The Chinese ideogram ‘精’ (jing1) dates back to the Seal Characters standardised during the Qin Dynasty (221-206 BCE) and the Han Dynasties (206 BCE-220 CE)
Of course, if the Buddhist experience of ‘empty space’ is purely subjective, then how can it be ascertained that such an experience is ‘real’ as opposed to ‘imagined’?
Alchemy and Hermeticism, in its purest and most logical form, is the nearest Western teaching to that of Chinese transformative Daoism, particularly Alchemy and Hermeticism
Alan Watts, I suspect, is mixing Western notions of Japanese Zen with modern, Western concepts of science, and he does this very well, but the point he is missing is that from the perspective of Chinese Ch’an, there is a stage of development he does not know about and therefore is missing in his analysis.
The Buddha advises that all those who follow his path must ‘uproot’ ALL ignorance. This instruction alone proves that the Buddha was a ‘scientist’ and not a religious teacher in the conventional sense.
This, in effect, is the realised integration of ‘existence’ and ‘non-existence’ in an instant. This would imply that everything exists and does not exist simultaneously – and this includes all notions of ‘god’ and ‘non-god’. Although I am not religious in anyway, I can truthfully state that god exists AND does not exist in equal measure, and that I am disinterested in either view.