Jack Whitehall’s ‘Bad Education’ Really is ‘Bad’ (2012-2015)


Bad Education was commissioned by BBC3 between 2012-2014 and even spawned a film in 2015. Although universally panned (even by the racist Daily Mail), it has received good ratings upon screening, and has sustained reasonable DVD sales. The problem is that this series as a concept is entirely premised upon its creator – Jack Whitehall’s – middle class stereotypes of the working class and ethnic minorities. Furthermore, its depiction of homosexuality is entirely homophobic in nature, but disguised as ‘inclusion’. In fact, all of Whitehall’s characters are nothing but negative gender, ethnic and class stereotypes that are demeaning and disemporing. This should not be surprising, as Whitehall is the product of his own bourgeois socio-economic conditioning. For a responsible parent, the idea of a teacher like Jack Whitehall’s character is distressing and alarming. Failing schools are not funny, and social inequality is not a laughing matter for those not living in a middle class utopia. When a society fails its children due to an asymmetric distribution of wealth and resources, this is ‘child abuse’ and not humour. Ignorant working class children with no responsible adult role models should not be the cannon fodder the Whitehall’s flagging career, but the class prejudice he displays runs much deeper than this. The assistant head master is depicted in an entirely misogynistic manner. This character is made to appear like a male fascist hell-bent on world domination. She is sexually aggressive (whilst depicted as ‘repulsive’), and her sexual preference appears to change with the wind. although Nazi-esque in attitude, Whitehall avoids all mention of Hitler and Nazi Germany, but instead has a Soviet education poster hanging on her office wall. At this point all is implied but nothing is said. Obviously Whitehall is so poorly educated in reality, that he accepts and perpetuates US Cold War propaganda that equates Nazi Germany with the Soviet Union (despite the fact that the USSR was an ally of the UK during WWII, and lost between 27-40 million people fighting Nazi Germany). In a later episode which features the sub-plot that the deputy head has committed suicide, Whitehall has one of his working class thugs stating that she is probably in hell with Stalin – as if Joseph Stalin was a bad person! Again, Whitehall does his best to demonize the Soviet Union whilst protecting the reputation of Nazi Germany. As for disability, Whitehall seems to think that everyone with a disability possesses legs that do not function – that is it.  Probably the most outrageously ‘racist’ element of this ‘comedy’ is the character of Jing Hua – a supposedly Mainland Chinese teenager attending school for some unknown reason in Watford. Whitehall does not seem to understand that Britain possesses its own indigenous Chinese community of children born in the UK. By depicting Jing Hua as he does, he omits from British history the historical Chinese presence in this country – a country that has forcibly deported its Chinese populations twice – once in 1919 and again in 1946 – due to White British racist and xenophobic attitudes. Even if it is argued that there are Mainland Chinese students in the UK (which there undoubtedly are), Whitehall is entirely wrong to cast a Japanese actress (Kae Alexander) in the role of Jing Hua, when there are many fine and capable British born Chinese actresses to choice from. Furthermore, Japan committed atrocities in China during WWIi (and before), killing millions of Chinese men, women and children, crimes that the Japanese government will neither admit to, or apologise for.  The character of Jing Hua appears to have been created by Whitehall for his character to attack Communist China, and make an apparently ‘Chinese’ student the butt of all his racially motivated ‘jokes’. Bad Education is a disgrace in the 21st century, and reminds me of a modern re-make of the notoriously ‘racist’ Mind Your Language from the 1970’s. Jack Whitehall and BBC3 demonstrate that prejudice and racism survives the changing times by adapting the manner in which they manifest.

North Korea – Latest Missile Test – How the US Fabricates News (29.11.2017)


(Research and Translation By Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

The US Defense Department said that its preliminary assessment showed that the tracked North Korean missile was an intercontinental ballistic missile (this has not been confirmed by the DPRK). The US propaganda statement continued that this particular DPRK missile launch reached the highest altitude to date, and poses a threat to world peace. Analysts (unnamed) said the ballistic missile test showed that New York and Washington, DC are now within range of North Korea’s missiles, but probably the real reason behind President Trump’s vitriol is the fact that this event has caused the highest gold hit at 1298 US dollars. The price of gold only fell after the US Senate Budget Committee approved the tax reform bill.

