Li Guodong (李国栋) – the head of NTDTV anti-China propaganda – suddenly dropped dead from liver cancer. Li Guodong had been declared an ‘Immortal Buddha’ by Falun Gong cult founder Li Hongzhi shortly before his death. During June, 2006, the chief scientist and medical doctor of the Falun Gong cult – Feng Lili (封莉莉) suddenly dropped dead of pancreatic cancer. Again, Li Hongzhi had previously declared Feng Lili an ‘Immortal Buddha’. In July, 2009, the chief editor of the Epoch Times in Japan – Zuo Tenggong (佐藤贡) – suddenly dropped dead… These deaths are not isolated incidences, but are part of the broader phenomenon of Falun Gong cult poor health and sudden death. It is rumoured that Li Hongzhi is in and out of hospital in the US due to poor health caused by his cultish practice, being kept alive by his US spy-masters at any cost. In fact, Li Hongzhi may have died sometime ago…

The Falun Gong cult is NOT an indigenous Chinese cultural or spiritual movement. Its methods are premised upon a ‘racist’ disregard for Chinese history, culture and political self-determination. The Falun Gong cult was not developed in China – but in a smoke-filled room of ‘White men’ in the CIA Offices situated in Washington DC. The Falun Gong cult is medically dangerous, and is anti-China and anti-Communist in both design and function. All ethnic Chinese people around the world understand these facts and are striving to work together to protect the Chinese Motherland from this external threat to its stability and prosperity. An interesting development is that there is now a growing network of consciously ‘aware’ Westerners’ (and other ‘non-Chinese’) who now understand the corruption that underlies the operations of the Falun Gong cult, and who help to expose and check its influence. This world-wide defence of China is required to prevent national governments (such as Australia in 2009), making fools of themselves and siding with the Falun Gong cult. The Falun Gong cult is ran from the US and is racist in nature. All right-minded Westerners must help the Chinese world community to prevent the spread of this dangerous and threatening teaching. This action will save numerous lives and make the world a better place to live in peace and harmony.

When Falun Gong cult members ‘escape’ the clutches of Li Hongzhi, the Communist Party of China (CPC) guarantees their rights and will make every effort to provide medical care and psychological healing. This has always been the case. However, as hundreds of former Falun Gong cult members have been rehabilitated, the Falun Gong operating out of the US falsely claims that these individuals have been ‘tortured’, ‘imprisoned’ and even ‘killed’. The further lie is that organs are stolen from dead bodies. Even a slight understanding of medical knowledge states that organs taken from dead bodies are no good for transplant, and are medically worthless. Communist China encourages Chinese citizens to ‘donate’ their organs when ‘near’ death to save the lives of other people who need transplants, if they should choose to do so. So many citizens do this as a matter of course, that Communist China has no need to ‘harvest’ organs from the bodies of executed criminals. One person who the Falun Gong cult claimed to have been killed (and their organs harvested), is ‘Yang Jun’ (杨俊) from Chongqing, who was supposedly beaten to death at just 18 years old. In fact, Yang Jun escape from the Falun Gong cult (like hundreds of others), and now lives a happy and normal life in China. Yang Jun’s mother has gone on record stating that her son is very happy and glad to be ‘free’ of the terrible Falun Gong cult. Together, the world community can wipe-out the Falun Gong cult, so that its victims can be saved, and its leaders tried for Crimes Against Humanity and imprisoned.

Original Chinese Language Article:




Salute to the Soviet Red Army in Afghanistan (1979-1989)


