Mao Zedong Thought: an Integration of Marxist-Leninism & Hakka Attitudes

00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Mao Taihua (毛太华) – Latter Yuan-Early Ming Dynasties

Original Chinese Language Article By: http://www.sohu.com/a/137441211_238318

(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

Translator’s Note: Mao Zedong was an ‘Internationalist’ inspired by the works of Marx and Engels, and Marx and Lenin. He correctly perceived Joseph Stalin as a great Proletariat leader, and was dedicated to improving the physical and psychological living conditions of the Chinese people and the world. However, it has long been discussed in China that Mao Zedong’s family was of ‘Hakka’ origin. This term is written in Chinese text as ‘客家’ and is written in pinyin as ‘Ke Jia’. When Chinese people of Northern origin migrated into already occupied Southern areas of China, the local speaking Guangdonghua (i.e. ‘Cantonese’) population pronounced ‘客家’ as ‘Hak Gar’, and this has entered into Western translation as ‘Hakka’. The term ‘客家’ (i.e. ‘Guest People’) was originally intended as an ethnic slur, and was used to refer to newly arrived migrant communities who were not welcome, and subject to a permanent political, social and cultural exclusion. These Northern ‘Hakka’ were forced to exist on the worst areas of Southern land that the local population did not want, whilst forced to pay extortionately high rates. Whilst demonised at every turn, the Hakka used their ingenuity and turned barren landscapes into fertile farming grounds. The Hakka spoke a Northern dialect, were dedicated to a Confucian reverence for scholarly endeavour, were experts at farming in harsh conditions, and extensive practised martial systems for health and self-defence. In many Hakka areas, the Hakka people became famous for their self-contained ‘round houses’ which resembled Western castles (whilst other Hakka built their dwellings in Confucian square formations). Due to the persecution experienced, the Hakka people developed a very robust sense of identity that strove for ‘justice’ and ‘equality’. Life for the average Hakka clan was one of exclusion, hard-work and political, social and cultural inequality. This led to a continuous rebellious streak within the Hakka personality which lended itself to any and all progressive Revolutionary movements. During the fight for ‘Liberation’ the Hakka people found acceptance within the Communist Party of China and the Chinese Red Army. This gave them the means to enter fully into Chinese society as ‘equal’ citizens who expanded their search for justice and equality to include all Chinese people and the entirety of humanity. During the successful Socialist Revolution in China, the Hakka people became highly trusted and effective Revolutionaries at every level of society. This article suggests that the concept of ‘Socialism with Chinese characteristics’ is in fact Marxist-Leninism integrated with the Hakka Revolutionary view of the world. (ACW 3.3.2018)

Mao Zedong (毛泽东) was not an ‘ethnic Hakka’, but he was a ‘Hakka by descent’. He was a thoroughly modern Chinese person who contributed extensively to the development of China, and whether conscience or not, he expressed a life-long interest in Hakka culture that appears to be a product of his ancestry. Indeed, the above portrait is of ‘Mao Taihua’ (毛太华) who lived during the latter Yuan Dynasty and early Ming Dynasty. His home territory was Jishui County situated in Jiangxi Province. However, due to invasion he migrated to the Lancang Wei area of Yunnan (now known as Lijiang City, Yongsheng County). Therefore, Mao Taihua maybe considered the first of Mao Zedong’s ‘Hakka’ ancestors to have migrated southward, the generational lineage of whom eventually produced the First Chairman of the People’s Republic of China.

Over 500 years ago, Mao Taihua’s people constituted the Hakka population in the Ji’an area of Jiangxi. Prior to this, Mao Taihua’s clan ancestral home was the Xiangtan area of Hunan. The Mao clan was successful and became stronger and expanded as the generations came and went. Although these Hakka people did not know this at the time, their clan would produce one of the most important figures in modern Chinese history. However, although ‘Hakka’ in origin, the Mao clan would eventually become recognised and accepted as ‘locally originated people’ (本地人 – Ben Ti Ren) – as if they had always lived in the south and had never migrated into the area. Overtime, this Mao clan assimilated into the local culture and became indistinguishable from it – this is why Mao Zedong was not born into ethnic Hakka culture. although Mao Taihua would never think of Mao Zedong – his 20th generation descendent – Mao Zedong, on the other hand, could not stop thinking about his Hakka past. Many consider the Mao clan ‘blessed’ for this reason, particularly as Mao Zedong met two extraordinary women during his early life – one was named Yang Kaihui (杨开慧), and the other was named He Zizhen (贺子珍). One was a ‘Hakka by descent’, whilst the other was an ‘ethnic Hakka’.

