On Being Chinese…

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The Chinese diaspora should make more of an effort to relate to China – the historical and cultural home of their ethnicity. A certain type of White person will not like this (and will cast aspersions of ‘disloyalty’), but this kind of White people tells you to go back to China anyway – so why listen to these racist morons? China is a great civilisation that far pre-dates Greece and Rome, and of course, the development of a distinctive European culture. This does not mean that European culture is in anyway ‘inferior’ (far from it), or that Westerners are of an ‘inferior’ race, but rather that Western racism is wrong because it is premised upon a false interpretation of history.

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China is not ‘inferior’, her culture is not ‘inferior’ and neither are her people (wherever they live in the world. Chinese people (of the diaspora) should stop supporting the economic capitalist system because it has served as the basis for the imperialist oppression China suffered in the 19th and 20th centuries, and is exactly the same basis that underlies contemporary trends in Western notions of anti-Chinese racism. If you are Chinese and think Western capitalism is ‘better’ than Chinese Communism, then you are not only misled in your opinions, but you are participating in supporting and sustaining the very socio-economic system that (through the division of labour and manufacturing of ‘nationalism’) perpetuates the very anti-Chinese racism you are experiencing. Think about this the next time you instinctively take the American side during a dispute with China – you have already betrayed the notion of ‘internationalism’, and played into the hands of White racists – who will reject and embrace you with equal vigour!  If Westerners can ‘love’China – so can you!

African Presence in Ancient China? (Email 5.8.2016)

Friday, August 05, 2016 21:03
Dear WL
Thank you for your insights and and erudite comments.  As you have said, (and I suspect) this will be an going study over the decades, with clarity emerging from better technology and perhaps one or two spectacular finds in Egypt.  The Rosetta Stone, as you know, changed everything.  On a separate but related note, I have been trying to find reliable evidence of African culture in early China – outside of the important rhetoric (as interesting as it is) of certain elements of Black Nationalism (which understandably seems to employ a counter-racism to combat Eurocentric racism).  In the Chinese records, those people referred to as ‘Black’ were probably not Africans (but the members of various localised, non-Han groupings), so if there was an ‘African’ presence in China, it might have been so long ago that it either pre-dates records, or the records have perished due to their age (particularly if written on bamboo).  I have been looking for ‘impartial’ sources that cannot be accused of being ‘bias’, or the product of racially loaded ideology/  It is not that I am unsympathetic to such sources (far from it), but I think I can assist the gathering of meaningful knowledge in a slightly different manner.  For instance, the African-American Paul Robeson (1898-1976), one of the most intelligent men I have ever had the privilege to encounter, lived in the UK from 1927-1939 – were he successfully studied 20 different African dialects at the School of African and Oriental Studies (SOAS).  In his 1958 book entitled ‘Here I Stand’ (which I am writing about for a leftwing website in the UK), Paul Robeson states:
‘I felt as one with my African friends and became filled with a glowing pride in these riches, new found to me,  I learned that along with the towering achievements of the cultures of ancient Greece and China there stood the culture of Africa, unseen and denied by the imperialist looters of Africa’s material wealth.  I came to see the roots of my own people’s culture, especially in our music which is still the richest and most healthy in America.  Scholars had traced the influence of African music to Europe – to Spain with the Moors, to Persia, India or China, and Westward to the Americas.  And I came to learn of the remarkable kinship between African and Chinese culture (of which I hope to write at length some day.)’
Paul Robeson: Here I Stand – Chapter 1 – I Take My Stand (1958)
Robeson had a very positive experience in both London and the shires, and even befriended HG Wells!  It is seems incredible for me to read this about then – with the modern resurgence of the rightwing in the UK – courted by our mainstream media.  Still, I have a tantalising clue worthy of further research.  Did ancient Africans visit China?  Why not?  According to Robeson, at the very least, African cultural influences spread to China (and he always had a soft-spot for China, her people and her culture).  When did this happen – relatively recent or very ancient?  It is a firm basis for ongoing research.
Best Wishes
Adrian
PS: I found the above video on a Chinese language website in China exploring the possibility of Africans in ancient China.

