The True History of the Hong Kong ‘Independence’ Movement

HKI-01

Original Chinese Language Article: 起底“港獨”組織

(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

Translator’s Note: My colleagues in the Communist Party of China (CPC) are of the opinion that ‘education’ is the key to clearly explain the recent (and historical) protests in Hong Kong as being a vestige of the British imperialist (colonial) era, whereby the Chinese victims (and by implication their descendants) of British (Eurocentric) racism (and psychological and physical oppression), now mistakenly view that time as a mythical ‘golden age’, and one which Hong Kong must return. This is a clear example of the ‘Stockham Syndrome’ whereby those held captive start to relate and identify with their captors. This inverted identity extends to ‘protecting’ the criminals from the consequences of their illegal actions. This article is from 2015 – a year prior to the election of the racist Donald Trump to the Presidency of the United States – and represents something of a watershed. Since 2016, the usually unpopular and insignificant Hong Kong Independence movement has received a tremendous boost from the Republicans in the US and the Tories in the UK (prior to 2015, the Tory-LibDems Coalition was happy to receive visitors in the UK from this movement). The US (and its allies) has intensified its usual anti-China racism to a peak not seen since the Korean War (1950-1953), and the McCarthy era. This process of interfering in China’s internal affairs has now reached fruition with hundreds of Western-educated and Western-influenced overseas Chinese people descending upon Hong Kong to give the false impression of a ‘popular uprising’. The simple fact is that for the vast majority of Hong Kong people, life has improved beyond recognition since 1997 and the subsequent Socialist Reforms. Hong Kong people now possess genuine democracy and affluence. Yes – the damage perpetuated by British imperialism is still being repaired – but this is an ongoing matter for Chinese self-determination. The irony is that even if the US (and its allies) were successful in destroying the Chinese Revolution – anti-China racism would continue unabated. ACW (31.7.2019) 

The “Hong Kong independence” trend of thought has been embarrassing since its emergence in the 1950s, although it disappeared in the 1980s. After the reunification of Hong Kong with the Chinese Mainland in 1997, a small group of radical Hong Kong people re-animated the thinking behind the “Hong Kong independence” movement (in the service of aggressive Western powers), but this time using violence as a means to inspire ‘terror’ amongst the Hong Kong people, with the deliberate intention of polarizing the usually peaceful population. This is nothing less than the continued interference in China’s internal affairs by the forces of Western neo-imperialism (funded by the US businesses and ideologically driven by the US Government and its allies around the world).

At the annual Hong Kong Book Fair, Chen Yun (陳云) – the author of “Hong Kong City State” – advocates “Hong Kong independence”, whilst members of the radical group “Hot Blooded Citizen” (熱血公民 – Re Xue Gong Min) use words and cartoons to incite “city-state self-determination”, “China-Hong Kong district” and even “Hong Kong is an independent nation.” This is how the “Hong Kong independence” yet again used self-publicity to attract the spotlight.

Change of ideology: anti-colonization = anti-Communism and Anti-China

“Hong Kong independence” is not new. In the 1960s, Hong Kong had the “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party” advocating “Hong Kong independence.”

At that time, the anti-colonial and anti-imperialist wave that swept the world also spread to Hong Kong. The contradiction between the Hong Kong people and the British Hong Kong government deepened with Hong Kong’s colonial rule falling into a serious crisis. Anti-Communism and anti-British sentiment serve as the memories of those times in 1960s and 1970s Hong Kong. Social movements such as the June 7th Riot and the Chinese Movement gradually raised the self-awareness of Hong Kong people.

The “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party” appealed to the anti-colonialism and pointed out that British colonialism is an unequal system of violence, arguing that only the establishment of an “autonomous city-state” can save Hong Kong.

The anti-colonial wave in Hong Kong has since retreated, and these social groups that once advocated “Hong Kong independence” have also disappeared into the long river of history.

Ma Wenhui (馬文輝), the founder of the “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party”, advocated “Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong through a high degree of autonomy”, with the Communist Party of China (CPC) later writing this principle into what became known as ‘Hong Kong Basic Law’. Of course, following the return of Hong Kong in 1997, anti-British rhetoric has become superfluous. To some extent, part of the political proposition of the first generation of “Hong Kong independence” seekers has been realized through peaceful negotiations with the CPC.

After the reunification of Hong Kong in 1997, Hong Kong has made tremendous achievements in economic development and people’s livelihood, political development, foreign affairs, and cooperation between Hong Kong and Taiwan. Hong Kong and the Mainland have also deepened exchanges in trade, education and tourism.

However, in the increasingly frequent exchanges between the two places, there have been some conflicts due to differences in culture and institutional habits. Coupled with the rapid economic growth of the Mainland, Hong Kong’s share of the country’s GDP has been declining year after year. Some Hong Kong people believe that the local economy is over-reliant on the Mainland. Mainland tourists visiting Hong Kong are (incorrectly) perceived as “taking” Hong Kong people’s daily necessities and welfare subsidies. This false perception has led to friction between the two groups of people.