The view of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPKR) from the (capitalist) West, is dominated by US racist attitudes and anti-Communist sentiment. This essentially ‘Eurocentric’ view is more or less replicated throughout Europe without question, with the only resistance coming from the progressive left, and those Westerners who describe themselves as ‘friends of North Korea’. As usual, the hate-filled rhetoric of the US is the manufacture of a mythological interpretation of the DPRK that has no bearing upon the material reality that is the DPRK. As most Westerners have no access to progressive education, and lack the language skills to read the Chinese Mainland Press, or seek-out DPRK statements (issued in English), their only means of acquiring ‘news’ is from US ‘soundbites’ which are ignorant in nature, and lacking any genuine news coverage. These are the facts as far as is known about the apparent DPRK’s latest missile launch – and the US response to it.

At about 02:23 on the 29th of November (2017), the South Korean propaganda Yonhap News Agency quoted the latest news from the Joint Meeting of South Korean Chiefs of Staff – stating that North Korea had launched one ballistic missile. Subsequently, this news report was contradicted by the Japan Broadcasting Association – which stated North Korea fired ‘three’ missiles instead of one – one of which had fallen into the waters of Japan’s exclusive ‘economic zone’. According to the Yonhap News Agency, North Korea fired a missile which travelled 960 kilometers at a flight altitude of 4,500 kilometers. These two US dominated news agencies in Asia did not agree with one another, and did not quote any valid North Korean source for the ‘news’ reported.

This is an interesting observation, as prior to these anti-DPRK announcements, US ‘experts’ had issued a warning (again without evidence) that North Korea would soon be carrying-out another missile test in ‘a few days’. The implication being that after two and a half months of silence, North Korea was to launch its first round of ballistic missiles for the first time since September 15th (2017). The launch appears to mark North Korea’s first provocation toward the United States (and US-friendly countries in the region) since US President Trump listed the DPRK as a country that supports terrorism. This is a peculiar interpretation to apply to the DPRK – as it is the US that has military bases all round North Korea (and across the world), and which has financed and trained the ISIS Islamo-fascist terrorists operating in the Middle East.

Japan’s Cabinet Office said that North Korea’s missiles were aimed at Japan’s exclusive economic zone (EEZ) and could therefore be considered an act of aggression. Although the US government confirmed the launch of the missile(s), the exact details of the missile(s) have not yet been determined. According to the Pentagon, the missile(s) come from mobile launchers. The US Pentagon confirmed the North Korea missile launch as occurring at about 1:30 pm EST (02:30 am Beijing time). A spokesman for the South Korean military said on Tuesday that the South Korean military has been ‘closely monitoring’ and ‘tracking the possible provocations of North Korea.’ Neither the US nor South Korean propaganda broadcasts mentioned the US deployment of the provocative ‘THAD’ missile system throughout South Korea – the only purpose of which is to attack North Korea. The Yonhap News Agency quoted the South Korean Joints of Staff (JCS) as stating that the South Korean military will implement ‘precision strike’ missile exercises in response to North Korea’s missile launch. It is worth noting that Japanese officials noted yesterday, that the increase in radioactive data indicates that another missile test may be coming soon (again, without providing any evidence). ‘North Korea may launch missiles in the coming days’, a Japanese government official told local media. This may be the first of several launches, as the US and South Korean militaries are scheduled to provoke the DPRK by holding large-scale military exercises from December 4th to December 8th (2017), which will involve more than 230 Allied aircraft flying over the Korean peninsula during the exercise (and violating DPRK air-space).

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The Boxer Urising (义和团运动) and the Fight Against Hunger in China


A Starving but Brave ‘Boxer’ About to be publically Beheaded (c. 1901)

The Boxers did not ‘rebel’ – they collectively ‘rose-up’ together against the presence of Western imperialists in China. The Eurocentric racism aimed at China is so endemic and ingrained in the Western psyche, that a movement of indigenous peasantry rising-up against a polluting and corrupting Western presence in China (between 1899-1901) is still referred to in many English sources as a ‘rebellion’. As the Chinese peasantry never attacked the imperial ruling house of China – their martial arts-based uprising cannot be truthfully referred to as a ‘rebellion’. The Chinese peasant armies – inspired by folk-religion and magic spells, deployed traditional Chinese martial arts against modern rifles, machine guns and cannon, and despite being technically outgunned, achieved stunning successes in their early campaigns against the Western and Japanese imperialist forces (that had invaded China decades before). Following the eventual defeat of the Boxer Movement (i.e. the ‘Righteous Harmonious Fists’), the imperialist forces of the UK, US, Czarist Russia and Japan massacred around 50,000 innocent men, women and children in Beijing – after the city had surrendered. This unbelievable figure stands side by side with the mass-rape policy that all foreign troops engaged in (an act of brutality supported by the numerous Western missionaries operating in the area). China’s inability to stand-up to this racist and destructive foreign presence at the time, eventually led to wide-spread hunger and famine – as Western (Christian) missionaries bought-up all the supplies of rice, and only issued meals to Chinese people who had converted to Christianity. The brave man in this photograph is emaciated due to the presence of Western imperialists in his country – moments later he lies dead on the ground with his severed head lying near-by – for daring to confront this malignant threat.