Should Chopsticks Carry a Health Warning?

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Bill Bryson – Insidious Racism

When a popular author’s books carry endless (and vacuous) endorsements from the British rightwing press, suspicion about the content of those books understandably emerges.  Why would racist newspapers like the Daily Mail (that like its equally racist hero Winston Churchill, supported Adolf Hitler before WWII – but also like Churchill – had to change its position fairly quickly when Britain declared war on Nazi Germany in 1939), the Daily Telegraph and The Times, endorse such an author?  What is it about the narratives that Bill Bryson establishes through his books, that has the UK bigoted press in a delirium about their content?  Of course, to be fair to Bill Bryson, the liberal Observer, The Independent and even the duplicitous Guardian have gotten in on the act – much to their shame.  Bill Bryson has penned a number of bestselling travel books, but the extract I am going to share comes from one inparticular, entitled ‘Notes from a Small Island’.  These types of books convey the author’s skewed opinion about the places he visits and the people he meets.  Bryson is particularly non-objective in his narratives, as to render much of his descriptions of no use at all to a reader genuinely interested in exploring different places and meeting new people.  Furthermore, Bill Bryson’s books are generally poorly written, and I suspect that the rightwing press perceive this as ‘a man in the street’ perspective, and due to its bigoted nature, uncritically support its narratives.  It is clear to me that Bill Bryson is a bigot who has expressed himself in the past, using the rhetoric of anti-Chinese racism.  This observation is significant when it is remembered that the UK has initiated two anti-Chinese pogroms In its history, emptying Britain of its Chinese populations in 1919, and 1946.

Exeter is a university city with a considerable history, and unusual for many parts of Devon, a multicultural citizenship.  It possesses many and important places of historical interest, such as Rougemont Castle (built around 1068 or soon after), which was partly built into the already existing (and ancient) Roman Wall.  Rougemont Gardens are open to the public, with both castle and grounds being Grade II listed buildings.  Within Rougemont Gardens stands the 10th century Athelstan’s Tower.  Prior to 926 CE, the ancient Britons (i.e. Celts) inhabited Exeter, but were driven out of the city and into Cornwall by the Saxon King Athelstan.  He built a fortification (still visible) to keep the Britons out of England.  Not far from this place is the beautiful Exeter Cathedral (and its historic square replete with its ‘odd’ clock), and around the corner is what many believe to be the ‘narrowest street’ in the world.  There is a public house just off of Cathedral Square that has an ancient well (accessible by the public) in its cellar, surrounded with display cases containing the bones and other items found in its deep bottom.  There is also Exeter’s ‘Guild Hall’ shopping centre and its Natural History Museum.  There is also the mysterious Gandy Street, with its curiosity shops, eateries and Masonic Lodge.  Scattered throughout the city are numerous ruins of ancient buildings, all preserved and accessible to the general public, as well as many other places of historical interest (including Exeter’s infamous Victorian prison formerly known as the ‘Devon Gaol’).  Fast food outlets, cafes, Chinese, Thai, Turkish and Indian restaurants abound, as do healthy eating establishments.  Exeter is a beautiful city of great historical value and interest, and my description only scratches the surface.  On the other hand, you will not find any of this information in Bill Bryson’s explanation of Exeter (a Labour stronghold), which he describes as being a bombed-out shell from WWII, which is today comprised of one-way systems and roundabouts.  However, inadvertently, Bryson does hint at the progressive nature of Exeter when he mentions it was difficult to find a place to eat that did not say ‘Vegan’ on its signs.  Bryson disparages Exeter probably because it is a leftwing and progressive city, a fact that insults his own sense of natural (and bigoted) Conservativism.