In 2003, hundreds of thousands of Hong Kong people took to the streets to protest against the inclusion of Article 23 into the Basic Law of Hong Kong (stating that Hong Kong shall enact laws on its own to prohibit any act of treason, secession, sedition, subversion against the Central People’s Government, or theft of state secrets, to prohibit foreign political organizations or bodies from conducting political activities in the Region, and to prohibit political organizations or bodies of the Region from establishing ties with foreign political organizations or bodies.). In July of the same year, the launch of the Hong Kong and Macau Free Bank made the procedures for Mainland tourists to Hong Kong greatly simplified, and the number of tourists visiting Hong Kong increased every year. Freedom to visit Hong Kong has created a large number of employment opportunities and has also brought huge revenues to Hong Kong’s service industry and tourism industry. However, some people think that free travel has pushed up Hong Kong’s prices and has intensified cultural conflicts. Some Mainlanders have used free travel to Hong Kong to give birth. This has also caused resource allocation problems such as insufficient maternity beds, which has caused dissatisfaction in Hong Kong society.

In this era of changing times, a small number of radical Hong Kong people have regained the idea of “Hong Kong independence.” Websites promoting “Hong Kong independence” have been established, with the slogan “Hong Kong independence” being shouted during the demonstrations.

The “anti-Communist and anti-Central Government” has replaced “anti-British and anti-colonial” as the current slogans of the new Hong Kong independence movement.

Chen Yun, the author of the book “Hong Kong City State”, which advocates “Hong Kong independence”, has used threatening language to encourage Hong Kong people to “reject the interests of the Communist Party of China and its cultural aggression, and expel false political agents.” He has also stated that the Hong Kong Democratic Party and the Labour Party are “collaborating with the CPC for personal gain, by selling Hong Kong interests.”

The “Hong Kong independence” organization “Hot Blood Citizen” screamed in the “Hot Blood Times” that (Western-backed) “anti-Communism” is the correct path for Hong Kong people to follow! Hong Kong people must unite with Western capitalists and destroy Chinese Communism!

Hong Kong’s Ta Kung Pao (大公報) has published an article criticizing the separatist reactionary actions of the “Hong Kong independence” organization, saying that those seeking “Hong Kong autonomy” have become the bridgeheads of (Western-backed) “anti-Communism”.

The Global Times also pointed out that the root of the “Hong Kong independence” ideology is (Western-backed) anti-Communism. “Premised upon hatred of the Communist Party and opposition to Hong Kong’s return, it has sacrificed the banner of ‘Hong Kong independence.'”

In recent years, the contradiction between Hong Kong and the Mainland has not shown signs of diminishing. In 2012, children from Mainland China who ate snacks in Hong Kong subway cars were rebuked by Hong Kong people with a video of the ensuing argument. Beijing University Professor Kong Qingdong (孔慶東) responded to this video saying that “many Hong Kong people behave no better than wild dogs”, and this matter is hot subject in Hong Kong. These issues can be seen as a microcosm of the contradictions between the land and the port. In addition, some Hong Kong people were dissatisfied with the political reform package, and frequently protested on the streets, creating the illegal gathering known as “Occupy Central”. These reasons have contributed to the breeding of extreme “Hong Kong independence” organizations, to a certain extent.

In the “anti-water cargo passengers”, “occupation of China”, “protest against free travel” and other protests, “Hong Kong independence” elements were mixed among them, and they used their potential to find trouble and deepen the rift between Hong Kong and the Mainland.

These new “Hong Kong independence” organizations are more extreme and more violent than their “predecessors” (due to the extent of Western influence encouraging terrorism). They have upgraded their spearheads from “anti-Communism” to “anti-China” and upgraded from opposing the central government to opposing the entirety of Chinese (bizarrely mimicking Western anti-China racism).

This year, in the “anti-water cargo passengers” incident in Hong Kong, some people waved the banner of Hong Kong under British occupation, chanting racist slogans usually used by racist Westerners calling upon “Chinese people to go back to China”, whilst Mainland tourists with violence. On March 9th, some radical demonstrators even kicked an old man and attacked the suitcases of tourists. They were dismissed as “wannabe thugs” by Hong Kong security chief Li Dongguo (黎棟國).

Some “Hong Kong independence” groups have identified the Mainlanders as “Chinese Pigs”, again using Western racist terms on their homepages, threatening “death in Hong Kong”, deliberately creating contradictions between Hong Kong Chinese people and the Mainland Chinese people, whilst deliberately demonizing the image of Mainlanders.

Ma Wenhui once said that Hong Kong people are “no souls” and are not accepted by the central government. Hong Kong’s democratic movement is also based on “democratic patriotism.” Today, Hong Kong has returned, with both the motherland and autonomy. The essence of the “Hong Kong independence” elements pursued by the new generation is the extreme nativism and exclusionary populism under the “autonomy” package.

Important person: Godfather, National Teacher, Prince.

Hong Kong’s first “independent” group The United Nations Hong Kong Association was founded in 1953, and its founder, Ma Wenhui, was called “the father of the port.” Ma Wenhui believes that the Chinese in Hong Kong are not accepted by the Chinese government of the Mainland or Taiwan. Therefore, Hong Kong does not exist without a State identity. He believes that the people of Hong Kong should therefore be born in a Hong Kong State, and die in a Hong State – sovereign and independent.