Yang Kaihui (杨开慧)

8b8add4bddff4cd9a37e23ea4c7fcf42_th

Yang Kaihui, like Mao Zedong, was a Hakka by descent whose family had migrated from Hunan to Jiangxi. Although this is a fact, very few people know this today.  A poem written by Mao Zedong in the classical form is entitled ‘Butterfly Loves the Flower – answer Li Shouyi’ is in memory of his late wife. In the sentence which reads ‘I lost the noble and proud Yang (who was strong like a) willow tree’ – ‘proud Yang’ refers to the deceased Yang Kaihui. Yang Kaihui was born on the 6.11.1901 and her other last name ‘Xia’ (霞) and her other first names were ‘Yunjin’ (云锦). Her father was a famous scholar and professor at the Normal University in Hunan. He was Mao Zedong’s first academic teacher. Mao Zedong married his daughter in winter, 1920.

Yang Changli (杨昌济)

00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

Yang Changli’s family was from the Changsha County area of Hunan (near Bancang) which is today known as ‘Kaihui township’, but his ancestors were from the Ji’an area of Jiangxi. Yang Changli’s father was called ‘Hong Fen’ (宏芬) and was also a university professor in Hunan. This Hakka Yang family spread to Pu Tang, Jian Shan, and Ba Mao Tian in Jiangxi, as well as Xiao Dong, Yang Shan and other places. In 1948, the Yang Hakka clan had produced 24 generations with a population of over 7000 people. In the 40th year of the reign of the Qing Emperor Qianlong (乾隆) – that is 1775 CE – this Hakka Yang family built an Ancestral Hall in Ba Mao Tian.

He Zizhen (贺子珍)

f639d797ab0846f4813ab0cfc6798600_th

The ‘Respected Yang Township of Pu Tang’ is now in the Kaihui Village area of Kaihui Township. Yang Changli’s ancestor was ‘Yang Wenbin’ (杨文斌), who was from the Ji’an area of Jiangxi. Mao Zedong’s ancestor – Mao Taihua – was also from the Ji’an area of Jiangxi. Yang Wenbin migrated in Hunan during the first year of the reign of the Ming Emperor Yongjie (永乐), where he established the foundation of the Respected Yang Township in the Changsha County area. Mao Taihua migrated from Jiangxi to Yunnan, and then from Yunnan to Xiangxiang County area of Hunan during the 13th year of the reign of the Ming Emperor Hongwu (洪武) – or 1380 CE. In this sense, Yang Changji’s ancestors came to Hunan more than 20 years earlier than Mao Zedong’s ancestors. Therefore, by 1948, the Hakka Yang family stood at 24 generations, whilst the Hakka Mao family stood at 20 generations. The Hakka Yang family was also slightly more populous than the Mao Hakka family. Yang Kaihui and Mao Zedong might never have realised the ‘love’ that exists between all Hakka clans, but many generations after the founding of these clans, these two came together expressing feelings of affection. Mao Zedong encountered another extraordinary Hakka woman in He Zizhen. He Zizhen was formerly known as ‘Gui Yuan’ (桂媛) and was born in Huangjuling Village (near Yunshan Township) during the Mid-Autumn Festival in 1909, which lies in the Southern Wan Yang Shan area of Yongxin County, Jiangxi. He Zizhen was the eldest daughter of He Huanwen (贺焕文) – a member of the Yongxin landed gentry. Mao Zedong and He Zizhen became partners in 1928, at the Jinggangshan base situated in Yongxin County, Jiangxi. Although the Inggangshan base was spread over a wide geographical placement, the Yongxin County area of it was very important. Speaking both Hakka and Gan dialects – He Zizhen was an ethnic Hakka by birth. Sho Long (舒龙) states in the ‘The Traditional Virtue of Hakka Women in the Zhu Mao Red Army’, that He Zizhen (and her people from the Yongxin County area) were of Hakka ethnicity.