North Korea has a Right to Defend itself Against US Aggression


The United States is the aggressor in Asia. As a capitalist country, it requires wars to fuel its sagging boom or bust economy,  and in so doing, take control of other areas of the world through business and commerce. This is the US policy of neo-imperialism and neo-colonialism. America is able to do this because the European Union is fully on-board with this racist agenda, as are such US colonies as South Korea, Taiwan and Japan, etc. Interestingly, since the end of WWII, the US military has been defeated twice in Asia,  firstly Korea and secondly in Vietnam, but with Donald Trump at the helm, nuclear weapons might well be an option for the West. The US is continuously threatening North Korea and trying to antagonise that regime onto a war-footing with the US. In the meantime, the Western media continues to lie about the situation, claiming that Communist China will not come to the aid of the DPRK should such a war arise. This is a dangerous and false propaganda. Although there exists much debate about the nature of the relationship between China and the DPRK within China, the official policy remains one of protecting the DPRK against US attack. This policy implies that an attack on the DPRK will be viewed as an attack on China – and that the Chinese government will take appropriate steps to ‘defend’ itself. Asian people should unite and collectively throw-out the US presence from the region. If they do not, then Asian people will be sacrificed yet again for the pursuance of a racist, US foreign policy.

Tokyo War Crimes Trial: Tojo Hideki (Photographs) [29.4.1946 Onwards]

On April 29th, 1946, the Far East International Military Tribunal began the trial of 28 top-level Japanese War Criminals. On May 3rd, the Court began the trial proper of Tojo Hideki, with Chief Public Prosecutor Keenan – over May 4th and May 5th – reading-out the 42-page Indictment that listed the Crimes Against Peace, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity committed by Tojo Hideki between January 1st, 1928 and September 2nd, 1945.

(Translator’s Note: Tojo Hideki (東条 英機) – the former Prime Minister of Japan – was arrested and tried by the victorious United States following its military victory over Japan in the Pacific theatre at the end of WWII. The  US – wanting to re-build Japan in its own image – decided to grant immunity to the Japanese Emperor (thought to be the ‘actual’ architect of Japanese military aggression during WWII), and instead pursue Tojo Hideki. This policy was dedicated to finding Tojo Hideki ‘guilty’ of all charges levelled against him (regardless of how incredible or improbable) – and thus secure the Death Sentence. Tojo Hideki was hanged by the US Occupation Forces on December 23rd, 1948.) ACW 29.3.2017

















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DPRK: Japanese Kidnappings (1977-1988)