After the Governor of Hong Kong, Yang Muqi (楊慕琦), proposed the Hong Kong political reform package in 1954, Ma Wenhui actively participated in it and sought to promote political reform to achieve his political aims. However, at that time, the British Hong Kong Government’s proposition and Ma’s proposition were quite different. Ma Wenhui falsified his flag against the Hong Kong government and asked for open discussion on Hong Kong people’s autonomy. He later established the “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party” and proposed to establish Hong Kong as an “Autonomous City State.”

According to Ma Wenhui’s conception, Hong Kong should be an “autonomic government” of the people, by the people, and for the people of Hong Kong, with its diplomatic and national defense rights belonging to the United Kingdom.

However, the “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party”, like most radical organizations, split rapidly after its formation. Ma Wenhui was also excluded by the moderate party within the party because he criticized the government.

At that time, the “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party” and its “Hong Kong Labour Party” and “Hong Kong Democratic Socialist Party” were called the three major autonomous political parties in Hong Kong.

Although known as the ‘big three’, their impact was limited, as they are all small parties with fewer than a thousand people. As a result, the organization’s demonstrations at that time were called “weak” by the newspapers because of the small number in attendance. The political proposition of “democratic autonomy” disappeared completely in the 1980s, and Ma’s autonomy movement ended in failure.

For a long time after that, the idea of “Hong Kong independence” was “unmanned.” After the reunification in 1997, Hong Kong has made great achievements in economic and people’s livelihood, political development, foreign affairs, and cooperation between Hong Kong and Taiwan. Hong Kong and the Mainland have also deepened trade and tourism exchanges. However, a small number of radical Hong Kong people believe that their interests are damaged and have sought to regain their “Hong Kong independence” thinking. Coupled with the popularity of the Internet, “Hong Kong independence” movements have emerged one after another.

Chen Yun, the “national teacher” of “Hong Kong independence”, debuted at this time. Chen Yun worked in the Hong Kong government and is now an assistant university professor. In 2011, Chen Yun launched the book “Hong Kong City State”, which advocated “Hong Kong independence”, and later launched the “Hong Kong Immigration Theory” and many other books that advocated the “City State” and “Hong Kong independence.”

Chen Yun believes that Hong Kong does not belong to the United Kingdom or China. The political system of Hong Kong is a “City-State Autonomy. Hong Kong does not have national sovereignty, no national defense rights and only certain diplomatic capabilities, but Hong Kong has a complete “autonomy” and a considerable diplomatic ability.

The specific practice of the “City-State Autonomy” movement in Hong Kong is based on ethnic struggles, but whilst its supporters in Hong Kong reject the interests of the “colonialists” on the ground, they paradoxically support the West’s anti-China racism. Hong Kong supporters of the independence movement must pursue a politically rightwing agenda and purge Hong Kong society of all its leftwing tendencies and support for the Mainland. Violence and agression will be allowable in this instance as the West supports all anti-Communist movements in the world without criticism.

According to Chen Yun’s vision, after achieving the fascistic “City-State Autonomy” in Hong Kong, the political structure of the Chinese Federation will be promoted. “China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Australia will each become independent countries rejecting leftwing politics whilst promoting the rejuvenation of Chinese culture, rebuilding the vigour of imperial China, whilst pursuing a peaceful liberation of East Asia.”

Chen Yun’s fascistic argument was adopted as the guiding ideology of the Hong Kong independence movement on the ground, with Chen Yun being referred to as “Hong Kong Independent State Teacher”.

Chen Yun subsequently established the “Hong Kong Renaissance Society”, a rightwing “Hong Kong independence” organization, and produced the so-called “building a national flag emblem” and “national anthem”. He also demanded that “City-State” supporters take direct action at causing trouble deep inside the local communities of Hong Kong – using terror to cause change.

This year, Chen Yun also started military training through the “Hong Kong Renaissance Society” (using Imperial Japan of 1931 as his role model), claiming to pay special attention to the modern army’s fighting skills. He also personally demonstrated how to “bury himself in the fight.” The move was approved by the Hong Kong media as a patriotic act to recruit ‘loyal soldiers’.

In addition to launching the “Hong Kong independence Bible”, the establishment of the “Hong Kong independence” organization, and the opening of the martial arts museum to recruit “pro-military” supporters, Chen Yun also instructed his disciples to go to the United Kingdom to establish a “Hong Kong independence party.”

Ma Junlang (馬駿朗) is 22 years old. Last year, Ma took up his studies and took part in politics. He is also a member of the “hot blood citizen” who is a radical organization that promotes “Hong Kong independence.” Ma Junlang and Chen Yun are closely related, and is called a “pro-disciple” of Chen Yun. The two are in love like father and son, and Ma is “sealed” by Chen Yun as “Prince Jingyuan.”

According to “Ta Kung Pao”, at the end of December last year, Ma Junlang was instructed by Chen Yun, and secretly went to the UK to launched a fundraising project amongst a small circle. During this time in the UK, Ma Junlang went to the UK Election Commission to apply for registration of the “Hong Kong Independence Party” and successfully registered at the end of February this year. Ma Junlang revealed to the small circle that after Chen Yun instructed this step, he would use this formal political party to issue a “demand” to the European Parliament, requesting that the European Parliament pay attention to Hong Kong and put pressure on China. It is reported that after returning to Hong Kong, Ma claimed that the British had taught him that: “Your issues should be left outside the British embassy in China, as the consulate in Hong Kong is useless.”