Mao Zedong and He Zizhen

b05ec318e8d6452ea160306df5acf3e3_th

Kong Dongmei (孔东梅), in ‘Listen to Grandmother About Past Things – Mao Zedong and He Zizhen’ (Central Literature Publishing House, February 2005) states that ‘In the spring of 1928, Grandmother and Grandfather came to Bian Village in Yongxin, to launch the land reform campaign in Jinggangshan. However, the local Hakka dialect was difficult to understand, and so Grandmother acted as translator for Grandfather. This is how the two became close to one another.’ Of course, He Zizhen was an ethnic Hakka, and Mao Zedong’s close association with her meant that he learned much about Hakka culture and thinking. This is how Mao Zedong – as a Hakka of descent – re-encountered ethnic Hakka culture.

Hakka Preference for Revolution in China

The Hakka people in question descend from ancestry in Ji’an (Jiangxi) during the early Ming Dynasty. Mao Zedong was a native of Xiangtan (Hunan), but during the 1920’s and 1930’s, almost as if by an act of destiny, Mao Zedong returned to the origin of his Hakka ancestry. Just as fish cling to the water, and the tiger heads to the hills, Mao Zedong was historically drawn toward Jiangxi. It was from here that his career as a great Revolutionary leader was born.

Mao Zedong was already a man of authentic Hunan origination, and had a liking for spicy food and loved to eat roasted pork. Whilst fighting for a Socialist Revolution in Hunan, Jiangxi and Fujian, he often ate rejuvenating Hakka food. This included steamed fish, dumplings and ‘four stars – full moon’. In many ways, the Revolutionary situation ensured the unshakeable bond between Mao Zedong and ethnic Hakka culture. Indeed, the Revolutionary Period of modern China contributed to the people of Hunan re-discovering their Hakka culture and the Hakka love of rebellion and Revolution. When Hakka people and the non-Hakka Chinese people united, they both changed the world forever.

Autumn Harvest Uprising

During the Second Revolutionary Civil War, the border areas of Hunan and Jiangxi, Jinggangshan Base Area and the Central Soviet Area became the headquarters of the Red Revolution and the National Soviet Movement. This area almost coincides with the geographical area of the ‘Hakka Base Camp’ (southern Jiangxi, western Fujian and eastern Guangdong). The importance of the two ‘strongholds’ have given sacred historical missions to Hakka people descended from ancient times.

From the ‘Thunderbolt Riot’ of the Autumn Uprising of September, 1927, to ‘Huangyang Sector Cannon Booming’ Incident, and the later ‘Gan River Snow Blizzard’ operation, the Red Flag was carried by Hakkas and non-Hakkas alike across rivers and up mountains. Finally, there was the Long March which began in October, 1934. Mao Zedong and his companions led the Red Army of the Chinese Workers and Peasants for 7 years, whilst traversing the vast Hakka regions of Hunan, Jiangxi, Fujian and Guangdong.

The ‘Xingguo County’ records state that: ‘During the Second Revolutionary Civil War, the lives of 230,000 people improved, whilst recruitment for the army reached more than 80,000 people. During the Revolutionary fighting there was sacrificed more than 23,000 martyrs. The Red Army then had to participate in the endless Long March. After every mile there was buried yet another Hakka hero from Xingguo.’ Xingguo was a place known as a ‘pure’ Hakka area which became known as the ‘County of Generals’ – producing 62 Generals in all (even the Nationalist KMT possessed 30 Generals from the Xingguo area).

After the Long March, the War of Resistance Against Japan, the War of Liberation and the War to Resist the United States and aid the country, more than 100 Hakka people throughout the country became Generals in the People’s Liberation Army. A large number of State-level talents were displayed by Hu Yaobang (胡耀邦). More importantly, in this time (during the period of the Agrarian Revolution), Mao Zedong integrated Hakka cultural thinking with that of Marxism-Leninism – and the reality of the Chinese Revolution. This subsequent body of knowledge has become known as Mao Zedong Thought and serves as the guiding ideology of the Communist Party of China.

e2f6857b3c094cfeabc6694df26d87b9_th

What is interesting is that it was a Hakka person who first coined the term ‘Mao Zedong Thought’. In 1941, the Hakka author Zhang Ruxin (张如心) published his article entitled ‘On Bolshevik Education’ (in the 16th issue of ‘Communists’), which first made reference to the concept of ‘Mao Zedong Thought’. At the 7th National People’s Congress of the Communist Party of China held in 1945, Mao Zedong Thought was enshrined in the Party Constitution and Mao Zedong Thought became the guiding ideology of the whole Party.

a4f3887cea12c413e8e624cdf926bc83f_th (1)

