It seems peculiar that a White American would appear to excel in a combat sport, who possessed a name that sounded very similar to that of the ‘Brown Bomber (and World Heavyweight Boxing Champion) Joseph Louis Barrow (1914-1981) – otherwise known to boxing fans as ‘Joe Louis’. This Joe Louis was treated with a racist disdain by the US System, but despite this he agreed to marshal African-American support for the ‘White’ US war against imperial Japan, despite the fact that American-Japanese citizens (who were imprisoned in Concentration Camps within the US for the duration of the Pacific War – 1941-45) were treated with an equal racist disdain by the American White establishment. What was Joe Louis’s reward for this loyalty to the US government? He was landed with a huge tax bill after WWII that virtually bankrupted him and plunged him into a state of permanent poverty. The other ‘Joe Lewis’ became famous primarily throughout the White communities of the USA, as he ticked all the Eurocentrically significant boxes; he was ‘White’, of course, and presented an image of ‘clean’ living. He was also viewed as a ‘patriot’ having joined the US Marine Corp when still in his teens. In the light of the destructive actions of the US military around the globe since 1945 (often aided and abated by the CIA), perhaps the pseudonym the ‘White Bomber’ might have been apt for this individual, but his ‘bombs’ were of the ideological kind. This ‘warrior-monk’ persona served him well amongst the pockets of religious fundamentalism that were spread throughout the US heartland, and endeared him to millions of White Americans in the process. As at one time he moved into acting, his Hollywood persona fitted-in quite nicely with that of John Wayne – and generally the Republican image of what a true ‘American’ should be. As such, he was an ideal candidate for the US Cold War policy of re-invigorating post-war Japan, and allowing a resurgence of Japanese racism and nationalism, as a means to confront the perceived threat of Communist China in Asia. Immediately following Japan’s defeat by the US, the US occupying forces immediately banned all military and martial activities throughout Japanese society. However, it was soon realised that the very fascistic Japanese nationalism that had once been so ruthlessly aimed at US Servicemen, could be re-activated (by the US) and used as an anti-dote to the threat of Chinese Communism. This was when Japanese martial practice was re-introduced to the country, and US Services stationed in Japan and on the island of Okinawa, encouraged to take-up its practice – ostensibly in their spare-time – but in reality as part of their active service. This explains why these so-called ‘leisure’ activities were so well filmed and photographed. The US government had to rapidly build cultural bridges between the Eurocentric, Christian country of America, with that of its brutal former enemy (which the US had dropped two atomic bombs on), and a key area of interaction was chosen through the Japanese martial arts. Japanese (and Okinawan) martial arts, which had originated in China hundreds or thousands of years ago on the feudalistic battlefield, and which were intimately entwined with Confucianism, Buddhism and Daoism, had to be made relevant to a Eurocentric audience of Christian origination, who only really understood modern boxing in a ring. I suspect that the name ‘Joe Lewis’ is either made-up, because it sounds like ‘Joe Louis’ – the famous boxing champion – or chosen because of this similarity. Whatever the case, Joe Lewis was extensively photographed during his training in Shorin Ryu karate on the island of Okinawa (with the teachers of this style apparently being filmed). As any military personnel knows, personal security both on and off duty is of paramount importance for safety – which usually means no unnecessary photographing and filming – and yet the US Marine Joe Lewis has an extensive photographic record of his karate training experience, of some considerable quality. This may be compared to other Westerners who trained in or around Japan, whose only momento is a grainy photograph of poor quality, and perhaps a signed statement from a teacher, etc. As a consequence, Joe Lewis’s life read like a Hollywood script, down to the trumpeting that he achieved his Blackbelt in seven months, when the average time is three years – as if ‘quicker’ is ‘better’ (there is no evidence that it takes three years to earn a Blackbelt, as those willing to ‘pay’ the more commercially minded teachers can acquire one in a matter