The True History of the Hong Kong ‘Independence’ Movement


Original Chinese Language Article: 起底“港獨”組織

(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

Translator’s Note: My colleagues in the Communist Party of China (CPC) are of the opinion that ‘education’ is the key to clearly explain the recent (and historical) protests in Hong Kong as being a vestige of the British imperialist (colonial) era, whereby the Chinese victims (and by implication their descendants) of British (Eurocentric) racism (and psychological and physical oppression), now mistakenly view that time as a mythical ‘golden age’, and one which Hong Kong must return. This is a clear example of the ‘Stockham Syndrome’ whereby those held captive start to relate and identify with their captors. This inverted identity extends to ‘protecting’ the criminals from the consequences of their illegal actions. This article is from 2015 – a year prior to the election of the racist Donald Trump to the Presidency of the United States – and represents something of a watershed. Since 2016, the usually unpopular and insignificant Hong Kong Independence movement has received a tremendous boost from the Republicans in the US and the Tories in the UK (prior to 2015, the Tory-LibDems Coalition was happy to receive visitors in the UK from this movement). The US (and its allies) has intensified its usual anti-China racism to a peak not seen since the Korean War (1950-1953), and the McCarthy era. This process of interfering in China’s internal affairs has now reached fruition with hundreds of Western-educated and Western-influenced overseas Chinese people descending upon Hong Kong to give the false impression of a ‘popular uprising’. The simple fact is that for the vast majority of Hong Kong people, life has improved beyond recognition since 1997 and the subsequent Socialist Reforms. Hong Kong people now possess genuine democracy and affluence. Yes – the damage perpetuated by British imperialism is still being repaired – but this is an ongoing matter for Chinese self-determination. The irony is that even if the US (and its allies) were successful in destroying the Chinese Revolution – anti-China racism would continue unabated. ACW (31.7.2019) 

The “Hong Kong independence” trend of thought has been embarrassing since its emergence in the 1950s, although it disappeared in the 1980s. After the reunification of Hong Kong with the Chinese Mainland in 1997, a small group of radical Hong Kong people re-animated the thinking behind the “Hong Kong independence” movement (in the service of aggressive Western powers), but this time using violence as a means to inspire ‘terror’ amongst the Hong Kong people, with the deliberate intention of polarizing the usually peaceful population. This is nothing less than the continued interference in China’s internal affairs by the forces of Western neo-imperialism (funded by the US businesses and ideologically driven by the US Government and its allies around the world).

At the annual Hong Kong Book Fair, Chen Yun (陳云) – the author of “Hong Kong City State” – advocates “Hong Kong independence”, whilst members of the radical group “Hot Blooded Citizen” (熱血公民 – Re Xue Gong Min) use words and cartoons to incite “city-state self-determination”, “China-Hong Kong district” and even “Hong Kong is an independent nation.” This is how the “Hong Kong independence” yet again used self-publicity to attract the spotlight.

Change of ideology: anti-colonization = anti-Communism and Anti-China

“Hong Kong independence” is not new. In the 1960s, Hong Kong had the “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party” advocating “Hong Kong independence.”

At that time, the anti-colonial and anti-imperialist wave that swept the world also spread to Hong Kong. The contradiction between the Hong Kong people and the British Hong Kong government deepened with Hong Kong’s colonial rule falling into a serious crisis. Anti-Communism and anti-British sentiment serve as the memories of those times in 1960s and 1970s Hong Kong. Social movements such as the June 7th Riot and the Chinese Movement gradually raised the self-awareness of Hong Kong people.

The “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party” appealed to the anti-colonialism and pointed out that British colonialism is an unequal system of violence, arguing that only the establishment of an “autonomous city-state” can save Hong Kong.

The anti-colonial wave in Hong Kong has since retreated, and these social groups that once advocated “Hong Kong independence” have also disappeared into the long river of history.

Ma Wenhui (馬文輝), the founder of the “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party”, advocated “Hong Kong people ruling Hong Kong through a high degree of autonomy”, with the Communist Party of China (CPC) later writing this principle into what became known as ‘Hong Kong Basic Law’. Of course, following the return of Hong Kong in 1997, anti-British rhetoric has become superfluous. To some extent, part of the political proposition of the first generation of “Hong Kong independence” seekers has been realized through peaceful negotiations with the CPC.