Jinggangshan (井冈山)

The Hakka people in the Jinggangshan area basically came from Jiaying (now Meizhou, Guangdong, including Meixian, Pingyuan, Tai Po, Wuhua, Xingning, Longchuan and other eastern regions) of Guangdong in the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties, but also migrated from Fujian, Hangzhou, Longyan and other Hakka settlements. When the Hakka people first arrived in this area they were very poor and wore skins and lived in bamboo shacks. Hundreds of years later, during the 1920’s and 1930’s, the descendents of these Hakkas met with Mao Zedong and his comrades. Mao Zedong re-discovered his Hakka roots at this time, and was pulled toward ethnic Hakka culture.

In the spring of 1928, Mao Zedong made a survey of two counties, Ningyang and Yongxin. Coupled with the previous investigation into the five counties in eastern Hunan, Mao Zedong made clear the origins and distribution of Hakka in Hunan, Jiangxi, Fujian and Guangdong Provinces, their economic as well as social status, their urgent desire to turn over their allegiance to the Red Army due to their frustrations about the failure of the National Revolution. This included familiarity with their customs and practices, as well as their historical and existential resentments with non-Hakka natives. This research and its achievements are embodied in his book entitled ‘The Battle of Jinggangshan’, which states:

‘Indigenous issues: There is one more special thing in these Hakka counties. There is a great demarcation between natives of ethnic origin and those who moved from the North hundreds of years ago. History has seen a very deep hatred and sometimes fierce fighting between the two groups. This kind of Hakka people has its origins in the borders of Fujian and Guangdong, and along the border between Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces which stretches to the south of Hubei Province – perhaps numbering a few million. The occupation of the mountains by the Hakka is a product of repression by the natives who occupy the best land, and exclude the Hakka from all political rights. In recent years, the National Revolution has welcomed the Hakkas who have proven to be good thinkers and brave fighters. The Hakkas are frustrated at the failure of the National Revolution and are now prepared to join the Red Army all across their homelands. In all these regions, the Hakkas are oppressed by landlords and the aristocracy. As these are enemies of the people, the Communist Party of China welcomes all the Hakka people into its ranks. Although in the various regions there is much ethnic strife, under the leadership of the Communist Party the enemies of the people will be over-thrown and their tyranny brought to an end. Our approach is to propagandize the slogans ‘Do not kill the farmers even if they resist’, and ‘Give back the stolen fields to all farmers” so that they are free from the influence of the gentry, and can go home with peace of mind. Education is the key to remove the violence between Hakkas and non-Hakkas. All Chinese people are equal and we should not allow the landed gentry to divide us with their bourgeois attitudes.’

99b707bbd2ea44c9802f5a1387045772_th

This is a classic discourse which uses Marxist dialectics to remedy the Hakka – native conflict issue. Mao Zedong clearly integrates Marxist-Leninist thinking with Hakka ideas and creates a synthesis of the two. Hakka attitudes of steadfastness, fighting spirit and Revolution are all part of Mao Zedong Thought.

©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2018

Chinese Language Source Article:

http://www.sohu.com/a/137441211_238318

毛主席与客家的不解之缘,你知道么?

毛泽东不是客家人,但是他的一生与客家人结下了不解之缘。毛泽东是客家人后裔,中华民族的一代伟人,不管有意无意,他一生中构造的客家情结,剪不断,解不开,留下了千古佳话。hakkanews与客家女性的旷世奇缘

毛太华,祖籍在江西吉水县,元末明初因避乱迁至云南澜沧卫(今丽江市永胜县),是中华人民共和国第一届主席毛泽东的先祖。

500年前的江西吉安客家人、毛氏始祖毛太华,辗转落籍湖南湘潭,世代繁衍,其后代已经“演变”成为当地的“本地人”,这大概是他所未能预料的。但是,毛太华也绝对不会想到,他的第20代孙毛泽东,在一生中却又与客家人结下了旷世奇缘。恍惚暝暝中有先祖之灵庇佑,毛泽东早年遇到的两位传奇女性——杨开慧和贺子珍,一个是客家后裔,一个是地道客家人。

杨开慧

杨开慧与毛泽东一样,是从江西迁入湖南的客家人后裔,这似乎很少为人所知。毛泽东词《蝶恋花•答李淑一》是怀念亡妻之作,其中有句“我失骄杨君失柳”,“骄杨”指亡妻杨开慧。