Following the 1868 Meiji Restoration, Japan embarked upon a rapid and radical transformation of its political, military and social culture. These changes were motivated by the need to ‘modernise’ and successfully compete with the then rampant Western imperialist powers that had subjugated large areas of the world, and dominated trade in Asia through the perpetual threat of punitive military action. Japan adopted the pseudo-science of Social Darwinism (an idea rejected by Charles Darwin), which segregated the world into an imagined hierarchy of racial fitness. In its original form, it emanated from England, and propagated the lie that all ‘White’ Europeans were racially superior to all other ethnic and cultural groups in the world, which were categorised as such, in a descending scale of worthiness (with Asians assumed to be ‘superior’ to Africans, but ‘inferior’ to Whites, etc). The Japanese Meiji government modified this pseudo-science, and re-interpreted it to assume that the Japanese race was superior to all others. This also included the implicit idea that Japanese racial fitness was augmented (and even justified) by a ‘spiritual’ superiority. As Japan modernised its military along Western lines, its government embraced a fascistic form of administration and set about mimicking the Western habit of ‘colonisation’. As a consequence, Japan invaded and occupied large areas of the Pacific, and subjugated millions of people to its despotic rule (this included Korea, Taiwan and even Vietnam). All other ‘non-Japanese’ races were to be conquered and subdued into a state of servitude toward Japan and the Japanese people. This inherently ‘racist’ and rightwing attitude led directly to Japan’s invasion of China in the 1930’s, and to the Pacific War with the US.  The Japanese imperial forces kill and massacred hundreds of thousands of innocent men, women and children throughout Asia, which also included the mistreatment of and murder of numerous Western prisoners. Following Japan’s defeat after WWII, and its subsequent colonisation by the USA, the Japanese government, adopting as it does an anti-Communist agenda, refused to apologise to the people of Asia for the well-documented and hideous Crimes Against Humanity (including the infamous Unit 731 human experimentation) that its military forces committed throughout the 1930’s and 1940’s. Japan can get away with this attitude because it actively pursues American foreign policy in the region, and is politically (and militarily) protected by the US. Japan committed the most blatant and brutal acts of rape and murder throughout the 1930’s and 1940’s, but has never paid the price for its murderous actions due to the international influence of the USA (in this regard, Japan has much in common with the modern State of Israel). In-short, Japan has never formally apologised for the atrocities its forces committed during WWII, and still refuses to do so today.

According to both Russian and Chinese language sources, in 2002, the then leader of North Korea – Kim Jong Il – publically acknowledged that ‘rogue’ elements within the intelligence services of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) had initiated a programme of ‘kidnapping’ a non-specified number of Japanese citizens – but that the upper echelons of the DPRK government at the time had not been involved or informed. Kim Jong Il formally ‘apologised’ to the Japanese government on behalf of the DPRK government, and issued assurances that no further kidnappings would take place, and that the rogue elements that had carried-out this unofficial policy had been tried and imprisoned for their part in this illegal activity. Although Japan officially states that at least seventeen people over-all were kidnapped over a ten year period (some Japanese sources suggest a number as high as seventy!), the North Korean government stated that it only has evidence for thirteen kidnap victims. Furthermore, Kim Jong Il announced that the five kidnap victims that were still known to be alive (together with their children born in the DPRK) would be allowed to migrate back to Japan. Kim Jong Il suggested that although North Korean records appear to show that five Japanese kidnap victims entered the DPRK – it is unclear what exactly happened to the other eight Japanese kidnap victims (with Kim Jong Il stating that the DPRK could not comment on the other four victims suggested by the Japanese government). Much of these negotiations evolve around the ‘normalisation’ of Japanese-Chinese diplomatic relations. The problem is that China insists that Japan issues a formal apology for the deaths of the hundreds of thousands of innocent Chinese men, women and children murdered during the Japanese invasion during the 1930’s and 1940’s, with the Japanese government continuously refusing to do so, whilst worshipping its war-dead in Japan at the Yasukuni Shrine as ‘heroes’. The Japanese attitude is that the lives of ‘thirteen’ (or more) of its citizens are more important than the hundreds of thousands of its war-victims during the 1930’s and 1940’s – currently US foreign policy supports this hypothesis.