Regarding Ma Junlang’s means, Chen Yun once praised him, saying that “Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, the United States, the CPC and the four parties are moving together. These are the struggles of international politics. Hong Kong youths have also begun to learn. You see my disciple Prince Jingyuan – who is leading these things, unyielding, like a general.”

The “Hong Kong independence” thought spread by the “Godfather”, “National Master” and “Prince” has intensified in recent years, from the level of speech to the coordination of action, and now many “Hong Kong independence” groups have taken the lead and performed this at the Hong Kong Book Fair. Such is this farce.

Group characteristics: fewer people, less voice, bolder

From “Godfather” to “Prince”, from “anti-colonization” to “anti-China”. In recent years, “Hong Kong independence” organizations have frequently made publicity and created many incidents.

On June 14th this year, Hong Kong police arrested 10 radical Hong Kong independence elements and destroyed its bomb-making factory. According to local police, these people originally conspired to launch a terrorist attack on the Hong Kong government headquarters and the Legislative Council to create a “Hong Kong Island explosion.”

These radicals claim to be affiliated with the “Hong Kong independence” organization “National Independence Party”. The organization once threatened on its own Facebook page. “If 617 passes the political reform vote, Hong Kong people must be psychologically prepared to have casualties on the day. Will become the second Ukrainian ruins.”

The Facebook page of the “National Independence Party” was only established in January this year, except for any public reports on the page that advocated “Hong Kong independence” and the bomb incident. Some media speculated that the organization was only established at the beginning of this year.

The “National Independence Party” is quite representative of many Hong Kong-independent organizations in the moment. They all rely on the Internet to make voices. They are a few people with small voices, and yet try to act courageous.

In 2004, a page called “I am a Hong Kong connection” appeared on the Internet. The website advocates Hong Kong’s “independent Statehood” and claims to launch a public opinion campaign through the network movement to allow “Hong Kong independence” to sprout. In addition to the “Hong Kong independence” thinking, the website also advocates that Xinjiang, the three eastern provinces, Inner Mongolia, Taiwan, Tibet and other places be “independent”, and on the map, the Mainland China will become “China Pig.” In 2005, Hong Kong’s Wen Wei Po (文匯報) published an article criticizing the Hong Kong-only website and said it was “not legitimate.”

After the popularity of the Internet, many “Hong Kong independence” groups have established their own homepages. In 2011, dozens of users of the Gaodeng online community in Hong Kong established the “Hong Kong Local Power” organization. The organization threatened to “defend the local culture and demand the separation of the port.” In March of the same year, the Hong Kong Government distributed 6,000 Hong Kong dollars to Hong Kong residents. The organization claimed that 6,000 yuan was a “permanent resident’s unique welfare”. New immigrants were not entitled to receive it, and then participated in demonstrations initiated by the Pan-Democrats.

In 2012, a warm-hearted citizen organization that advocated “cultural nation-building” was established. The organization emphasizes “localism” and operates the “Hot Blood Times” website, blogs, and publications. According to its “Hot Blood Times” “reports”, the organization initiated and participated in a number of demonstrations. For example, in August 13th, the chief executive Liang Zhenying (梁振英) went to the Kwun Tong Kung Lok Kung Ching Secondary School to conduct a second meeting in the district to discuss public activities. 200 people were present at the show.”

In July of the 12th, a Hong Kong independence Facebook homepage “I am a Hong Kong native, who is a Chinese” was launched. On the website, the organization claimed that “Hong Kong people have the ability to stand on their own feet and must be self-determined.” In September of the same year, members of the organization slogan “Chinese people go back to China” during the anti-water passenger demonstrations. Since then, the organization has waved the flag of Hong Kong under British rule during the protests in front of the Hong Kong Liaison Office. According to media reports, about 100 people participated in the protests.

The “I am a Hong Kong person, who is a Chinese person” organization has subsequently split, and some members have jointly established a “Hong Kong people first” group with another “Hong Kong independence” organization. Two members of the organization, Zhao Xing (招顯聰) and Zhang Hanxian (張漢賢), took the Hong Kong British flag and entered the PLA headquarters in Hong Kong. They shouted slogans and demanded that “the PLA withdraw from Hong Kong.” This is the first time since Hong Kong’s return in 1997 that a fascist Hong Kong group has directly confronted the PLA.

As can be seen from the above, most of these so-called Hong Kong-independent groups are only active on the Internet, and there are only a few people participating in occasional demonstrations. It is the norm of these organizations to create movements through extreme speech and violent action. It is best to advocate the splitting of Inner Mongolia and the Northeast, and to create an explosive terrorist incident. It is the best example to wave the Hong Kong and British flags at the gates of government agencies and military camps. In addition, these “Hong Kong independence” groups are also actively involved in terrorist activities (condoned by the West).

In the anti-water cargo demonstrations at the beginning of this year, the violent elements that harassed, detained and assaulted tourists were affiliated to the “Hong Kong independence” group. In the “Occupy Central” campaign, the “Hong Kong independence” group “local democracy front line” even threatened to “combative violence” and encouraged members to wear helmets and armour used in sports. The “Hong Kong independence” group “hot blood citizens” are often referred to as “hot dogs” by members of other groups because of the frequent use of hate-speech and physical violence in their activities.

External forces: Hong Kong Independence, Britain and Taiwan Independence.