Artwork from the Soviet incursion (and attempted) Liberation of Afghanistan (1979-1989). Soviet Red Army troops hold a high-point from the Western-backed Mujhahideen – the fore-runner of Al Qaeda and the Taliban (co-ordinated by CIA Operative Osama Bin Laden) and laughingly eulogised in the Hollywood movie ‘Rambo III’. When Soviet Forces left Afghanistan due to Western pressure in 1989 – Osama Bin Laden declared war on the USA and its presence in the Middle East. What complex webs we weave! Prior to this, Soviet (i.e. Russian) accounts of this War of Liberation describe how captured Red Army soldiers were routinely ‘brutalised’ by the Mujhahideen before being viciously ‘behead’ – usually through the use of a rusty knife cutting slowly through the throat toward the spine – an act designed to pro-long the dying experience, and create as much pain as possible. Captured Mujhahideen stated that ‘American’ Advisers had taught them this method – (falsely) stating that it was inaccordance with the Holy Qur’an. Mujhahideen who refused to use this method were often shot-dead in public by these Americans as a punishment for disobeying the will of the US. On occasion, the CIA demanded that small groups of Red Army prisoners be ‘shot’ in the back of the head by their Mujhahideen captors in public – with these murders being ‘filmed’ to be shown in the US – these films still exist showing young Soviet men literally begging and crying for their lives before being killed (usually by the ‘elder’ and more ‘senior’ Mujhahideen Officers). The Soviet Red Army had entered Afghanistan at the behest of a fledgling Socialist government that had – through popular support – thrown off feudalistic tribalism and had started to try and build a ‘new’ society in the area. Do not forget the Soviet Red Army sacrifice in Afghanistan – or the brave ‘Socialist’ Afghanis that were systematically ‘murdered’ by the CIA.

How the US Created Islamo-Fascist Terrorism!


Tony Blair – and his New Labour government – took the UK into two of its most disastrous (and illegal) wars the country has ever known. Destroying the sovereign governments of Afghanistan and Iraq has had terrible consequences not only for the people of those devastated countries, but for the global community. By removing governments that pursued ‘secularism’ over ‘religionism’ has opened the door for US-backed, trained and financed terror groups to fill the vacuum, and turn their weaponry upon the West (which is perceived as being collectively a natural ally of the US). How did this situation arise? The Criminal Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the US was tasked with devising any means – legal, illegal or whatever – to bring down the USSR particularly (and the Communist Bloc countries in general). Following the Soviet Red Army entering Afghanistan (in support of a beleaguered Socialist government), the CIA stepped-up its latest project of training and arming young Muslim men, who formed a ‘new’ type of army to combat any and all Communist movements in the region. This idea started innocuously enough – with American operatives simply ‘bribing’ local tribal leaders to mobilise their men against the Socialist government of Afghanistan. When the Red Army interceded in the region, the CIA switched the emphasis of their campaign, and began to directly recruit young men into entirely American-run and administered training camps. In these camps, these young men, many of whom were illiterate and had never left their villages before, were taught to ‘think’ in a manner entirely alien to conventional Islam, and combine Western notions of racism, nationalism, and anti-Communism, with that of select (and misinterpreted) extracts from the Qur’an dealing with the Islamic concept of ‘jihad’, or ‘righteous war’. Whereas a jihad is a war of self-defence (with regard to non-political community security), the CIA intelligence officers changed its onus into one of a non-community based ‘self-offence’, involving the projection of a highly vicious and violent policy of ideologically driven attacks on all other communities. The enemies of this ‘new’ group were any conventional or traditional communities or associations that did not agree with, or adhere to the this ‘Islamo-fascist’ ideology. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, this Islamo-fascist movement did not quietly dismantle itself and go away, but rather became an independent regional network of terrorist cells, that turned its attention toward the modern ‘capitalist’ West (and its presence in the Middle East), defining its previous employers – the USA – as public enemy number one. The terrorism employed against Westerners (and others) today throughout the Middle East (and elsewhere), was previously perfected against the soldiers of the Red Army. The ‘Mujahideen’ (as this group was called in Afghanistan), was eulogised through US anti-Communist propaganda during the 1980’s, with its head-chopping, disembowelling, torturing, and general acts of terrorism perpetuated upon Soviet troops (and any and all civilian supporters of the USSR), being defined by the CIA as ‘sublime’ acts of religiously inspired fervour and spiritual devotion. A poignant (and now ’embarrassing’) reminder of this US attitude of support toward Islamo-fascist terrorism can be seen in the hideous Hollywood film entitled ‘Rambo III- which sees Sylvester Stallone mysteriously state that before these men carry-out their acts of terror, they consider themselves ‘already dead’ (hence the wearing of ‘white’ clothing before an operation, with the colour ‘white’ symbolising ‘death’ and the ‘burial shroud’).