of months, or even immediately today, through the internet, etc). This ‘seven month’ timespan fits-in nicely with the fact that he spent only sixteen months stationed in Okinawa between May 21st, 1964 and November 29th, 1965. When he returned to the US, Joe Lewis set-about converting the traditional karate art (with its bare hand and foot strikes), into a form of Western boxing in a ring, simultaneously ‘purging’ Japanese karate of its most ‘Japanese’ aspects, and making it familiar and accessible to a Western audience. As a result, Japanese martial culture was historically ‘disconnected’ from its fascistic and militaristic past, and presented in a manner that ‘distanced’ Japan in the Western mind, and ‘mystified’ its culture to an absurd degree. A ‘blackbelt’ was given an almost ‘god-like’ status, as if the holder possessed all kinds of weird and wonderful destructive powers, when in fact modern combative arts, unwedded as they are to this dogmatic thinking, have demonstrated time and again that a piece of coloured material worn around the waist has no deciding power whatsoever in a martial encounter. Traditional Chinese martial arts, of course, the precursors of all karate in Japan and Okinawa, do not possess a coloured belt grading system, as do the Japanese systems, which arose from the practice of modern Judo in Japan, and which was ‘forced’ onto Okinawan karate by the Japanese government. This move was deliberately designed to ‘distance’ the Japanese interpretation of Chinese martial arts, from the Chinese martial arts themselves. The US Intelligence services sought also to ‘distance’ the average Western mind from its general admiration for Chinese culture, to one of ignoring and denigrating ‘Chineseness’ in favour of Japanese culture. The importation of Japanese karate to the West was a confidence trick enacted by the US government as an attack on Communist China, and people like Joe Lewis were prime operators in this deception. It could well be the case that the US Marine known as ‘Joe Lewis’, was sent on a mission by the US government – tasked with acquainting himself with a style of Okinawan karate. This is the implementation of US covert activity against China, carried-out in plain sight. The reality is that traditional Okinawan karate has nothing whatsoever to do with fighting in a modern boxing ring, wearing pads on the hands and feet – and yet it is exactly how ‘Joe Lewis’ conveyed his interpretation to the West. Why did he not emphasis hard body-conditioning, detailed kata practice and application, and sparing with bare-hands and feet? Why did he ignore the Okinawan spirituality that imbues all that island’s (Chinese originated) martial arts? He did none of these things because his intelligence mission was to transform this feudalistic martial art into a ‘modern’ US-approved Cold War sport, very much in the vein of base-ball. Even after initiating these changes in the US (giving the false impression that ‘kick-boxing’ originated in Japan), there were many fighters better than Joe Lewis in the West (including many African-Americans such as Tom Ward), and yet the White American community had already ascribed a ‘mythic’ homogeneity to Joe Lewis that was based just as much upon ‘denial’ than it was on upon ‘ethnic’ solidarity. The ‘White’ US system decided that one of its Marines would become a cultural hero in the US – and the rest is history. Due to this US anti-Chinese policy, Japanese militaristic martial arts spread throughout the Western world as if this phenomenon was ‘normal’ and to be ‘expected’. Logic dictates that there is no historical reason why the martial arts of a militarily defeated country (Japan) should so readily spread through the country that had defeated it (USA). This is as unlikely as a camera being available to take karate-practice photographs of Joe Lewis in Okinawa that look ‘staged’ for publicity reasons. . Finally, there is no objective evidence that Bruce Lee ever referred to Joe Lewis as an ‘excellent fighter’, outside of Joe Lewis’s own opinion. I doubt Bruce Lee would have ever said this about a man whose movements were very and obviously ‘wooden’, and whose technical ability was limited. Joe Lewis made a career out of replacing martial technical skill with high levels of physical fitness (a habit he probably acquired from the US Marine Corp, rather than the Okinawan dojo). It would not be surprising if it was eventually revealed that Joe Lewis never properly trained with Bruce Lee – particularly as Lewis readily admitted that he had a falling-out with Bruce Lee.