In addition to extreme rhetoric and extreme actions, these “Hong Kong independence” groups often “bargain” with foreign and reactionary forces to seek assistance and express their opinions.

According to the “Ta Kung Pao” report, Ma Junlang, who established the “Hong Kong Independence Party”, initiated and led the farce of “occupying the British Consulate in Hong Kong” at the end of November last year, and even asked “Britian to recover Hong Kong” and impose “British sanctions” on China. In December last year, the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Commons of the British Parliament officially sent an invitation to Ma Junlang, hoping that he would attend the hearing of the Foreign Affairs Committee. It is reported that due to the expiration of Ma’s passport, Chen Yun sent two other people. Two disciples of Chen Yun even issued the absurd request that “the United Kingdom should restart the Nanjing Treaty.”

Many “Hong Kong independence” groups have used the “Hong Kong flag” used by British colonial authorities in various demonstrations. Some people even waved the British flag and called on Britain to “recover” Hong Kong. This topic has been hot on the social media in the UK. Some British people said, “If you can betray your country, China, one day you will definitely betray Britain. Please go away, thank you.”

In addition to the United Kingdom, the “Taiwan independence” forces are also important targets for “Hong Kong independence”.

The National Independence Party, which created the bomb storm, issued a document on its website stating that the organization is committed to linking “Taiwan independence” and “Hong Kong independence” – uniting factions of Taiwan and Hong Kong together to form a new group of ultra-nationalistic independent forces.

Chen Yun, the godfather of “Hong Kong independence”, went to Taiwan this year to discuss with the “Taiwan independence theorist” Lin Zhuoshui (林濁水) the “development and prospects of the Hong Kong and Taiwan native movements”.

For “Taiwan independence and Hong Kong independence”, “Taiwan independence pioneer”, former Democratic Progressive Party Chairman Shi Mingde (施明德) called this “reaching.”  Shi Mingde said that no one will challenge “Hong Kong is a part of China and the sovereignty of the Hong Kong SAR belongs to the People’s Republic of China” (this is a fact).

Shi Mingde also said that he does not know who is really behind the “Hong Kong independence” movement…

To the United Kingdom, “seeking assistance” and pulling “Taiwan independence” to form a partnership. “Hong Kong independence” is taking the old road of “Taiwan independence.” “Hong Kong independence” threatened “Hong Kong first, Hong Kong priority, Hong Kong subjectivity”. The same argument was made by replacing the subject with Taiwan in a few decades. “Hong Kong independence” plans to sit in the shadow of British, and Lee Teng-hui (李登輝) being no different to the Imperial Japanese. The “Hong Kong independence” movement originated at the beginning of the anti-colonial era, and today “Hong Kong independence” elements wave the British flag, “National Division” is encouraged by Chen Yun who is using the concept of national education to “erase the historical system of the British and British period”, whilst replacing it with fascistic thinking and imperial bias. In order to deny the central government, the separatist forces have highlighted their “independence’ from both Communist China and the imperialist West, whilst rejecting Communist China and embracing the (modern) capitalist West! Given the illogical basis to these movements, it is not difficult to understand why there are some easily led people in Taiwan who have protested on the streets because of “history textbooks emphasize Japan’s exploitation and oppression of the local people”, and why Hong Kong has asked the British to restart the “Nanjing Treaty”.

Wang Guoxing (王國興), chairman of the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions, repeatedly pointed out in the Legislative Council that “the ghost of Hong Kong independence is flying over Hong Kong.” In recent years, some Hong Kong-based militants have been spreading the ideas of radicalism and violence to young people in Hong Kong in an attempt to take root in the hearts of the youth. Although the “Hong Kong independence” trend of thought has not “scarred” society, it must be stopped as soon as possible; those who deliberately promote false ideas and mislead young people are “of an impure mind” and society needs to guard against it.

Author: Bian YiZu (邊驛卒)

Original Chinese Language Text:

起底“港獨”組織

2015-08-04
來源:鳳凰網

  “港獨”思潮自上世紀50年代出現後應者寥寥,80年代遂銷聲匿跡。香港回歸後,一小撮激進的港人重拾“港獨”思想,制造暴力事件,圖謀分裂香港。

在一年一度的香港書展上,主張“港獨”的《香港城邦論》作者陳云及激進團體“熱血公民”的成員,利用文字及漫畫煽動“城邦自決”“中港區隔”以至“香港建國”。“港獨”勢力再度走到聚光燈前。

  思想變遷:反殖 反共 反華

 

“港獨”並非新鮮事物,上世紀60年代香港就有持“港獨”主張的“香港民主自治黨”。

當時,卷席全球的反殖民地反帝國主義浪潮也波及到了香港,香港人民與港英政府的矛盾日益加深,香港殖民統治陷入嚴重的危機。反殖反英是香港六七十年代的時代記憶,六七暴動、中文運動等社會運動讓香港人的自我意識逐漸抬頭。

“香港民主自治黨”即以反殖民為訴求,指出英國殖民主義是不平等的暴力制度,辯稱唯有建立“自治城邦”才能拯救香港。

香港的反殖浪潮隨後退卻,這些主張“港獨”的社會團體也消失在歷史的長河中。

“香港民主自治黨”的建立者馬文輝主張“港人治港,高度自治”,這後來被寫入了香港《基本法》。97年香港回歸,反英已經成為了一種偽命題,某種程度上說,第一代“港獨”的部分政治主張已經得到實現。