杨昌济

杨开慧,名霞,字云锦,1901年11月6日出生,是著名学者、毛泽东在湖南第一师范求学时的老师杨昌济教授的独生女,1920年冬与毛泽东结婚。杨昌济家在长沙县板仓(现名开慧乡),其先祖来自江西吉安。

父亲杨昌济,谱名宏芬,湖南大学教授。族人分布在蒲塘、涧山、拔茅田及平江西乡之小洞、华洋山等地。至1948年,已传24代,全族人口7000余人。清乾隆四十年(公元1775年)建宗祠于拔茅田。

贺子珍

“尊阳乡蒲塘”,即今之开慧乡开慧村一带。杨昌济先祖杨文斌,是江西吉安人;毛泽东先祖毛太华,也是江西吉安人。杨文斌随父迁湘“开基于长沙县尊阳乡蒲塘”,是在“明永乐初年”;毛太华从吉安至云南澜沧卫后移居湖南湘乡县,是在明朝洪武十三年(公元1380年)。

这样说来,杨昌济先祖比毛泽东先祖仅晚来湖南20多年。杨家“至1948年,已传24代”,而毛家至毛泽东是第20代,杨家比毛家子孙繁衍稍显稠密。杨开慧与毛泽东,杨家与毛家,也许从来就没有意识到彼此之间的客家情愫,但是,他们的家世明白无误地告诉我们,客家的一根红线,延续数百年,竟然最终又把他们系在一起了。毛泽东遇到的另一个传奇女性贺子珍,原名桂媛,又名自珍,生于1909年中秋,是江西省永新县南部万洋山区云山乡黄竹岭村人,永新乡绅贺焕文长女。

1928年,在井冈山头,贺子珍与毛泽东结合。江西省永新县是井冈山根据地的重要组成部分,通行客家话和赣语,贺子珍一家是客家人。舒龙在《客家妇女的传统美德与“朱毛红军”的巾帼风采》中开宗明义介绍说:“贺子珍,江西永新客家人。”

毛泽东与贺子珍

孔东梅《听外婆讲那过去的事情——毛泽东与贺子珍》(中央文献出版社,2005年2月)说道:“1928年春,外婆和外公先后来到井冈山下永新塘边村发动土地改革。当地客家方言难懂,外婆是外公的翻译,两人有了比较密切的接触。”

从另一个角度说明贺子珍是客家人。毛泽东与客家妹子贺子珍的结合,是否就意味着作为客家后裔的毛泽东对于客家的回归,姑且不论;但是,这无疑为毛泽东的了解客家、研究客家,并进而形成他的客家观,具有重大的意义。

hakkanews

客家情缘与中国革命

明朝初年江西吉安客家人的后裔、湖南湘潭人毛泽东,在20世纪二三十年代,仿佛是历史的刻意安排,居然又回到了他的客家祖居地一带,如鱼得水,如虎归山,做出了轰轰烈烈的大事业。

已经是地道的湖南人,一生有嗜辣、爱吃红烧肉生活习惯的毛泽东,转战湘、赣、闽红色根据地时,却为一道兴国客家菜“蒸笼粉鱼”所倾倒,并兴味盎然地名之为“四星望月”。这一件看似细小却富有深意的“情节”,蕴涵着毛泽东与客家的不解缘分。中国现代革命史让湖南湘潭人毛泽东再续祖上的客家情缘,与客家人一起摸爬滚打,与全中国人民一道,改变了中国与世界。

秋收起义

在第二次国内革命战争时期,湘赣边区、井冈山根据地、中央苏区,成了红色革命、全国苏维埃运动的大本营。而这个区域,几乎与“客家大本营”(赣南、闽西、粤东)的地域重合。两个“大本营”的机缘际遇,赋予了从远古走来的客家人以神圣的历史使命。

从1927年9月秋收起义“霹雳一声暴动”,到“黄洋界上炮声隆”,历经“赣江风雪迷漫处”,以至“红旗跃过汀江,直下龙岩上杭”,最后到1934年10月开始长征,长达7年,毛泽东和他的同伴们领导中国工农红军,一直在湘、赣、闽、粤的广大客家地区纵横驰骋,建立了旷世奇勋。毛泽东、周恩来、朱德、邓小平等后来成为党和国家领导人的一代英才,都曾在这一地区同客家人一起打拼。“百万工农齐踊跃”,秋收起义的部队,井冈山根据地和中央苏区的红军,其构成基础主要是客家工农大众。在当时的湖南浏阳、江西兴国、福建长汀等红色根据地,素有不畏强暴、百折不挠、尊祖爱国精神的客家人坚信“只有当兵才能救国”,父母送儿上战场、妻子送郎当红军的热潮,经久不息。