As matters stand, capitalist Japan pursues the anti-Communist agenda of the USA, and tirelessly works to portray (and undermine) the DPRK as an ‘evil’ and ‘despotic’ regime despite no evidence to support these claims. In reality, the DPRK attracts around 250,000 tourists annually – a figure that includes around 6,000 Westerners from Europe and the USA. These would suggest that the anti-DPRK propaganda of the Japan-USA axis is not working. Furthermore, even the usually anti-Communist Western press is beginning to acknowledge just how many North Korean defectors are opting to return to the DPRK, after experiencing first-hand, the terrible inequality found within capitalist South Korea. Although the DPRK Japanese kidnappings were deemed ‘unofficial’, it is interesting to ask ‘why’ they happened in the first place, as not all kidnappings happened on the Island of Japan, with at least two occurring in Europe. Within Chinese language sources on this matter, four other incidences of alleged DPRK kidnappings are mentioned, the victims of which were ‘non-Japanese’ in ethnic origin. These four examples all happened in 1978, and actually involved eight further people. Two were Chinese people kidnapped in Macau (which was still a Portuguese colony at the time), one was a Thai national also kidnapped in Macau, one was a Romanian kidnapped in Italy, and four were Lebanese women kidnapped in Beirut and allegedly taken to Pyongyang. (Apparently the PLO was instrumental in securing their eventual release). What is peculiar is that ‘Doina Bumbea’ captured in Rome was originally from the Communist country of Romania! However, it must be stated that the DPRK refuses to accept that these ‘missing’ non-Japanese people were kidnapped by North Korean agents, and considering that the original purpose of the kidnaps was to acquire ethnic Japanese tutors to ‘correctly’ teach North Korean intelligence agents ‘how to think and act like a Japanese’, this DPRK claim might well be correct. If Kim Jong Il had not admitted at least some Japanese kidnaps in 2002, I would have stated that this story was untrue and typical of anti-DPRK Cold War propaganda. However, it does seems that this story has grown well beyond the scope of material reality, and taken on a ‘mythic’ reality all of its own. The DPRK certainly does not admit to more than twenty kidnappings of Japanese citizens – and yet outspoken protesters in Japan have asserted that as many as seventy Japanese people have been kidnapped. This hysteria reminds me of the false anti-Semitic allegations aimed at Jewish communities, which falsely claimed that Jews ‘stole’ Christian babies to be used in satanic rituals! It seems that Japanese and Western conspiracy theorists are taking examples of ordinary people going missing in the world, and simply accusing the DPRK of kidnapping them. Indeed, since 2002, the Japanese government has continued to level all kinds of insane allegations at North Korea (with US-backing), that has involved the United Nations (UN) accusing the DPRK of committing Human Rights violations – even though neither the UN, Japan or the US has one shred of evidence. Furthermore, those who were released back to Japan have gone on record confirming the DPRK version of events.

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Sumo (相撲) Ancient Art of Japan


In the 1980’s, I was lucky enough to have trained in Okinawan Goju Ryu for a few years in Hereford. In that style is preserved the art of Okinawan wrestling. This art involves both fighters opposing one another in a deep horse-stance (with the weight firmly dropped and the feet rooted to the floor), whilst through grappling, trying to lift, throw or trip the opponent onto the ground (i.e. ‘up root’). The fight is over as soon as one of the fighters hits the floor. There is no run up (as in modern Sumo) as both fighters begin the encounter already in horse-stance and gripping one another’s clothing. I was told that this particular type of wrestling might well have originated in China. On the other hand, this wrestling could also have been an indigenous development on the Island of Okinawa, perhaps similar to the aboriginal wrestling found in Taiwan, or even Mongolian or Korean Wrestling. There is also a Manchurian form of wrestling originating in north-east China (that exists alongside a more general form of Chinese wrestling system). In Japan, Sumo wrestling is believed to have developed solely in Japan, and to have been a ritual contained within the ancient Shinto religion. Even Chinese language sources state this, but include the caveat that all forms of existing wrestling around China certainly share a number of key characteristics with the very old system of Chinese wrestling.

Some state that Sumo developed during the 12th century (the Northern and Southern Song Dynasty in China and the Heian and Kamakura Dynasties of Japan). However, Chinese sources record a much earlier date as being between 300 – 600 CE of the Kofun (古墳) Era. (In Chinese ‘古墳’ is pronounced ‘Gu Fen’ and literally translates as ‘Ancient Graves’). In the early 8th century, the book entitled the ‘Record of Ancient Matters’ (古事記  – Ko Ji Ki) was compiled, which recorded the far earlier myths and legends of Japan (prevalent during the Kofun Era). This stated that the elements of nature – such as thunder, wind and rain – all represented divine spirits that competed with one another in continuous trials of strength to bring balance to existence. This primordial trials of strength (referred to as ‘力競’ [Chin: Li Jing] or ‘power competitions’) are believed to be the philosophical origins of Sumo wrestling. From this basis, a martial art developed that involves horse-stance training, elaborate foot-work, the generation of tremendous force, evasion, pushing, slapping, palm-striking and head butting. This was developed by severe and arduous long-term training in various forms of body and mind conditioning, which involves pushing heavyweights, stretching and striking a wooden dummy. Over-time, the Sumo fighters stayed very fit, whilst eating rice and fish just before sleeping, and this led to the gaining of weight – believed to give the Sumo an advantage in combat. A large Sumo is considered ‘fit’ in Japan, as he manifests very much like a mountain, which is perceived as yet another force of nature. With men clashing at the higher levels at around 60 mph, Sumos must be strong and prepared to throw their opponent out of the designated circular area all Sumo fights happen within. Failing that, a Sumo can win by throwing their opponent to the floor, or by knock-out with an open hand, fore-arm or head-butt.  Although each Sumo fight lasts only around 30 seconds, 10 or 15 minutes can be used in elaborate preparation and purification rituals. After retirement, many men who weighed 30 or 40 stone are put on special diets, and much of that weight is permanently lost.