After the reunification of Hong Kong in 1997, Hong Kong has made tremendous achievements in economic development and people’s livelihood, political development, foreign affairs, and cooperation between Hong Kong and Taiwan. Hong Kong and the Mainland have also deepened exchanges in trade, education and tourism.

However, in the increasingly frequent exchanges between the two places, there have been some conflicts due to differences in culture and institutional habits. Coupled with the rapid economic growth of the Mainland, Hong Kong’s share of the country’s GDP has been declining year after year. Some Hong Kong people believe that the local economy is over-reliant on the Mainland. Mainland tourists visiting Hong Kong are (incorrectly) perceived as “taking” Hong Kong people’s daily necessities and welfare subsidies. This false perception has led to friction between the two groups of people.

In 2003, hundreds of thousands of Hong Kong people took to the streets to protest against the inclusion of Article 23 into the Basic Law of Hong Kong (stating that Hong Kong shall enact laws on its own to prohibit any act of treason, secession, sedition, subversion against the Central People’s Government, or theft of state secrets, to prohibit foreign political organizations or bodies from conducting political activities in the Region, and to prohibit political organizations or bodies of the Region from establishing ties with foreign political organizations or bodies.). In July of the same year, the launch of the Hong Kong and Macau Free Bank made the procedures for Mainland tourists to Hong Kong greatly simplified, and the number of tourists visiting Hong Kong increased every year. Freedom to visit Hong Kong has created a large number of employment opportunities and has also brought huge revenues to Hong Kong’s service industry and tourism industry. However, some people think that free travel has pushed up Hong Kong’s prices and has intensified cultural conflicts. Some Mainlanders have used free travel to Hong Kong to give birth. This has also caused resource allocation problems such as insufficient maternity beds, which has caused dissatisfaction in Hong Kong society.

In this era of changing times, a small number of radical Hong Kong people have regained the idea of “Hong Kong independence.” Websites promoting “Hong Kong independence” have been established, with the slogan “Hong Kong independence” being shouted during the demonstrations.

The “anti-Communist and anti-Central Government” has replaced “anti-British and anti-colonial” as the current slogans of the new Hong Kong independence movement.

Chen Yun, the author of the book “Hong Kong City State”, which advocates “Hong Kong independence”, has used threatening language to encourage Hong Kong people to “reject the interests of the Communist Party of China and its cultural aggression, and expel false political agents.” He has also stated that the Hong Kong Democratic Party and the Labour Party are “collaborating with the CPC for personal gain, by selling Hong Kong interests.”

The “Hong Kong independence” organization “Hot Blood Citizen” screamed in the “Hot Blood Times” that (Western-backed) “anti-Communism” is the correct path for Hong Kong people to follow! Hong Kong people must unite with Western capitalists and destroy Chinese Communism!

Hong Kong’s Ta Kung Pao (大公報) has published an article criticizing the separatist reactionary actions of the “Hong Kong independence” organization, saying that those seeking “Hong Kong autonomy” have become the bridgeheads of (Western-backed) “anti-Communism”.

The Global Times also pointed out that the root of the “Hong Kong independence” ideology is (Western-backed) anti-Communism. “Premised upon hatred of the Communist Party and opposition to Hong Kong’s return, it has sacrificed the banner of ‘Hong Kong independence.'”

In recent years, the contradiction between Hong Kong and the Mainland has not shown signs of diminishing. In 2012, children from Mainland China who ate snacks in Hong Kong subway cars were rebuked by Hong Kong people with a video of the ensuing argument. Beijing University Professor Kong Qingdong (孔慶東) responded to this video saying that “many Hong Kong people behave no better than wild dogs”, and this matter is hot subject in Hong Kong. These issues can be seen as a microcosm of the contradictions between the land and the port. In addition, some Hong Kong people were dissatisfied with the political reform package, and frequently protested on the streets, creating the illegal gathering known as “Occupy Central”. These reasons have contributed to the breeding of extreme “Hong Kong independence” organizations, to a certain extent.

In the “anti-water cargo passengers”, “occupation of China”, “protest against free travel” and other protests, “Hong Kong independence” elements were mixed among them, and they used their potential to find trouble and deepen the rift between Hong Kong and the Mainland.