据《兴国县志》记载:“第二次国内革命战争中,兴国23万人口,参军参战的达8万余人,为革命牺牲的烈士2.3万余名。”随后追随红军参加二万五千里长征,“漫漫长征途中,几乎每一公里就有一名兴国籍烈士长眠”。后来这个纯客家县成了著名的将军县,全县出了62位共和国将军(还有30多位国民党将军也是兴国客家人)。

经过长征、抗日战争、解放战争和抗美援朝,全国有超过百位客家人成为解放军的将军,涌现了以胡耀邦为代表的一大批经国纬世之才。更重要的是,在这一时期(土地革命时期)、这一地区(客家人聚居地区),毛泽东创造性地把马克思列宁主义与中国革命实际相结合,作为中国共产党指导思想的毛泽东思想,得以奠定基础。

耐人寻味的是,很早甚至是第一个提出“毛泽东思想”一词的,是一位客家人。1941年,客家人张如心在《共产党人》杂志第16期上发表《论布尔什维克的教育家》一文,最先使用了“毛泽东同志的思想”这一提法。在1945年中国共产党第七次全国代表大会上,“毛泽东思想”被载入党章,毛泽东思想成为全党的指导思想。

hakkanews

毛泽东的客家观

井冈山

井冈山区域的客家人,基本上是明末清初自广东的嘉应州(今梅州市地区,包括梅县、平远、大埔、五华、兴宁、龙川等粤东地区)以及福建上杭、龙岩等客家人聚居地区迁移而来的。他们初来时曾经有过相当长的时期住着杉皮、竹片搭盖的棚子,所以又被称为棚民。经过几百年的艰苦磨难,他们来到了20世纪二三十年代,遇见了毛泽东和他的同事们。毛泽东也就是在这个时候、这个地区,认识了客家人,了解了客家人,并从而形成了他的客家观。

一向注重调查研究,主张一切从实际出发的毛泽东,在客家地区开展革命,当然要去了解客家、研究客家。为了启发客家工农的阶级觉悟,激励他们的革命意志,提高他们的无产阶级思想水平,毛泽东想方设法熟悉客家、亲近客家工农大众。他最常用的办法是做深入细致的社会调查,取得对客家问题的发言权。

1928年春,毛泽东做了宁冈、永新两县调查,加上此前的湘东五县调查,使他弄清了湘、赣、闽、粤等省客家的来历与分布,明白了他们在当地的经济状况和社会地位,感受到他们要求翻身的迫切愿望和对于国民革命失败的沮丧心情,及至熟知他们的民性习俗,他们和土籍的历史的、现实的仇怨。这种研究及其成果,集中体现在他的著作《井冈山的斗争》,文中说:

土客籍问题:边界各县还有一件特别的事,就是土客籍的界限。土籍的本地人和数百年前从北方移来的客籍人之间存在着很大的界限,历史上的仇怨非常深,有时发生很激烈的斗争。这种客籍人从闽粤边起,沿湘、赣两省边界,直至鄂南,大概有几百万人。客籍占领山地,为占领平地的土籍所压迫,素无政治权利。前年和去年的国民革命,客籍表示欢迎,以为出头有日。不料革命失败,客籍被土籍压迫如故。我们的区域内,宁冈、遂川、酃县、茶陵,都有土客籍问题,而以宁冈的问题为最严重。前年至去年,宁冈的土籍革命派和客籍结合,在共产党领导之下,推翻了土籍豪绅的政权,掌握了全县……我们的办法是一面宣传“不杀反水农民”,“反水农民回来一样得田地”,使他们脱离豪绅的影响,安心回家;一面由县政府责令客籍农民将没收的财物退还原主,并出布告保护土籍农民。在党内,加紧教育,务使两部分党员团结一致。

这段对“土客籍问题”的经典论述,拨开了重重迷雾,在历史上第一次用马克思主义唯物辩证法和阶级斗争学说剖析土客矛盾问题,集中体现了毛泽东的客家观。

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

w

Connecting to %s