Sumo, being an old name, is written in Chinese characters using the following ideograms ‘相撲’. The first character ‘相’ (xiang1) refers to something being experienced by two people – literally a shared experience – whilst the second character ‘撲’ (pu1) means to use an open hand to ‘pound’, ‘beat’ or ‘strike’. Sumo, it may be suggested, refers to an event whereby two participants strike one another. However, ‘相’ (xiang1) also refers to a unifying and underlying essence or substance that contains within it the complexity of existence, and ‘撲’ (pu1) literally refers to an open hand ‘pushing through’ a dense thicket, or an obstacle difficult to move or travel through. Sumo, therefore, can also mean a ‘trial of strength that reveals the unity of nature’. I prefer the latter translation, and believe this is nearer to how the Japanese people interpret Sumo wrestling.

©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2017.

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Czar Nicholas II (1868-1918)


Prince Nicholas in Nagasaki, Japan (1891)

The Russian royal family (together with servants and supporters) was believed to have been extra-judicially executed on July 17th, 1918, in the Yekaterinburg area of Russia, but there are a number of other theories surrounding the disappearance of the Czar and his family. Trotsky, in his early writings, was of the opinion that the decision to execute the royal family was taken locally and had no direct input from VI Lenin – the leader of the Bolshevik Revolution. However, once Trotsky had been expelled from the USSR (for counter-revolutionary activities), and was living in the West, his ‘revised’ version of Soviet history declared that Joseph Stalin (although he was not in-charge of the USSR) was responsible for the execution of the Czar and his family. What is interesting is that in the collected works of Lenin and Stalin, there is nothing said about the demise of the Czar’s family, when every significant event of the revolution (and post-revolutionary time period) is recorded. As there are other theories, and given that there is scant objective evidence for the execution of the Czarist family, it might well be the case that the Czarist family was not executed on July 17th, 1918. The death of the Czar is often used by the capitalist system as a means to attack and denigrate Socialism and the Russian Revolution, and turn the Western workers against supporting the Soviet Union in international revolution. Even when Czar Nicholas II (as a prince) visited Japan in 1891, he was attacked by an escorting Japanese police officer (who slashed his fore-head with a sword). Despite this international incident, just nine years later, the imperialist Japanese forces joined with Czarist Russian forces (and other Western powers) in a revenge attack on Beijing (in 1900) in retaliation for the Boxer Uprising – an attack that killed 50,000 Chinese men, women and children. Then, around 1903-1904 Czar Nicholas II sponsored anti-Semitic riots throughout Russia that saw innocent Jewish people attacked and murdered. The Czarist royal family has participated in the death of millions during its reign over Russia, and it is only the capitalists that eulogise its passing. The Russian royal family went missing during 1918, when the Western allies (including fourteen nations comprising of the UK, USA, Japan, Germany and others) invaded Revolutionary Russia with the intention of crushing Socialism and placing the Czar back on the thrown. This is why a local Soviet group might have taken the decision to ‘remove’ the Czar without first seeking authority from Moscow.

Interpreting Ch’an – Basic Errors in Western Discourse


When a body of knowledge leaves its mother-culture and permeates into unfamiliar and very different cultures, errors of interpretation and understanding are bound to happen, and should be expected.  Of course, such errors do not exist only within Western discourse, which has tended to filter all new and incoming information not only through a Judeo-Christian rubric, (supplemented by a capitalist, political bias from around the middle of the 20th century onwards), but is also observable within various aspects of Japanese Buddhist discourse, particularly in relation to the ‘Japanese’ interpretation of ‘Chinese’ Buddhist history.  Whereas the erroneous Western discourse may be attributed in-part to cultural and historical differences, the Japanese erroneous discourse is primarily one of the deliberate ‘distortion’ of Chinese culture and identity, particularly since the Meiji Restoration of 1868, which saw a resurgent ‘nationalist’ Japan attempt to distance itself from its obvious Chinese cultural influences and origination.  This situation has been compounded by the fact that Western scholarship has chosen to follow the apparently ‘modern’ scholarship of Japan, with regard to interpreting and understanding Chinese history and culture, whilst refusing to ‘engage’ with Chinese scholarship, either ‘traditional’ (pre-1949), or ‘contemporary’ (post-1949).  This has created a situation whereby ‘Chinese’ history and culture has been inadequately interpreted by one culture (i.e. the ‘West’), through the erroneous scholarship of another (i.e. ‘Japan’), which is compounded by the fact that neither the West nor Japan are willing to admit the errors they have made (and continue to make) with regard to interpreting and understanding Chinese history and culture, and fully engage with Chinese academia to rectify these errors.