97年香港回歸以後,香港在經濟民生、政制發展、對外事務以及港臺合作等多方面取得了巨大的成就。香港和內地也加深了經貿、旅游方面的往來。

然而,兩地在日益頻密的交流中也因為文化、制度習慣等方面的差異產生了一些沖突。加之內地經濟的迅速騰飛,香港在全國GDP中所佔比重連年下滑,部分香港人認為當地經濟過度依賴內地,來港觀光的內地客“奪取”了港人日常生活用品與福利補助,港陸之間產生的裂痕。

2003年,以反對《香港基本法》23條立法為源頭引發的示威活動讓數十萬香港人走上街頭抗議。同年7月,港澳自由行的推出使得內地游客前往香港的手續大大簡化,到港旅游的游客每年遞增。自由行為香港創造了大量就業機會,也為香港的服務業和旅游業帶來的巨額的收入。但也有人認為自由行推高了香港物價,加劇了文化沖突。部分內地人借自由行前往香港生育,亦造成了香港產婦床位不足等資源配置問題,引起了香港社會的不滿。

在這樣的時代背景下,部分激進的香港人重拾“港獨”的思想。建立了一些宣傳“港獨”的網站,並在游行示威中喊出“港獨”的口號。

“反共、反中央政府”取代“反英、反殖民”成為新港獨分子的新口號。

鼓吹“港獨”書籍《香港城邦論》的作者陳云曾揚言香港人要“排斥大陸共黨的利益及文化侵略,驅逐虛偽的政治代理人。”並妄稱香港民主黨和工黨“勾結中共,為私利出賣香港利益”。

“港獨”組織“熱血公民”在其刊物《熱血時報》上叫囂“反共乃義之所在”。

香港《大公報》曾刊文批駁“港獨”組織的分裂反動行為,稱謀求“香港自治”的人成為“反共”的橋頭堡。

《環球時報》亦指出這些“港獨”的思想根源就是反共,“因為仇視共產黨,反對香港回歸。祭出了‘港獨’這樣最極端的旗號”。

近年來,香港和內地的矛盾並沒有消減的跡象。2012年,內地兒童在香港地鐵車廂內吃零食被香港人斥責最終導致罵戰的視頻在網上引發爭論。北大教授孔慶東就此視頻回擊稱“香港人很多是狗”,此事又在香港熱炒。這一來一回,可以看做是陸港矛盾的縮影。除此之外,部分香港人不滿政改方案,頻頻上街抗議,並制造了“佔領中環”的非法集會事件。以上這些原因一定程度上助推了極端“港獨”組織的滋生。

在“反水貨客”、“佔中”、“抗議自由行”等抗議活動中,“港獨”分子夾雜其中,借其造勢,尋釁滋事,加深了香港和大陸之間的裂痕。

這些新生的“港獨”組織比“前輩”更加極端,更加暴力,把矛頭由“反共”升級為“反華”,把反對中央政府升級為反對中國人。

今年香港“反水貨客”事件中就有人揮舞港英旗幟,打出“中國人滾回中國”的標語,和內地游客發生口角對峙。3月9日,部分激進示威者甚至踢打老人,攻擊游客行李箱,被香港保安局長黎棟國斥為“近乎暴徒”。

而某些“港獨”團體更是在自己的主頁上將大陸標識為“支那豬”,揚言“亡中必港”,刻意制造港陸矛盾,醜化大陸人形象。

馬文輝曾說香港人是“無主孤魂”,不為中央政府所接受,而香港的民主運動也是發端于“民主愛國”的基礎上。如今,香港已經回歸,既有祖國,又有自治。新世代的“港獨”分子追求的實質是“自治”包裝下的極端本土主義和排外民粹。

  重要人物:教父 國師 太子

香港最早的“獨立”團體聯合國香港協會成立于1953年,其創立者馬文輝被稱為“港獨教父”。馬文輝認為,香港的華人並不為大陸或臺灣的中國政府接受,是無國家身份也是無可識別的。他認為港人因此應該生于斯長于斯,而且死于斯,要建立一個屬于港人的自治政體。

1954年港督楊慕琦提出香港政改方案後,馬文輝積極參與其中,謀求推動政改來達成自己的政治主張。不過當時港英政府的主張和馬的主張出入頗大,馬文輝遂改旗易幟對抗港府,要求公開討論港人自治,其後又成立了“香港民主自治黨”,提出要把香港建立成“自治城邦”。

按照馬文輝的構想,香港應該是香港人民治、民有、民享的“自治政府”,而其外交和國防的權利則歸英國所有。

但是“香港民主自治黨”如同大部分激進組織一樣,組建之後迅速分裂。馬文輝也因為抨擊政府而受到黨內溫和派排擠。

當時,“香港民主自治黨”與其分裂出來的“香港工黨”和“香港民主社會黨”並稱為香港三大自治政黨。

雖言“三大”,但其影響實在有限,皆為人數不到千人的微型黨派。以至于當時組織示威活動因人數太少而被報紙稱為“示弱”。其“民主自治”的政治主張在80年代徹底銷聲匿跡,馬氏的自治運動以失敗告終。