These new “Hong Kong independence” organizations are more extreme and more violent than their “predecessors” (due to the extent of Western influence encouraging terrorism). They have upgraded their spearheads from “anti-Communism” to “anti-China” and upgraded from opposing the central government to opposing the entirety of Chinese (bizarrely mimicking Western anti-China racism).

This year, in the “anti-water cargo passengers” incident in Hong Kong, some people waved the banner of Hong Kong under British occupation, chanting racist slogans usually used by racist Westerners calling upon “Chinese people to go back to China”, whilst Mainland tourists with violence. On March 9th, some radical demonstrators even kicked an old man and attacked the suitcases of tourists. They were dismissed as “wannabe thugs” by Hong Kong security chief Li Dongguo (黎棟國).

Some “Hong Kong independence” groups have identified the Mainlanders as “Chinese Pigs”, again using Western racist terms on their homepages, threatening “death in Hong Kong”, deliberately creating contradictions between Hong Kong Chinese people and the Mainland Chinese people, whilst deliberately demonizing the image of Mainlanders.

Ma Wenhui once said that Hong Kong people are “no souls” and are not accepted by the central government. Hong Kong’s democratic movement is also based on “democratic patriotism.” Today, Hong Kong has returned, with both the motherland and autonomy. The essence of the “Hong Kong independence” elements pursued by the new generation is the extreme nativism and exclusionary populism under the “autonomy” package.

Important person: Godfather, National Teacher, Prince.

Hong Kong’s first “independent” group The United Nations Hong Kong Association was founded in 1953, and its founder, Ma Wenhui, was called “the father of the port.” Ma Wenhui believes that the Chinese in Hong Kong are not accepted by the Chinese government of the Mainland or Taiwan. Therefore, Hong Kong does not exist without a State identity. He believes that the people of Hong Kong should therefore be born in a Hong Kong State, and die in a Hong State – sovereign and independent.

After the Governor of Hong Kong, Yang Muqi (楊慕琦), proposed the Hong Kong political reform package in 1954, Ma Wenhui actively participated in it and sought to promote political reform to achieve his political aims. However, at that time, the British Hong Kong Government’s proposition and Ma’s proposition were quite different. Ma Wenhui falsified his flag against the Hong Kong government and asked for open discussion on Hong Kong people’s autonomy. He later established the “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party” and proposed to establish Hong Kong as an “Autonomous City State.”

According to Ma Wenhui’s conception, Hong Kong should be an “autonomic government” of the people, by the people, and for the people of Hong Kong, with its diplomatic and national defense rights belonging to the United Kingdom.

However, the “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party”, like most radical organizations, split rapidly after its formation. Ma Wenhui was also excluded by the moderate party within the party because he criticized the government.

At that time, the “Hong Kong Democratic Self-Government Party” and its “Hong Kong Labour Party” and “Hong Kong Democratic Socialist Party” were called the three major autonomous political parties in Hong Kong.

Although known as the ‘big three’, their impact was limited, as they are all small parties with fewer than a thousand people. As a result, the organization’s demonstrations at that time were called “weak” by the newspapers because of the small number in attendance. The political proposition of “democratic autonomy” disappeared completely in the 1980s, and Ma’s autonomy movement ended in failure.

For a long time after that, the idea of “Hong Kong independence” was “unmanned.” After the reunification in 1997, Hong Kong has made great achievements in economic and people’s livelihood, political development, foreign affairs, and cooperation between Hong Kong and Taiwan. Hong Kong and the Mainland have also deepened trade and tourism exchanges. However, a small number of radical Hong Kong people believe that their interests are damaged and have sought to regain their “Hong Kong independence” thinking. Coupled with the popularity of the Internet, “Hong Kong independence” movements have emerged one after another.

Chen Yun, the “national teacher” of “Hong Kong independence”, debuted at this time. Chen Yun worked in the Hong Kong government and is now an assistant university professor. In 2011, Chen Yun launched the book “Hong Kong City State”, which advocated “Hong Kong independence”, and later launched the “Hong Kong Immigration Theory” and many other books that advocated the “City State” and “Hong Kong independence.”