Today, what was once a very well armed and trained US-backed Islamo-fascist terrorist group, now extends its influence directly into the Western world – where it continues to murder hundreds and thousands of people (as is the case in Africa and elsewhere). Regardless of what name the CIA is currently giving this movement, the fact remains that it did not arise out of any indigenous Islamic movement or community, and has no legitimate ties with conventional Islam – it was, and remains entirely a US invention from start to finish – one that has now gotten out of the control of its creators. However, rumour abounds on the internet, that certain aspects of this Islamo-fascist movement is still being used by the US in places such as Syria, Libya and the Yemen, as a means to attack regimes that do not adhere to the strictures of US imperialism, and which often oppose Zionist Israel’s oppression of the Palestinians. In the above video clip, Hilary Clinton confirms how and why the US created Al Qaeda.

Pol Pot (in Chinese Sources): How It All Went Wrong


Pol Pot (1925-1998)

It is a simple and obvious fact that the greed for profit (i.e. predatory capitalism), kills people every single day, and in many different ways. Its victims are uncountable, and the manner of their deaths varies greatly from starvation, thirst, war, disease, injury, sexual exploitation, child abuse, homelessness, violence, poor education, misogyny, racism, homophobia, ageism, psychological programming (and brain-washing), physical exploitation and general medical neglect, to mention just some methods that the division of labour generates. However, as the capitalists benefit from this method of economic organisation, these deaths are portrayed as being the result of the individual (or group) concerned, and not the fault of the capitalist system. Those that die from the deliberate excesses of the capitalist system are deemed to have done something wrong, or otherwise be ‘deficient’ in some fundamental manner. It is this mythical ‘deviation’ from the expected norms of capitalism that is blamed for the deaths, and never capitalism itself. As a result, those that control the capitalist system sleep soundly in their beds at night, and keep a ruthless control of the very system that oppresses the majority entirely for the material benefit of the few. Although the ongoing death-toll is probably in the hundreds of millions, capitalists never acknowledge the true extent of their crimes. What capitalists do, however. is continuously attack any attempt at evolving the capitalist system into a Socialist or Communist system. It does this by ‘projecting’ the hideous nature of its own crimes upon any attempt to reform society and curb the excesses perpetuated by capitalism. In other words, this inverted mind-set (as Marx called it), is projected outward and used to demonise any attempt at building Socialism and Communism. Indeed, this rhetorical approach has been the basis for the entire US-led Cold War era since 1945, with the Soviet Union being equated with the Nazi German enemy it confronted and destroyed (at a terrible cost), and Communist China viewed as being ‘racially’ inferior and its Socialist system the product of a devious Asian mind. As a consequence, as basic academic research confirms, the Cold War lies told by the West amount to nothing more than the capitalist system protecting itself from its own demise via an evolutionary phase of Socialistic development. The price for this accomplished state of capitalist arrested development, is that of historical truth. Although this can be remedied over-time, it is a fact that requires acknowledgement as a crucial first stage to dialectical recuperation.

Working from Russian and Chinese language sources, I have discovered over and over again how the US lied continuously about the USSR and Communist China, accusing each expression of Socialism as being murderous, unnatural and against the apparent ‘natural’ human compulsion for greedy accumulation. As a matter of dialectical consistency, I have pondered the enigma of ‘Pol Pot’ (波尔布特 – Bo Er Bu Te), for sometime. My initial thoughts were that his Khmer Rouge (i.e. Communist Party of Cambodia) was somehow caught-up in this Western misrepresentation of all Socialistic Revolutions, happenings and events. My general rule of thumb is not to trust mainstream English language sources, as these are the very conveyors of the dialectical ‘non-truth’ that I am attempting to deconstruct. As Pol Pot was an ally of Communist China, I decided to focus my efforts upon Mainland Chinese academic sources, and to avoid the US-friendly Taiwanese equivalents. (For my article on Pol Pot derived from from Russian sources, please see: Pol Pot (in Russian sources) An Assessment of Conditioned Events). Much to my initial surprise, I discovered that ‘official’ and ‘unofficial’ Mainland Chinese language sources all conveyed the general history of the political development of the individual known as ‘Pol Pot’ (formerly known as ‘Saloth Sar), all agreeing that despite his genuine motivation for Revolution, and close association with Communist China (including Mao Zedong), he committed immense crimes against the Cambodian people in a very short space of time (coming to power in 1975 and being ousted in 1979). The irony is that Pol Pot was born into an affluent peasant family (in 1925) in Cambodia, and as he grew-up, he was known to be a very quiet, kind and courteous person. The exact date of his birth is unknown, but of all his brothers, he is known to have been the smallest. He had two wives, with the first being a well-known intellectual in Cambodia, with his second wife giving birth to his two daughters. One of his brothers once stated that as a child, Pol Pot disagreed with hurting animals, and would hide when it was time to kill chickens for food. In accordance with the Cambodian tradition of all male children serving in a Buddhist temple in their youth, Pol Pot became a ‘temple servant’ at the age of 6 years old, where he was taught to read and write the Cambodian language at the Lotus Temple (莲花寺 – Lian Hua Si) situated in Phnom Penh. He continued his education after returning to lay-life at the age of 12 years, and finally graduated in 1949 from the only technical college in Cambodia. As he was a gifted scholar, he earned a scholarship to study in Paris, France – the Western imperialist power that controlled Cambodia in those days.