It goes without saying that every distinct cultural grouping possesses the right for self-determination, and, of course, self-interpretation, but with regard to China’s own distinct historical and cultural identity, the West and Japan appear unwilling to apply this most ‘liberal’ and common-sense attribute.  Prior to WWII, China appeared ‘distant’ even to those colonial Europeans who lived there.  The Confucian-based education system was designed to exclude most Chinese people, and it certainly was not open to those non-Chinese who did not understand its ethos and functionality. Although a small number of Western scholars did attempt to engage this old style Chinese academia, for the majority of Europeans It appeared opaque and impenetrable.  Japan, by way of contrast, whilst pursuing a racist nationalist policy throughout Asia, was willing to modernise its institutions along Western lines, and that included reforming its academia away from that of Chinese dominated Confucianism.  Part of this drive for cultural independence from China was the whole-sale rejection of Chinese history and culture.  Japan quite literally ‘invented’ a new identity for itself, whilst mimicking the West culturally and militarily (a policy that would ironically lead it into a direct and disastrous confrontation with the West).  After Japan’s defeat in 1945 (caused in part by the dropping of two atomic bombs by the US), and the success of Chinese Communism in 1949, the US quickly reactivated Japanese nationalism, albeit operating in a new framework of enforced liberal democracy and rampant, US-style capitalism.  The US pursued this policy to create a Japanese buffer-zone between Communist China and the rest of Asia.  From that ‘Cold War’ point onward, the US would not allow any correction of either its own, or Japanese scholarship relating to China, and actively encouraged further misrepresentation and distortion.  The idea of this policy was to ‘conflate’ everything ‘Chinese’ with everything ‘Japanese’, so that the ordinary Westerner could not tell them apart, and had no independent access to Chinese academia to check the claims.  Although the internet has allowed for theoretical access to Chinese history from China, the obvious language barrier prevents the average Westerner from being able to engage directly with authentic Chinese culture without the aid of reliable translation.  However, more and more good quality translation is slowly becoming available about China in the West, and this is breaking-up the US-Japan monopoly upon interpreting Chinese history and culture.

Chinese: In and Out of Britain


An interesting fact: UK Governments of the past have ethnically cleansed their own British Chinese populations twice in the 20th century.  Both of these times occurred after a major British military success, when a rightwing nationalism swept the realm, imbued with a rabid racialisation (premised upon the pseudo-science of Social Darwinism) , that portrayed a true British person as ‘White’, and ‘White’ only. This linked victory on the battlefield with an assumption of ‘White’ racial superiority.  Following the imperialist Great War of 1914-1918, the scapegoat for this rancid nationalism was the Chinese population of the UK.  The government of the day, encouraged by public opinion and the rightwing press, incredibly ordered the British army to round-up 20,000 Chinese people and forcibly deport them to China on ships.  Many of these Chinese men had been used as labourers in the British trenches of WWI.  Following the war against fascism of 1939-1945, the UK Government rounded-up around 1,200 Chinese men from around East London, who were also put onto ships sailing to a war-torn China.  After successfully fighting the fascism of Japan, Italy and Nazi Germany, the British ‘Labour’ Government resorted to the fascist policy of ethnically cleansing their Chinese population – when China was an ally of the West during WWII!.  It was unchecked Eurocentric, White racist nationalism that revelled in the destruction of war, that led directly to the expulsion of innocent Chinese populations from the UK. In recent times, the New Labour Government of Tony Blair declared ‘racism’ to be a legitimate expression of freedom of speech in the UK.  This has led to the ‘mainstreaming’ of racist ideology and racist rhetoric throughout the UK media, with its victims being Black, Brown and Yellow.

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