As racism obviously abounds in the UK, (an observation which does not necessarily mean that everyone is ‘racist’), I will quote Bill Bryson’s astonishing racialised attack upon a part of Exeter’s Chinese population in full, so as to convey the full force of his opinion – a racist opinion that the Daily Telegraph declared to be ‘Hugely funny (not snigger-snigger funny; but great-big-belly-laugh-till-you-cry funny’, Sue Townsend of The Times ‘Seriously funny’, and the Observer ‘laugh out loud’:

‘Finally, I happened on a hilly street with a few modest eateries and plunged randomly into a Chinese restaurant.  I can’t say why exactly, but Chinese restaurants make me oddly uneasy, particularly when I am dining alone.  I always feel that the waitress is saying: ‘One beef satay and fried rice for the imperialist dog at table five.’ And I find chopsticks frankly distressing.  Am I alone in thinking it odd that a people ingenious enough to invent paper, gunpowder, kites and any number of other useful objects, and who have a noble history extending back 3,000 years haven’t yet worked out that a pair of knitting needles is no way to capture food?  I spent a perplexed hour stabbing at rice, dribbling source across the tablecloth and lifting finely poised pieces of meat to my mouth only to discover that they had mysteriously vanished and weren’t to be found anywhere.  By the time I finished, the table looked as if it had been at the centre of a violent argument.  I paid my bill in shame and slunk out the door and back to the hotel where I watched a little TV and snacked on the copious leftovers that I found in sweater folds and trouser turnups.’

(Bill Bryson: Notes from a Small Island Black Swan, (2015), Pages 145-146)

Being from a multicultural British family with a major Chinese influence, and having spent many years in Exeter in my younger days, I can state with absolute certainty that Chinese restaurants provide knives and forks for their customers – and only provide chopsticks if asked for.  Occasionally both knife and fork, as well as chopsticks are provided.  It is only in areas where Chinese people eat in Chinese restaurants that chopsticks are provided as the norm (such as in Gerrard Street – in London’s Chinatown).  Chopsticks are actually called ‘筷子’ (Kuaizi) in the Chinese language, which probably refers to the mastery of ‘swift’ eating.  The point is that the two sticks keep the food away from potentially dirty hands, and the length of the sticks means that a group of people can sit around a single table, and without over-reaching, share a meal of a number of dishes, together. Just why Bill Bryson went into a Chinese restaurant when such places and people make him feel uneasy, is a little odd to say the least.  If the situation was reversed, and a Chinese person publically stated that ‘White’ people make them feel ‘uneasy’, we, as a nation, would probably be looking at pogrom number three against the Chinese people living here.  It might also be good for Bill Bryson if he got his facts right about the people he is insulting, as Chinese history is much older than ‘3000’ years.  The problems that China has experienced in recent centuries do not emerge from their own culture, but rather from Western imperialism, fuelled as it is by rabid racism.

The kind of casual racism expressed by Bill Bryson is legitimised as ‘humour’, and any non-White victims of that racism are described as ‘too sensitive’, or ‘lacking a British sense of humour’, when they fail to see the ‘humour’ in Eurocentric ‘racism’.  When comments such as Bryson’s are taken to their ultimate conclusion, people are murdered in the UK for simply being the ‘wrong’ skin-colour.  Hitler would be proud:

British Youths Murder Mi Gao Huang Chen,

Bill Bryson, no doubt, might well find it ‘funny’ that one of the victims of this racist attack in the UK watched her partner beaten to death by British youths, before being knocked unconscious herself.  She woke-up handcuffed to a hospital bed to find that the racist British police had charged her with assault for trying to defend herself against the rabid horde that took her partner’s life.