Chen Yun believes that Hong Kong does not belong to the United Kingdom or China. The political system of Hong Kong is a “City-State Autonomy. Hong Kong does not have national sovereignty, no national defense rights and only certain diplomatic capabilities, but Hong Kong has a complete “autonomy” and a considerable diplomatic ability.

The specific practice of the “City-State Autonomy” movement in Hong Kong is based on ethnic struggles, but whilst its supporters in Hong Kong reject the interests of the “colonialists” on the ground, they paradoxically support the West’s anti-China racism. Hong Kong supporters of the independence movement must pursue a politically rightwing agenda and purge Hong Kong society of all its leftwing tendencies and support for the Mainland. Violence and agression will be allowable in this instance as the West supports all anti-Communist movements in the world without criticism.

According to Chen Yun’s vision, after achieving the fascistic “City-State Autonomy” in Hong Kong, the political structure of the Chinese Federation will be promoted. “China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Australia will each become independent countries rejecting leftwing politics whilst promoting the rejuvenation of Chinese culture, rebuilding the vigour of imperial China, whilst pursuing a peaceful liberation of East Asia.”

Chen Yun’s fascistic argument was adopted as the guiding ideology of the Hong Kong independence movement on the ground, with Chen Yun being referred to as “Hong Kong Independent State Teacher”.

Chen Yun subsequently established the “Hong Kong Renaissance Society”, a rightwing “Hong Kong independence” organization, and produced the so-called “building a national flag emblem” and “national anthem”. He also demanded that “City-State” supporters take direct action at causing trouble deep inside the local communities of Hong Kong – using terror to cause change.

This year, Chen Yun also started military training through the “Hong Kong Renaissance Society” (using Imperial Japan of 1931 as his role model), claiming to pay special attention to the modern army’s fighting skills. He also personally demonstrated how to “bury himself in the fight.” The move was approved by the Hong Kong media as a patriotic act to recruit ‘loyal soldiers’.

In addition to launching the “Hong Kong independence Bible”, the establishment of the “Hong Kong independence” organization, and the opening of the martial arts museum to recruit “pro-military” supporters, Chen Yun also instructed his disciples to go to the United Kingdom to establish a “Hong Kong independence party.”

Ma Junlang (馬駿朗) is 22 years old. Last year, Ma took up his studies and took part in politics. He is also a member of the “hot blood citizen” who is a radical organization that promotes “Hong Kong independence.” Ma Junlang and Chen Yun are closely related, and is called a “pro-disciple” of Chen Yun. The two are in love like father and son, and Ma is “sealed” by Chen Yun as “Prince Jingyuan.”

According to “Ta Kung Pao”, at the end of December last year, Ma Junlang was instructed by Chen Yun, and secretly went to the UK to launched a fundraising project amongst a small circle. During this time in the UK, Ma Junlang went to the UK Election Commission to apply for registration of the “Hong Kong Independence Party” and successfully registered at the end of February this year. Ma Junlang revealed to the small circle that after Chen Yun instructed this step, he would use this formal political party to issue a “demand” to the European Parliament, requesting that the European Parliament pay attention to Hong Kong and put pressure on China. It is reported that after returning to Hong Kong, Ma claimed that the British had taught him that: “Your issues should be left outside the British embassy in China, as the consulate in Hong Kong is useless.”

Regarding Ma Junlang’s means, Chen Yun once praised him, saying that “Hong Kong, the United Kingdom, the United States, the CPC and the four parties are moving together. These are the struggles of international politics. Hong Kong youths have also begun to learn. You see my disciple Prince Jingyuan – who is leading these things, unyielding, like a general.”

The “Hong Kong independence” thought spread by the “Godfather”, “National Master” and “Prince” has intensified in recent years, from the level of speech to the coordination of action, and now many “Hong Kong independence” groups have taken the lead and performed this at the Hong Kong Book Fair. Such is this farce.

Group characteristics: fewer people, less voice, bolder

From “Godfather” to “Prince”, from “anti-colonization” to “anti-China”. In recent years, “Hong Kong independence” organizations have frequently made publicity and created many incidents.

On June 14th this year, Hong Kong police arrested 10 radical Hong Kong independence elements and destroyed its bomb-making factory. According to local police, these people originally conspired to launch a terrorist attack on the Hong Kong government headquarters and the Legislative Council to create a “Hong Kong Island explosion.”