在此之後的很長一段時間內,“港獨”的思想“後繼無人”。1997年回歸後,香港在經濟民生、政制發展、對外事務以及港臺合作等多方面取得了巨大的成就,香港和大陸也加深了貿易、旅游的往來。然而,一小部分部分激進的港人認為自己利益受損,重拾“港獨”思想。加之互聯網的普及,“港獨主義者”接連冒出。

“港獨”的“國師”陳云在這個時候粉墨登場。陳云曾在香港政府工作,現在在大學任助理教授。陳云在2011年推出了主張“港獨”的《香港城邦論》一書、隨後又推出了《香港移民論》等多本重拾“自治城邦”思想,鼓吹“港獨”的書籍。

陳云認為,香港不屬于英國或是中國,香港的政治體制是“城邦自治。香港不具有國家主權,沒有國防權利和若干的外交能力,但是香港擁有完整的“自治權”和相當能力的外交權。

其主張“城邦自治”運動的具體實踐,對外是以族群斗爭為主,香港人排斥“大陸殖民者”的利益侵略。對內是肅清香港的“賣港賊”,掃除左翼,鏟除民主黨極其盟友。

根據陳云的構想,香港“城邦自治”之後,將推進華夏聯邦的政治架構,“中、港、臺、澳各自獨立成國,推進華夏文化復興,重建華夏天下,締造東亞和平解放。”

陳云的論調被香港“本土派”奉為指導思想,本人也被封為“港獨國師”。

陳云在隨後成立了“港獨”組織“香港復興會”,並制作了所謂“建國旗徽”、“國歌”。他還要求“城邦”支持者“化整為零,深入小區”,“時機一到便揭竿而起”。

今年陳云還在“香港復興會”開班授武,自稱特別留意現代化軍隊的搏擊術,席間他還親身示范如何“埋身肉搏”。此舉被港媒批為密謀招攬“親兵”。

除了推出“港獨聖經”、成立“港獨”組織、開武館招“親兵”,陳云還指示弟子前往英國建立“港獨黨”。

馬駿朗今年22歲。馬去年“佔中”後退學全力參與政治,他亦是極力推動“港獨”的激進組織“熱血公民”成員。馬駿朗與陳云關系密切,被陳云稱作是“親弟子”,兩人關系情同父子,馬更被陳云“封為”“靖遠太子”。

據《大公報》透露,去年12月底,,馬駿朗獲陳云授意,秘密前往英國,更在小圈子內發起籌款。在英國的這段時間內,馬駿朗前往英國選舉事務委員會申請登記“香港獨立黨”,並在今年二月底成功注冊。馬駿朗向小圈子透露,陳云授意這一步之後,將會藉助這一正式政黨向歐洲議會發出“陳情”,要求歐洲議會關注香港並向中國施壓。據悉,馬回港後宣稱,當時英國人曾向他面授機宜:“應當留守在英國駐中國的大使館外,留在香港的領事館沒有用”。

對于馬駿朗的手段,陳云曾大表贊賞,稱“香港、英國、美國、中共,四方連動,這些是國際政治的斗爭術,香港青年也開始學著做。各位看到我弟子靖遠太子馬駿朗在領導這些事,不屈不撓,有大將之風”。

“教父”、“國師”和“太子”們散播的“港獨”思想近年來愈演愈烈,由言論層面發展到有行動配合,再到如今諸多“港獨”團體冒頭,演出香港書展上的這一出鬧劇。

  團體特點:人少 聲音小 膽子大

由“教父”至“太子”,由“反殖”到“反華”。近年來“港獨”組織頻頻冒頭,制造了不少事端。

今年6月14日,香港逮捕了10名激進的港獨分子,搗毀了其炸彈工廠。據當地警方介紹,這些人原本密謀對港府總部和立法會發動恐怖襲擊,制造“港島爆炸”。

這些激進分子自稱隸屬于“港獨”組織“全國獨立黨”,該組織在自己的facebook頁面曾經揚言“倘若617通過政改表決,香港人要有心理準備當天會有傷亡,立(法)會會變成第二個烏克蘭廢墟”。

“全國獨立黨”的facebook頁面今年1月才設立,除了在頁面鼓吹“港獨”和這次炸彈事件之外再沒有任何公開報道。有媒體推測該組織今年初才成立。

“全國獨立黨”在當下的諸多港獨組織中頗具代表性,它們都主要借助互聯網發聲,人少、聲音小、膽子大。

2004年,一個名叫“我是香港人連線”的頁面在互聯網上出現。該網站主張香港“獨立建國”,聲稱要透過網絡運動發動輿論攻勢,讓“港獨”發芽。除了“港獨”思想,該網站亦鼓吹要讓新疆、東三省、內蒙、臺灣、西藏等地“獨立”,並在地圖中把中國大陸成為“支那豬”。2005年,香港《文匯報》刊文批駁此港獨網站,並稱其“不成氣候”。

在互聯網普及之後,諸多“港獨”團體紛紛建立自己的主頁。2011年,香港高登網絡社區的幾十位用戶成立了“香港本土力量”組織。該組織揚言“捍衛本土文化,要求港中區隔”。同年3月,港府向香港居民派發6000元港幣,該組織聲稱發6000元是“永久居民獨有福利”,新移民無權領取,隨後參與了泛民主派發起的示威游行。

