China Verses USA: Two Early Battles in the Korean War

Translator’s Note: This is an English translation of the original Chinese text entitled ‘盘点解放军境外十大歼灭战 美军死的很冤枉’ or, ‘PLA Record of Service Overseas – the USA’s Unjust War of Annihilation and the Casualties Caused’. This interesting document lists ten battles in the Korean War, and analyses the PLA’ s victories, performances, and tragic sacrifices. I present here the English translation of the first two major engagements of the PLA in the Korean War listed in this article – the first is against the US trained and armed South Korean Forces at Fei Hu Shan, and the second is against the US Marines at Yun Shan. It is obvious that many Western histories of the Korean War are hopelessly inaccurate and the product of skewed thinking and political bias.  The reality is that the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army – enthused as it was by Communist ideology – inflicted defeat after defeat on the best military forces the capitalist West had to offer.  The Chinese text is a refreshing break from the usual Western narrative which depicts comprehensive military defeats of US forces as a ‘disguised’ victory. I have retained the original Chinese text for the reader’s general interest. ACW 9.11.14

First Engagement: Battle of Fei Hu Shan (飞虎山)

Date: November the 2nd, 1950

Location: North Korea (DPRK) – Fei Hu Shan

Chinese victory: UN vanguard of two South Korean Divisions repulsed suffering 15,000 casualties.

Chinese People's Volunteer Army

Chinese People’s Volunteer Army

On October the 25th, 1950, the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army (志愿军 – Zhi Yuan Jun) – numbering 200,000 – formally entered the Korea War. At that time, the Leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea [朝鲜 – Chao Xian] (DPRK) – Kim Il Sung (金日成) was concerned that as war-planes and tanks had not been able to turn the tide of war, how could a Chinese army comprised solely of ‘volunteers’ be successful? Due to the dire military situation in North Korea at that time, Kim Il Sung was of the opinion that his country was ‘finished’ (完了 – Wan Lao)! The commander of the Chinese Volunteer Army – Peng Dehuai (彭德怀) – laughed out loud at this suggestion, and firmly rejected its implications. Not long afterwards, (on the 2nd of November, 1950), the vanguard of the United Nations Forces – consisting of the 53rd and 55th Divisions – was advancing toward the area Fei Hu Shan (飞虎山), where the 25th and 29th Divisions of the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army was awaiting in ambush. At Fei Hu Shan the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army rapidly attacked the UN Forces that were heading northward with the intention of threatening the sovereign security of the Chinese border. In just three days, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army held the desperate UN Forces in a death-grip that destroyed two entire South Korean Divisions. This encounter demonstrated that beyond its political rhetoric, the United Nations Forces, (led by the United States of America), was nothing more than a toothless tiger!

Success: The 25th and 29th Divisions of the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army were formed from the reorganisation of surrendered Guomindang (国民党) nationalist forces, to form a new army of heroic troops. In function, this new army adopted the Japanese tactic of rapid and aggressive deployment and advance, designed to quickly disorganise and destabilise the enemy. This is the application of ‘suddenness’ and ‘shock’ on the battlefield, which is highly effective during open terrain combat. In the Fei Hu Shan engagement, the Chinese Forces quickly encountered and destroyed the South Korean Forces headquarters, and rendered the South Korean Forces leaderless and confused. This initial action took away the South Korean command and control infrastructure. South Korean discipline then rapidly collapsed and the battle became a massacre.

Failure: The Chinese 38th Army was unable to effectively co-ordinate its advance with the Fei Hu Shan offensive due to intense snow blizzards. This meant that it could not advance rapidly to the Fei Hu Shan area and cut-off the escape route of the retreating South Korean forces. Another factor which slowed down the 38th Army was its capture of a large number of US produced tanks – which none of the Chinese Volunteers could operate. This was a great pity, as these valuable vehicles had to be abandoned. A laughable excuse for the failure to advance is that the Chinese troops were so cold whilst fighting in the North Korean winter that the first thing they did following battles was to rob the warm quilted coats from the dead South Korean soldiers! Another error was the mistaking of the late arriving DPRK’s 8th Division, for a South Korean Division – at this time the two allies (China and North Korea) opened fire on one another’s positions.