These radicals claim to be affiliated with the “Hong Kong independence” organization “National Independence Party”. The organization once threatened on its own Facebook page. “If 617 passes the political reform vote, Hong Kong people must be psychologically prepared to have casualties on the day. Will become the second Ukrainian ruins.”

The Facebook page of the “National Independence Party” was only established in January this year, except for any public reports on the page that advocated “Hong Kong independence” and the bomb incident. Some media speculated that the organization was only established at the beginning of this year.

The “National Independence Party” is quite representative of many Hong Kong-independent organizations in the moment. They all rely on the Internet to make voices. They are a few people with small voices, and yet try to act courageous.

In 2004, a page called “I am a Hong Kong connection” appeared on the Internet. The website advocates Hong Kong’s “independent Statehood” and claims to launch a public opinion campaign through the network movement to allow “Hong Kong independence” to sprout. In addition to the “Hong Kong independence” thinking, the website also advocates that Xinjiang, the three eastern provinces, Inner Mongolia, Taiwan, Tibet and other places be “independent”, and on the map, the Mainland China will become “China Pig.” In 2005, Hong Kong’s Wen Wei Po (文匯報) published an article criticizing the Hong Kong-only website and said it was “not legitimate.”

After the popularity of the Internet, many “Hong Kong independence” groups have established their own homepages. In 2011, dozens of users of the Gaodeng online community in Hong Kong established the “Hong Kong Local Power” organization. The organization threatened to “defend the local culture and demand the separation of the port.” In March of the same year, the Hong Kong Government distributed 6,000 Hong Kong dollars to Hong Kong residents. The organization claimed that 6,000 yuan was a “permanent resident’s unique welfare”. New immigrants were not entitled to receive it, and then participated in demonstrations initiated by the Pan-Democrats.

In 2012, a warm-hearted citizen organization that advocated “cultural nation-building” was established. The organization emphasizes “localism” and operates the “Hot Blood Times” website, blogs, and publications. According to its “Hot Blood Times” “reports”, the organization initiated and participated in a number of demonstrations. For example, in August 13th, the chief executive Liang Zhenying (梁振英) went to the Kwun Tong Kung Lok Kung Ching Secondary School to conduct a second meeting in the district to discuss public activities. 200 people were present at the show.”

In July of the 12th, a Hong Kong independence Facebook homepage “I am a Hong Kong native, who is a Chinese” was launched. On the website, the organization claimed that “Hong Kong people have the ability to stand on their own feet and must be self-determined.” In September of the same year, members of the organization slogan “Chinese people go back to China” during the anti-water passenger demonstrations. Since then, the organization has waved the flag of Hong Kong under British rule during the protests in front of the Hong Kong Liaison Office. According to media reports, about 100 people participated in the protests.

The “I am a Hong Kong person, who is a Chinese person” organization has subsequently split, and some members have jointly established a “Hong Kong people first” group with another “Hong Kong independence” organization. Two members of the organization, Zhao Xing (招顯聰) and Zhang Hanxian (張漢賢), took the Hong Kong British flag and entered the PLA headquarters in Hong Kong. They shouted slogans and demanded that “the PLA withdraw from Hong Kong.” This is the first time since Hong Kong’s return in 1997 that a fascist Hong Kong group has directly confronted the PLA.

As can be seen from the above, most of these so-called Hong Kong-independent groups are only active on the Internet, and there are only a few people participating in occasional demonstrations. It is the norm of these organizations to create movements through extreme speech and violent action. It is best to advocate the splitting of Inner Mongolia and the Northeast, and to create an explosive terrorist incident. It is the best example to wave the Hong Kong and British flags at the gates of government agencies and military camps. In addition, these “Hong Kong independence” groups are also actively involved in terrorist activities (condoned by the West).

In the anti-water cargo demonstrations at the beginning of this year, the violent elements that harassed, detained and assaulted tourists were affiliated to the “Hong Kong independence” group. In the “Occupy Central” campaign, the “Hong Kong independence” group “local democracy front line” even threatened to “combative violence” and encouraged members to wear helmets and armour used in sports. The “Hong Kong independence” group “hot blood citizens” are often referred to as “hot dogs” by members of other groups because of the frequent use of hate-speech and physical violence in their activities.