It was in Paris that he first encountered the ideology of Marxist-Leninism, and became interested in Revolutionary activities. Pol Pot and other Cambodian students in Paris, actively joined the Communist Party of France, and founded the ‘Cambodian Marxist Study Group’. Not long after this, Pol Pot visited Yugoslavia, and this was the first time he saw a Socialist country in operation. In 1952, Pol Pot returned to Cambodia with many other Cambodian students determined to free their country from colonial French rule. The first problem was that the only Revolutionary organisation was Vietnamese in origin, even thought it was known as the ‘Khmer Liberation Movement’. Pol Pot joined this organisation in 1953 as a short-term solution – stating that the Vietnamese were in many ways just as despotic as the French. However, following the French withdrawal from the area in 1954, the Geneva Peace Agreement ensured that the Vietnamese also withdrew from Cambodia – handing-over control of the ‘Khmer Liberation Movement’ to the Cambodian people. Throughout the remainder of the 1950’s, Pol Pot (and others) gradually worked toward the founding of their own Communist Party. This was achieved during March, 1960, when in a deserted railway carriage, the ‘Khmer Workers Party’ was formally initiated, and its first congress held. In 1962, following the death of the then General Secretary, Pol Pot was elected into that post, and under his leadership, the ‘Khmer Workers Party’ changed its name in 1966 to that of the ‘Communist Party of Cambodia’.  Although Pol Pot had worked as a teacher in the city, following Sihanouk declaring the Khmer Rouge an illegal organization in 1963, Pol Pot (and others) had relocated into the jungle areas to carry-out their further training, and illicit Revolutionary activities. After 1965, Pol Pot collaborated with the Vietnamese anti-US war, with Cambodia and Laos unofficially allowing personnel, supplies and weapons to travel through their respective territories. As a consequence, Pol Pot at the time, became a very popular Revolutionary in China, Vietnam, Laos, and his native Cambodia. When visiting China and Vietnam, Pol Pot was treated with great respect. This popularity explains why he remained the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Cambodia from 1963 to 1979.

As his dialectical understanding developed and matured, Pol Pot began to change his view regarding local ethnic tensions, and adopted a much more ‘internationalist’ position with regard to China and Vietnam, and even played a part in US negotiations in China (during 1970), when America was searching for a way-out of the Vietnam War. In 1967, initiated by a ruthless rice tax upon the poor peasants of Cambodia, the Communist Party of Cambodia led an uprising (with Pol Pot leading much of the fighting), that secured a partial success, but stopped short of winning complete political power in the country.  In March, 1970, all this changed when Prince Sihanouk visited the USSR, and during his absence, a coup occurred involving a US-backed rightwing military group which took power, immediately establishing the ‘Republic of Cambodia’ and announcing an instant co-operation with any and all US military action (including the bombing of Eastern Cambodia section of the ‘Ho Chi Minh’ trail by B-52’s). This destructive action coincided with US Advisers building a ‘new’ rightwing military in the country, which was used to attack and kill ordinary Cambodian people that had any leftwing affiliations. This bombing campaign lasted until 1973, when the US Congress called a halt to the destruction on the grounds that it was ‘illegal’. In the meantime, Prince Sihanouk joined forces with Pol Pot, combining royalist and communist forces in a common effort against US imperialism in Cambodia. This time saw numerous Khmer Rouge bases being developed all over Cambodia, with various Khmer Rouge military units seeing action in South Vietnam (fighting for Ho Chi Minh against the Americans). As time progressed, the popular Khmer Rouge were able to join-up their bases, and expand political power throughout Cambodia. These events demonstrate the ‘popular’ nature of the Khmer Rouge movement and how it was generally supported throughout Cambodia, leading up to its seizure of power in the country (contrary to Eurocentric accounts that suggest the opposite). In fact, the Khmer Rouge could not have come to power without a wide-spread popular base amongst the ordinary people. The Khmer Rouge swept to power in 1975, with the collapse of US influence in the region (following the US military defeat in South Vietnam).