China: The Racist Advert That Never Was

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Author’s Note: I have translated and paraphrased this comprehensive article from the Mainland Chinese media discussing the Western media’s rabid trumpeting of the allegation of ‘Chinese racism’ following a Chinese advert explained below.  I have been compelled to seek-out this article due to the sheer scope of gleeful racism aimed at the Chinese people from the West, with white and black people enthusiastically ‘sharing’ and making all kinds of uninformed, uneducated and ignorant statements about China.  I expect nothing less from white racists (as they are everywhere), but black people should get their act together and unite with the Chinese people to fight ‘white’ racism, and not assist the same ‘white’ racism that they have suffered under as a people for centuries.  ACW 31.5.2016

China has suffered at the hands of Western, imperialist powers for centuries, and the modern Western attitude toward China (and Chinese people) is just as racist today, as it was two hundred years.  This Western racism assumes that the Chinese people are racially and culturally inferior.  This ignores the fact that China possesses the oldest, continuous culture in the world, and that its people embraced the philosophy of Marxism to free itself from Western (and Japanese) oppression, assisted by the USSR (toward the end of WWII).   The US takes exception to modern China being a Communist State, and spends considerable resources attempting to bring China down from the outside (through such false-fronts as the Falun Gong, the Epoch Times, and the Pro-Tibetan Movement, etc).  Western racism, however, does not stop at the Chinese people living within Mainland China, but is applied evenly to all Chinese people throughout the world, and toward all facets of Chinese culture.  This process of historical and continuous demonization of the Chinese people is aided and abetted by the Western, Christian Church that paints the ‘pagan’ Chinese as being ‘spiritually’ inferior, as well as racially inferior.  This means that Chinese people (as non-Europeans) have been the historical victims of Western racism, and continue to be so today.  Although ostensibly this anti-Chinese angst is justified as being motivated by a sense of ‘anti-Communism’ in the capitalist West, it is obvious that it does not matter what economic system a Chinese person lives within, as Eurocentric racism will continue to discriminate against them as a people.  A clear example of this can be seen with the Western racism aimed at the Soviet Union before its demise in 1991 (because it was ‘Communist’), and yet despite Russia’s disastrous shift to predatory capitalism, anti-Russian, Western racism is as strong and prolific as ever.

China and the Chinese people have been the victims of Eurocentric racism and have never been a perpetrator of that racism.  Furthermore, even historians from the modern State of Israel have had to admit that China is one of the few places on earth that Jewish people have never been oppressed or subject to pogrom.  Recently, a new media offensive against China (and the Chinese people) has been spread across the Western world by its media – particularly the Huffington Post, CNN and the BBC.  This involves an alleged video of a detergent advert from China showing an African man trying to kiss a Chinese woman – who then pushes him into a washing machine.  A few moments later, a Chinese man emerges from the washing machine.  This is apparently a copy of an earlier Italian advert that sees a European man fall into a washing machine and a heavily-muscled African man getting-out.  The Western media continuously prints untrue and racist articles about China all the time as part of its assistance in the misrepresentation of China, her culture, and her people, and yet exactly the same ‘media’ has recently (and mistakenly) portrayed this video as being the most ‘racist’ and ‘offensive’ form of discrimination the world has ever seen.  Of course, the racist Western media is wrong on this account.  The worst racist incidences the world has ever seen (and continues to see) has been those continuous atrocities over the last five hundred years, perpetuated by the Westerners on non-Europeans and non-Christians.  China and her people have been on the receiving-end of this Eurocentric brutality that has been barely reported in Western media.