Second Engagement: Battle of Yun Shan (云山)

Date: December 11th, 1950

Location: North Korea (DPRK) – Yun Shan

Chinese victory: US 1st Marine Division engaged suffering 15,000 casualties

Chinese Casualties in the Korean War

Chinese Casualties in the Korean War

After the first battle (described above) the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army quickly retreated and MacArthur – the Commander of the US Forces – mistakenly presumed that China had only ‘symbolically committed troops’ and ordered the UN Forces to rush onward in a northerly direction, toward the Chinese border area. MacArthur sentimentalised the conflict by publically stating that the war will be over by Christmas. On the night of December the 11th, 1950, the US 1st Marine Division advanced into the Yun Shan area, and was surrounded by the 38th Chinese People’s Volunteer Army. This is how the first major engagement between US and Chinese forces began. After the US 1st Marine Division was surround by the Chinese forces, the US quickly rushed support into the area.  In turn, the Chinese forces launched an immediate and intensive offensive that was inspired through self-sacrifice and heroism. After suffering massive casualties, the US withdrew its forces from the area to prevent total destruction. The US used this tactic throughout the Korean War so that when obviously losing a battle, they could claim that they withdrew ‘voluntarily’ and therefore ‘never lost a battle’, etc. However, their retreat was blocked by the 175th and 180th Chinese Regiments, who fought tenaciously in an attempt to prevent the US forces from retreating southward in good order. So effective was this blocking action that the US forces lost 15,000 casualties – but the two Chinese blocking Regiments were reduced to just 5 men. The writer Wei Wei (魏巍) recorded their sacrifice in the following prose:

These are the most beautiful of people.’

When surveying the details of this tragic battle, tears cannot help but be shed.

 

©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2014.

 

盘点解放军境外十大歼灭战 美军死的很冤枉

一、飞虎山歼灭战

时间:1950年11月2日

地点:朝鲜飞虎山

战果:全歼韩国两个先头师共计15000人

朝鲜战争

过程简述:1950年10月25日,志愿军20万部队入朝参战。当朝鲜国家主席金日成得知志愿军连飞机坦克都没有的时候,不禁长叹一声“完了”,对此,彭德怀冷笑了一声。不久,联合国军先锋部队韩国53师、55师进逼飞虎山,与中国志愿军25军和29军遭遇,中国志愿军火速出击,在飞虎山设伏。仅用3天时间就虎口拔牙,将两个韩国师全歼,打出了中国军队走出国门的第一仗。

战役成败得失:25军和29军都是由投降的原国民党新一军改编而成的。新一军是抗战的英雄部队,在作战模式上也广泛地采用了日军的特点:即冲击迅速,攻击具有极大的突然性,擅长野地作战。因此在一开战就首先打掉了韩国军队的指挥部,使韩国军队失去指挥,乱成一团,进而一场战斗就变成了对韩国人的大屠杀。

失误:由于担任策应的38军受暴风雪阻碍,未能准时赶赴战场,导致韩国两个团逃脱,此外,此战缴获的大量美国坦克,由于志愿军不会操作,导致白白丢弃,也不能不说是一个遗憾。最笑话的是,缺少棉衣的志愿军战士打完仗后第一件事是抢夺韩国士兵死尸的棉衣御寒,却被珊珊来迟的朝鲜第8师当成了韩国军队开了火,两家盟军稀里糊涂打了一仗。

二、云山会战

时间:1950年12月

地点:朝鲜云山

战果:重创美国陆战1师,消灭美国军队15000人

志愿军

过程简述:第一次战役后,中国志愿军迅速后撤,使美军总司令麦克阿瑟误以为中国是“象征性出兵”。因此美军火速推进,欲在圣诞节前结束朝鲜战争。12月11日夜,美国陆战1师推进到云山地带时,被中国志愿军38军重重包围,这是中美军队之间的第一次大规模会战。得知陆战1师被包围后,美国火速支援,中国志愿军在松骨峰展开了悲壮的阻击战,使美国增援部队在遭受极大伤亡后撤离,保证了战役的胜利,而担任阻击任务的180团和175团,最后只剩下5个人。作家魏巍在散文《谁是最可爱的人》中曾满怀热泪地记录了这段战斗景象。

在第一次战役里,38军因为延误战机受彭总斥责,被骂为“豆腐军”,这支不甘受侮辱的英雄部队在此战中打出了国威军威。经过浴血奋战,重创美国陆战2师,消灭敌人15000人,迫使美军由攻转守,志愿军乘胜追击收复平壤。战斗结束后,彭得怀将军激动的写下“三十八军万岁”六个大字,赠给38军军长范天恩做纪念。

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Original Article:  http://m.miercn.com/bbs/20140225/60531.html

 

 

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