2012年,鼓吹“文化建國”的熱血公民組織成立。該組織強調“本土主義”,營運《熱血時報》網站、網臺、出版刊物。據其《熱血時報》“報道”,該組織發起和參加了多項游行示威活動,例如13年8月特首梁振英到觀塘功樂官立中學進行第二場落區會見市民活動,“熱血公民約200人到場示威。”

12年7月,一個港獨facebook主頁“我哋系香港人,唔系中國人”上線,在網頁上該組織聲稱“香港人有能力自立,要自決”。同年9月,該組織成員在參加反水貨客示威游行時打出“中國人滾回中國”的標語。此後該組織在香港中聯辦門前抗議時揮舞起了香港英治時期的香港旗。據媒體報道,當時有約100人參加了抗議活動。

“我哋系香港人,唔系中國人”組織隨後發生分裂,部分成員與另一“港獨”組織聯合成立了“香港人優先”團體。該組織的兩名成員招顯聰和張漢賢舉著港英旗闖入解放軍駐港部隊總部,高呼口號要求“解放軍撤出香港”。這是香港1997年回歸以來首次有團體強闖駐港部隊總部示威。

從上文可以看出,這些所謂的港獨團體大都活躍于互聯網上,偶爾舉行一些游行示威活動時只有很少人參與。通過極端言論、行動來制造動靜就成了這些組織的常態。鼓吹分裂內蒙、東北,圖謀制造爆炸恐怖事件,到政府機關、軍營門口揮舞港英旗幟都是最好的例證。除此之外,這些“港獨”團體還積極參與到並非自己發起各種游行示威活動中,通過極端暴力的手段來博眼球。

在今年初的反水貨客示威活動中,滋擾、圍堵和打罵游客的暴力分子就隸屬于“港獨”團體。而在“佔中”活動中“港獨”團體“本土民主前線”更是揚言“以武抗暴”,鼓動成員帶上頭盔裝上護甲參加運動。“港獨”團體“熱血公民”則因為其行動中常常發生言語及肢體沖突,被其他團體成員謔稱為“熱狗”。

  外部勢力:港獨 港英 臺獨

除了極端言論和極端行動,這些“港獨”團體還經常“巴結”境外勢力、反動勢力來尋求援助、表達主張。

據《大公報》報道,成立“香港獨立黨”的馬駿朗在陳云的授意下發起並主導了去年11月底“佔領英國駐港領事館”的鬧劇,甚至要求“英國收回香港”、“英國制裁中國”。去年12月,英國國會下議院外交事務委員會正式向馬駿朗發出邀請,希望他出席外交事務委員會的聽證會。據悉,由于馬的護照過期,最終陳云派了另外兩人去。這兩個陳云門徒期間更是發出“英國應重啟《南京條約》”的荒謬言論。

而多個“港獨”團體在各種游行示威的場合都曾揮舞英國殖民時期香港所用的“香港旗”,也有人直接揮舞英國國旗呼籲英國“收回”香港。此話題曾在英國的社交媒體上熱炒,有英國人表示“如果你們可以背叛自己的國家中國,有一天你們肯定也會背叛英國。請走開,謝謝。”

除了英國,“臺獨”勢力也是“港獨”份子巴結的重要對象。

“我是香港人連線”成立了“香港李登輝之友會”,倡導學習李登輝的“臺獨”思想。

制造炸彈風波的“全國獨立黨”在其網頁上發文稱該組織致力于把臺灣和香港的“臺獨”“港獨”派別組織鏈接在一起,形成一幫新的獨立勢力。

“港獨”教父陳云在今年曾經前往臺灣與“臺獨理論家”林濁水進行“香港、臺灣本土運動的發展與前瞻”對談會。

而對于“臺獨與港獨聯手論”,“臺獨先驅”,前民進黨主席施明德稱這是“栽贓”。施明德說,沒有人會挑戰“香港是中國的一部分、香港特區的主權屬于中華人民共和國”(這個事實)。

施明德還表示,他不知道有誰是“港獨”。

向英國“求援”,拉“臺獨”結夥。“港獨”正在走“臺獨”的老路。“港獨”揚言“香港第一、香港優先、香港主體性”,同樣的說法把主語換成臺灣在幾十年前就出現過。“港獨”圖謀抱英國“大腿”,和李登輝親日別無二致。“港獨”源發之初打出的反殖旗號,及至今日“港獨”分子揮舞港英旗幟,“國師”陳云指責推行國民教育“抹殺了港英時期的歷史制度”,滑天下之大稽。分裂勢力為了否定中央政府,凸顯自己的“獨立性”,不惜美化、強化殖民者的形象。這就不難理解,臺灣有人因為“歷史教科書強調日本對當地人民的剝削和壓迫”而上街抗議、香港有人要求英國重啟《南京條約》這樣的鬧劇為何層出不窮了。

香港工聯會主席王國興多次在立法會指出“港獨的幽靈徘徊在香港上空”。部分港獨激進分子近年來不斷向香港年輕人散播激進和暴力的思想,企圖令其在年輕人心中生根發芽。“港獨”思潮雖然未對社會“傷筋動骨”,但亦須及早遏止;刻意宣揚錯誤思想、誤導青年的人士更是“其心可誅”,社會需要防范。

作者:邊驛卒

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