With the Khmer Rouge victory, Pol Pot sought to create a classless society with no distinction between the urban and the rural. This meant the abolition of all bourgeois cultural influences, as well as the eradication of money. Pol Pot stated that as Cambodia was backward and feudalistic, its population had to undergo a radical (and sudden) ‘re-education’ process. This involved the emptying of all cities and towns, and the people driven into the countryside to form collective communities dependent upon agriculture. This put an end to what Pol Pot stated were ‘leisure meals’ eaten in the cities, where the rich lived on an ample food supply they purchased, but did not themselves, cultivate or harvest. These communes became single sex barracks – where married couples could meet once a week – providing they had attained prior permission. Around 80% of the population was driven into the countryside (with all schools and temples closed), where Pol Pot started the process separating the trusted from the collaborators. After this, Pol Pot began a campaign of execution where Chinese sources speak of around one-third of the Cambodian population being killed (a number believed to be over two million men, women and children). It is generally stated that Pol Pot decided that any and all bourgeois ideas could not be ‘re-educated’ out of the individual, and that it was more efficient to simply ‘kill the body’ to end a certain type of thought. Whether this is true or not is open to debate, as this fascist policy does not exist in any form within Scientific Socialism, and was either an aberrant creation by Pol Pot himself, or a Eurocentric fabrication (in fact, some sources suggest that a great many deaths under Pol Pot were the result of famine and a failed agricultural policy). However, the narrative that Pol Pot committed mass murder states that he ordered the deaths of all dissidents, monks, ethnic minorities and class enemies, and had their bodies dumped in large open fields for all to see. As Pol Pot seems to have reverted to his old ethnic prejudices against the Vietnamese – he particularly targeted this group of people. In 1978, this led to the Vietnamese ‘Communist’ Army invading Cambodia and destroying the Khmer Rouge regime – forcing Pol Pot and his supporters to flee into the jungle – where he lived in virtual internal exile until his death in 1998. The People’s Republic of China, from at least 1981 onwards (with the establishment of the People’s Republic of Kampuchea by the occupying Vietnamese forces), re-considered its position on Pol Pot, and worked with the ‘new’ Cambodian government (which was essentially Khmer Rouge dissidents that had fallen out of favour with Pol Pot), in an attempt to pacify the remaining Khmer Rouge, and persuade Pol Pot to agree to voluntary house arrest. Although the Vietnamese destroyed Pol Pot’s original regime in 1978, the reality is that factions of the Khmer Rouge continued to run Cambodia until the restoration of the monarchy in 1993.

Chinese Language References:




1962: Cuban Missile Crisis – Myth & Reality


‘I believe that we created, built and manufactured the Castro movement out of whole cloth and without realising it.’

President John F Kennedy to Jean Daniels (October, 1963)

The Myth

North American television, film and media depict the so-called ‘Cuban Missile Crisis’ as a trial of strength between the noble (capitalist) United States (which stood for freedom and democracy), and the evil (Communist) country of the Soviet Union (which stood for despotism, tyranny, and slavery). The general mythic narrative still found in text-books and popular entertainment is that US Intelligence discovered that the USSR intended to ship nuclear missiles to the island nation of Cuba (situated just off the coast of North America), together with thousands of expert Soviet military and civilian personnel, to install, service and if need be, ‘fire’ these missiles at the US on behalf of the Soviet Union. President Kennedy instantly ordered a naval blockade of Cuba, awaiting the Soviet fleet. As the Soviet fleet approached (carrying the missiles and personnel) the war of words intensified between the USA and the USSR, with each threatening the other. As the Soviet fleet approached the US naval blockade, General Secretary Khrushchev ordered the fleet to stop, turn-around and return the missiles to the USSR. The capitalist world rejoiced at this victory of US sabre rattling and brinkmanship. The problem with this narrative is that none of it is true.