China firmly rejects the allegation of racial prejudice and discrimination premised upon skin-colour.  It is generally thought in China that this new offensive is part of the Western attempt to bring down Chinese Communism and its Internationalist policies – particularly throughout Africa – and within China, where African people are invited to attend universities and martial arts schools free of charge.  Another motivation for this offensive is to ‘hide’ various ‘embarrassing’ issues about life in Western, capitalist countries.  African-Americans have been exploited terribly in the past through Western institutional slavery, which although now abolished, nevertheless is still felt throughout the African diaspora through the continuation Eurocentric racism.  The US has a terrible problem of systemic racial prejudice aimed at African-Americans despite the country being run by President Barak Obama (an African-American).  Barak Obama – despite his ethnic background, has to represent the majority ‘white’ community (that financed and elected him) whilst keeping the racialised status quo very much in place.  By fabricating a ‘racist’ incident against China, Obama is diverting attention away from his disastrous record in office toward the ‘black’ community of America.  This policy has stirred-up ‘black’ anti-Chinese sentiment which is in essence simply ‘white’ racism deflected.  Youtube has a number of videos featuring African-Americans stating that the Chinese people are ‘racist’, are ‘colonising Africa’, and committing ‘genocide’ against its female population, etc.  One video purportedly shows an educated African-American man speaking Putonghua with Chinese women who racially abuse him.  This video was staged and was filmed in the US colony of Taiwan using actors. Since 1949, all forms of racism and prejudice have been forbidden under Chinese Communist Law.  However, the West has desperately sought to presents China in a racist light by falsely propagating the lie that Han Chinese hold racist attitudes toward Uighar people.  In 2005, Beijing University’s Psychology Department carried-out research recording Han Chinese attitudes toward Uighar people – and then compared the results with US academic research that recorded attitudes of ‘white’ Americans toward ‘black’ Americans.  It was found that ‘white’ Americans were generally openly racist toward ‘black’ Americans, whilst by comparison, the attitudes of Han Chinese toward Uighurs were found to be ‘mild’ in comparison.  This academic study was translated into English and made available to the Western press – which refused to publish it.  This is because the West has implicit racial problems which it does not want to face or change.  Instead, it fabricates other people into ogres to divert attention away from the very prolific nature of Western racism.

China has never possessed a historical prejudice against African people – that only exists in the West due to slavery.  Therefore this advert was not motivated in any way by anti-African racism, and it is interesting to consider that the African actor (who agreed to star in this role) did not think the plot was ‘racist’.  In fact, academics at the Central University for Nationalities – Institute of Ethnology state that traditional Chinese culture does not have any notion of ‘race’ or ‘colour’ in its historical development.  Ancient Chinese culture developed around the notion of correct behaviour and not appearance.  People were categorised by whether they practised Chinese culture or did not.  As a consequence, many different types of people were considered ‘Chinese’ despite differing physical characteristics.  Even today in modern China, there are 56 distinct ethnic groups, with only ethnic Russians and Tajiks being considered ‘Caucasian’.  There are currently around 20,000 ethnic Russians in China, and around 50,000 Tajiks.  This is a very small percentage of the Chinese population, and yet there has never been any reported cases of racial discrimination aimed at these minorities, who are law-abiding and live peaceful lives.  Modern China encourages integration and multiculturalism, and cares profoundly for the well-being of its populace.  This extends to the well-being of foreign nationals friendly to China and sympathetic to is political system.  Even today, Chinese people discuss cultural differences and never refer to race as a main designator of identity (as only Western racism makes this distinction).

Academics working for the China Advertising Association (many of whom are lawyers) confirm that all forms of discrimination are out-lawed not only nationally, but also within advertising.  This advert does not break Chinese advertising standards because it was found after investigation, that no one concerned in its making was motivated in any way by racial prejudice (as China does not historically possess the historical Western anti-black racism).  It has also been alleged that this Chinese advert has broken copyright law – but it transpires that the original Italian advert was deemed illegal in that country – and so its content cannot be copyrighted.  However, the only valid criticism for this advert is that it is uninspired and not original. Those who break the strict advertising law in China are subject to substantial fines, closure of business and even imprisonment in severe cases of infringement.  This advert was the product of bad judgement – nothing more – and the makers have withdrawn it and issued an unreserved apology for any offense caused.

