Ludwig Boltzmann, being fully aware that atoms had to be ‘statistically’ proven to exist, exercised his particular genius, and developed a mathematical formula which proved the existence and behaviour of atoms.
His mathematical breakthrough (although confirmed by Einstein as ‘correct’) is ignored, and the concept that the universe has a definite beginning is instead erroneously ascribed to Edwin Hubble.
Another way in which these ‘unseen’ substances are known to be present is through the effect they appear to have on objects moving through what was once thought to be ’empty’ space. There appears to be a ‘gravitational’ effect on objects moving through apparently ’empty’ space that should not be happening if space was in fact ’empty’.
As Wittgenstein was trained as an engineer, it is reasonable to assume that he thought that logic could be (or should be) described as if it where a machine comprised of individually functioning parts, that when operated together, produce the desired ‘manufactured’ object.
As a ‘science’ opposed to a faith-base religion, utopian Socialism or sets of superstitious beliefs, the Scientific Socialism of Marx and Engels, provided an ‘objective’ observation of the material world (in its socio-economic and political-cultural manifestation), whilst operating a predictive model of changes yet to come, premised firmly upon concrete existential conditions.
Benoit Mandelbrot (1924-2010), was a Polish-born, Jewish Mathematician, who migrated with his family to France in 1936 (where they acquired French citizenship). Poland had entered