External forces: Hong Kong Independence, Britain and Taiwan Independence.

In addition to extreme rhetoric and extreme actions, these “Hong Kong independence” groups often “bargain” with foreign and reactionary forces to seek assistance and express their opinions.

According to the “Ta Kung Pao” report, Ma Junlang, who established the “Hong Kong Independence Party”, initiated and led the farce of “occupying the British Consulate in Hong Kong” at the end of November last year, and even asked “Britian to recover Hong Kong” and impose “British sanctions” on China. In December last year, the Foreign Affairs Committee of the House of Commons of the British Parliament officially sent an invitation to Ma Junlang, hoping that he would attend the hearing of the Foreign Affairs Committee. It is reported that due to the expiration of Ma’s passport, Chen Yun sent two other people. Two disciples of Chen Yun even issued the absurd request that “the United Kingdom should restart the Nanjing Treaty.”

Many “Hong Kong independence” groups have used the “Hong Kong flag” used by British colonial authorities in various demonstrations. Some people even waved the British flag and called on Britain to “recover” Hong Kong. This topic has been hot on the social media in the UK. Some British people said, “If you can betray your country, China, one day you will definitely betray Britain. Please go away, thank you.”

In addition to the United Kingdom, the “Taiwan independence” forces are also important targets for “Hong Kong independence”.

The National Independence Party, which created the bomb storm, issued a document on its website stating that the organization is committed to linking “Taiwan independence” and “Hong Kong independence” – uniting factions of Taiwan and Hong Kong together to form a new group of ultra-nationalistic independent forces.

Chen Yun, the godfather of “Hong Kong independence”, went to Taiwan this year to discuss with the “Taiwan independence theorist” Lin Zhuoshui (林濁水) the “development and prospects of the Hong Kong and Taiwan native movements”.

For “Taiwan independence and Hong Kong independence”, “Taiwan independence pioneer”, former Democratic Progressive Party Chairman Shi Mingde (施明德) called this “reaching.”  Shi Mingde said that no one will challenge “Hong Kong is a part of China and the sovereignty of the Hong Kong SAR belongs to the People’s Republic of China” (this is a fact).

Shi Mingde also said that he does not know who is really behind the “Hong Kong independence” movement…

To the United Kingdom, “seeking assistance” and pulling “Taiwan independence” to form a partnership. “Hong Kong independence” is taking the old road of “Taiwan independence.” “Hong Kong independence” threatened “Hong Kong first, Hong Kong priority, Hong Kong subjectivity”. The same argument was made by replacing the subject with Taiwan in a few decades. “Hong Kong independence” plans to sit in the shadow of British, and Lee Teng-hui (李登輝) being no different to the Imperial Japanese. The “Hong Kong independence” movement originated at the beginning of the anti-colonial era, and today “Hong Kong independence” elements wave the British flag, “National Division” is encouraged by Chen Yun who is using the concept of national education to “erase the historical system of the British and British period”, whilst replacing it with fascistic thinking and imperial bias. In order to deny the central government, the separatist forces have highlighted their “independence’ from both Communist China and the imperialist West, whilst rejecting Communist China and embracing the (modern) capitalist West! Given the illogical basis to these movements, it is not difficult to understand why there are some easily led people in Taiwan who have protested on the streets because of “history textbooks emphasize Japan’s exploitation and oppression of the local people”, and why Hong Kong has asked the British to restart the “Nanjing Treaty”.

Wang Guoxing (王國興), chairman of the Hong Kong Federation of Trade Unions, repeatedly pointed out in the Legislative Council that “the ghost of Hong Kong independence is flying over Hong Kong.” In recent years, some Hong Kong-based militants have been spreading the ideas of radicalism and violence to young people in Hong Kong in an attempt to take root in the hearts of the youth. Although the “Hong Kong independence” trend of thought has not “scarred” society, it must be stopped as soon as possible; those who deliberately promote false ideas and mislead young people are “of an impure mind” and society needs to guard against it.

Author: Bian YiZu (邊驛卒)

Original Chinese Language Text:





  思想變遷:反殖 反共 反華






















  重要人物:教父 國師 太子




















  團體特點:人少 聲音小 膽子大













  外部勢力:港獨 港英 臺獨













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