Chinese Language Source Article:

中国“黑洗白”广告让西方不爽 专家称中国人种族观念淡漠

http://news.cri.cn/20160531/e5e69790-fe70-6dff-5e27-f59d60a7c388.html

 

Piecing Together Anti-China Rhetoric

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It is interesting to observe the photograph above of a typical pro-Tibetan demonstration, (taken on September the 22nd, 2015 in Seattle, USA) that there is no leftwing political support as determined by the flags that are evident.  In fact together with the fallacious ‘National Flag of Tibet’ are the US flag, and the Taiwanese Nationalist flag.  This is because the pro-Tibetan Movement, together with the Falun Gong and Taiwanese Independence Movement are all political rightwing entities.  Not only this, but the origins of these movements lie not in Asian spirituality, Asian culture, Asian psychology or Asian history, but are in fact the product of Western, bourgeois, liberal, capitalist psychology and ideology.  Why is this the case?  This is the case because the capitalist countries of Europe and the USA (together with their Japanese, Taiwanese and South Korean capitalist allies), are all pursuing a highly aggressive United States derived and anti-Communist policy.  Part of this policy is the active infecting of some Asian people through the propaganda of Eurocentric racism, and then the application of that racism towards Chinese people living within Communist China.  This is, of course, the continuation of Western racism through the recruitment, grooming, and deployment of misled and weak-minded Asian individuals who are inducted into pseudo-political movements, the ideology of which represents the Judeo-Christian sentimentality of the Western bourgeoisie.  These groups also recruit Western supporters who are politically unaware, and who are ignorant of Chinese history and Chinese culture.  Western supporters of capitalism are quite happy to assist in this racist attack on Mainland China, because they think that as other Asians are apparently legitimising their racism – the racism is morally justified.  Part of this racist rhetoric is the continuous misrepresentation of Chinese culture, and the distortion of the Chinese Communist political system.  This is aided and abetted by the mainstream media in the West that continuously produces ‘lies’ and ‘falsifications’ about China that have no basis in fact, and no sources within the Chinese language.  As these groundless allegations have no Chinese language sources, it is obvious that they have their originations solely within the mind of the Western (and racist) bourgeoisie.  The fact that some misled Asian people also believe these fraudulent stories, is used by the Western press as an act of ‘inverted’ justification.  The chain of events is this: the Western governments invent anti-Chinese racist disinformation, and then disseminate these lies through their willing media and press.  As anti-Chinese racism in the West is prolific, the Western governments and media meet only minor resistance to its propagation, as many people are willing participants in this deception.  Even if Communism in China collapsed – Western anti-Chinese racism would continue uninterrupted.  The US government wants to weaken and destroy Communist China by breaking it apart (as it did with the USSR), and see Taiwan and Tibet split from direct Mainland Chinese Communist control.  The Falun Gong is a mimicry of true Chinese culture, and a misrepresentation of Chinese spirituality, because the Falun Gong is a Western ‘political’ entity tasked with propagation of anti-Mainland China propaganda. This is centred around the allegations by the Falun Gong that China continuously violates ‘Human Rights’ in China.  These false allegations are broadcast through the Falun Gong mouthpiece – The Epoch Times, and yet none of these allegations have any Chinese language source references. In other words, none of these dysfunctional stories about China, actually originated in China.  This includes such bizarre Western racist lies as ‘organ harvesting’ (even mentioned as correct in a recent interview given by the American-African intellectual Mr Dick Gregory).  This misrepresentation of China is nothing other than the ‘inverted’ mind-set of the theistic (Judeo-Christian) religion that relies upon the agency of ‘blind faith’ for its legitimation.  The US government routinely uses racism and brainwashing to achieve its political and economic ends.  In the meantime, many people in the West inhabit a ‘mythic’ reality that presents a completely ‘false’ interpretation of China and Chinese culture.  This white racist rhetoric is so powerful and convincing that it has spread into the African diaspora – where some black intellectuals actively engage in the perpetuation of Western race-hate aimed at the Chinese people.

Blond Hakka?