The Reality

The Cuban Missile Crisis is a historical 13 day event that occurred between October 16th – October 28th, 1962. It is important to remember that Soviet nuclear missiles were already present on Cuba prior to this ‘crisis’ breaking-out, and that the US version of events is purely fictional. When Fidel Castro led the Cuban people to a successful Socialist Revolution in 1959 (ousting the US-backed dictator Batista),  he was undecided on which form of Socialism he followed, or if Cuba would align itself with either China or the USSR. Nikita Khrushchev was a reformists, revisionist Trotskyite, who had demonised Joseph Stalin in 1956, and steered Soviet Russia away from the direct Revolutionary path. China rejected the criticism of Joseph Stalin, and the subsequent Soviet policy of ‘peaceful coexistence’ between capitalism and Communism, because it meant that the oppressed masses of the world had no ‘right’ or ‘ability’ to rise-up and over-throw their oppressors. Indeed, whilst Castro led his band of Cuban volunteers in Cuba, it was China that openly backed his Revolution, with the USSR staying very much on the sidelines. This initial difference can be seen as Fidel Castro had leading members of the Cuban Socialist Party exiled to Czechoslovakia for daring to create a direct link with Moscow that by-passed his governmental authority. As the Soviet Union was concerned about losing influence in the world to Communist China, it started making a more concerted effort in the region to court Fidel Castro and influence the direction of the Cuban Revolution.

Between April 17th –19th, 1961, President Kennedy was persuaded by the CIA to launch the disastrous ‘Bay of Pigs Invasion’ of Cuba, which saw the US Airforce, and US Navy support a CIA-trained Brigade of essentially Cuban exiles in an attempted counter-revolution. This force was decisively defeated, and eventually surrendered to Cuban Revolutionary forces. This led to an intensification of Cuban-USSR diplomatic activity behind the scenes which led to the Soviet Union placing SA-2 missile sites across Western Cuba. The SA-2 was a highly effective Soviet surface to air missile self-defence system, that granted the Cuban military the ability to shoot-down US military aircraft with ease. President Kennedy was made aware of the presence of these missiles in August, 1962, following a CIA intelligence report gathered from U-2 spy-plane fly-overs of Cuban territory. John McCone, the head of the CIA, was agitating for a show of strength against the Communist Bloc, and President Kennedy responded by putting thousands of military reservists on alert, coupled with a media offensive demonising Cuba and its under-hand Soviet allies (but at the same time, President Kennedy ordered the halt of all further U-2 flights over Cuba). What had irritated John McCone was the fact that the Soviets were able to operate with impunity on the high seas – transporting whatever they wanted to Cuba. McCone briefed Kennedy that the next logical step for the Soviets was to place nuclear weapons on Cuba. In September, 1962, Khrushchev authorised the first shipment of Soviet R-12 medium-range nuclear missiles to Cuba, aboard the merchant vessel Indigirka – these missiles arrived in Cuba on October 4th, 1962. US spies operating in Cuba, began reporting a substantial build-up of Soviet military and civilian personnel on Western Cuba, stating that it involved the importation and installation of missiles. Following yet another CIA briefing informing President Kennedy of developments, he authorised the re-instatement of U-2 flights over Cuba in October, and it was during these fly-overs that the presence of Soviet nuclear weapons was detected. In the meantime, the Soviets continued to send nuclear weapons and associated technology to Cuba, prompting President Kennedy to initiate a naval blockade of the island. The problem with this was that US naval ships were told not to engage the Soviet ships, and this led to Soviet ships simply steaming through the blockade, rendering it ineffective. The image presented to the US populace, however, was that the ‘evil’ Soviets were being kept at bay by the blockade. In reality, President Kennedy could do nothing tangible to stop the Soviets. The false propaganda offensive in his own country was nothing but a face-saving device, designed to make him look re-electable to the general public. On the surface, President Kennedy had to appear to be standing-up to the ‘nasty’ Soviets, when behind the scenes there was considerable panic. This issue was not decided by Soviet ships turning-back (away from US power), but rather in secret, behind closed doors. In clandestine diplomatic communications, President Kennedy buckled to Soviet demands for US nuclear missiles to be removed from Turkey and Italy, although in public only the deal about Turkey was announced at the time. For this US back-down, Khrushchev ordered the removal of Soviet nuclear missiles from Cuba – a move that frustrated Fidel Castro at the time, who interpreted it as a betrayal of Cuba.

Book Reference:

Reid-Henry, Simon, Fidel and Che – A Revolutionary Friendship,Walker * Company, (2009) Pages 251-271.

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