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(This is a speculative research email to WL dated 29.4.2016 – about the possible origins, and cultural traits of the Hakka-Chinese people.  This deals with possible ‘European’ and/or ‘Caucasian’ DNA influences or cultural links.  This is part of a general investigation into Hakka origins that will also be developed to consider possible African influences in early China.  Of course, I fully acknowledge that those mummies in Takla Makan that look Western might well be ‘Middle Eastern’ in origin.)  ACW 28.4.2016

When I was in Turkey (in the late 1990’s) – I met Chinese Uighar people.  My Hakka friend (from Hong Kong) immediately said that they did not look ‘Chinese’ (at this point I was also a little confused, as we had been told that there was a ‘Chinese restaurant’ in the area), The Uighar people explained that they were ‘Chinese’, but from a different area (Xinjiang) and that their Chinese restaurant served ‘Uighar’ food.  These Uighar people (if memory serves me right) had dark complexions (that reminded me of many of my ‘Tamil’ friends in the UK), and had features that looked ‘East Indian’.  It is interesting to consider that many East Indians share a common Y-DNA with many Europeans (R1A1) – despite the rather obvious historical, cultural, linguistic, and religious differences.  This association did not arise with the Western colonial presence in India (although there was most definitely ‘mixing’ and ‘off-spring’ despite the official Western policy of ‘racism’, and control through division), but is a common Y-DNA connection dating much further back in evolutionary history.  In other words, Western Y-DNA in India does not imply that Europeans founded Indian culture, or were responsible for its development – despite the distant Y-DNA connection.  In fact, as you already know, Western civilisation, when compared to the Sumerian, Egyptian, Indian and Chinese, developed quite late, if its origins are taken from Ancient and Classical Greece.  The Buddha ‘reformed’ Brahmanism in India (introducing ‘logic’ and ‘reason’ to the world) BEFORE Socrates was born!  If anything, I suspect ‘Indian’ culture and thinking more than likely was the creative ‘spark’ that led to the great achievements of the Greek philosophers that we so much admire!

With regard to the Takla Makan mummies – the pictures look stunningly ‘European’.  However, China has never released any DNA studies about them (as far as I know), but I once saw a Western documentary that suggested a group of Northern Europeans arrived in China around 2000 years ago.  This narrative suggested that they mixed with local Chinese, and that their DNA and physical shape altered over-time, until their descendants looked completely ‘Chinese’ (probably over a 500 year period).  This documentary then revealed that certain Western academics took (stole?) small hair samples from some of the mummies – and that consequently DNA tests were carried-out in Italy.  The documentary was expecting a Northern European result – but this was not the case.  It turned-out that the DNA (probably both ‘male’ and ‘female’) was from Central Asia and had no ‘Northern European’ connection.  I think that the mummification process may well have ‘lightened’ the complexion of people (through desiccation) who probably looked more ‘Indian’ when alive.  However, although there was no ‘direct’ connection with Europe, many of the Takla Makan mummies do possess what I would call ‘Caucasian’ features (as do many Indians). I would qualify this by stating that this casual observation has no suggestion of ‘Europeans’ or ‘European culture’ in early China – but only a phenotypal connection.  These non-Chinese people did exist in China, and did ‘integrate’ into Chinese culture.  It is not beyond the realms of possibility that these people may have been an ingredient in early Hakka cultural development.

A point I must clarify at this juncture, is that Europe had cultures before the rise of the Greco-Roman monolith (as you know) that now defines ‘Europe’.  These indigenous entities (that constructed the many ancient stone circles and other structures throughout Europe) were collectively (and derogatorily) termed ‘Keltos’ (i.e. ‘non-Greek’) by the Greeks (and ‘Gaelic’ by the later Romans).  This blanket term does not convey the apparent diversity, or ingenuity of these European peoples who probably existed as distinct but related ‘tribes’.  I think that given the right circumstances, any group of human-beings can migrate anywhere if they need or have to do it.  After-all, a small group of homo sapiens left Africa around 140,000 years ago, and eventually populated the entire planet!  I mention this because there are three issues of Hakka identity that are curious to me, 1) recurrence of blond hair throughout Hakka-Chinese populations, 2) Hakka women are equal to Hakka men, 3) Hakka women never had ‘bound’ feet.  Of course, all of this might have developed through purely local conditions within China – and I once read an old Western book that speculated (for reasons not entirely defined) that thousands of years ago, Chinese people may have possessed blond hair!  Obviously, from a strictly ‘evolutionary’ perspective, all current physical characteristics have evolved from ‘different’ characteristics in the past, and that there is no reason to think that current manifestations will be the same in a thousand or ten thousand years’ time.  As it stands, blond hair exists in Northern Europe and is believed to be an adaptation to a cold climate.  There are cold areas in Northern China, and in the past (thousands of years ago) the climate was very different to today.  The last ice-age did not end until around 10,000 years ago – and perhaps many people around the globe developed the adaptation of blond hair, or at least ‘light’ coloured hair.  The question is how many non-Hakka people in China possess ‘gold’ hair?  I would say that most of my Hakka-Chinese relatives possess blond hair to varying degrees – with one man whose hair has been ‘grey’ since young.  If this adaptation did not develop in China, then where did it come from? If it did develop in China, then that is a ‘local’ explanation that excludes ‘blond’ foreigners coming into China.  A point to consider is that most Europeans are not ‘blond’ and the nearer to China the European populations are, generally speaking the darker the hair.  I have also found it interesting that within Celtic culture men and women were considered equal.  It is interesting how it is that the Hakka retained this tradition (from whatever source) within a strictly patriarchal society.  Of cause, Viking explorers possessed the blond hair (I think) but not the cultural traits of equality between men and women.  Having said all this, I did read a very good book that stated that thousands of years ago (probably during the Shang Dynasty period) women may well have been dominant within Chinese society and that this changed to its exact opposite over-time.  Again, this might mean that the Hakka are not ‘foreign’ at all, but simply retain a very old Chinese culture that they refused to change.  Another issue that might need exploring is that many Chinese and African people share very similar phenotypal traits.  As the statues of the Olmec culture are ‘African’ in nature, and considering some think these to be Shang Chinese in origin, has there been an early Africa-China connection?  Did Ancient Africans sail around the globe?

Pictures of Kenyan & Chinese Friendship

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Confucian Institute of Kenya’s Moi University Inaugurated

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Original Chinese Language Article By: www.tech.hexun.com

(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

On the 30th of March, 2015, the above photograph was taken showing young Kenyan men practising Chinese martial arts outside of the Confucian Institute of Moi University situated in the Eldoret area of Kenya.

This was the day of the official inauguration of the Confucian Institute of Moi University – this was the fourth Confucian Institute to be opened in Kenya – following those already established in Nairobi University, Kenyatta University, and Egerton University.

This Confucian Institute was co-founded with funding from Moi University and Donghua University in China and is to specialise in Chinese textiles and garment design.  Xinhua News Agency reporter-photographer Sun Ruibo.

©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2016.

Original Chinese Language Article:

http://tech.hexun.com/2015-04-02/174622721.html

肯尼亚莫伊大学孔子学院揭牌成立

3月30日,在位于肯尼亚埃尔多雷特的莫伊大学,几名学习中国武术的该校学生在莫伊大学孔子学院前合影。当日,肯尼亚莫伊大学孔子学院正式揭牌成立,这是继内罗毕大学孔子学院、肯雅塔大学孔子学院和埃格顿大学孔子学院后肯尼亚高校建立的第四所孔子学院。莫伊大学孔子学院由莫伊大学和中国东华大学合作创建,在教学中将突出纺织服装特色。新华社记者 孙瑞博摄

 

Kenyan Festival of Art Celebrates Confucius Institute Day

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Original Chinese Language Article By: www.chinadaily.com.cn

(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

On the 26th of September, 2014, the University of Nairobi (Kenya) held a Confucian Institute Day where Kenyan students of Chinese literature, culture and arts, gathered to demonstrate their skills.  Xinhua News Agency reporter Zhang Chenshe witnessed the displays which included a performance of the Huangmei Opera ‘Marriage of the Divine Immortals’, as well as Chinese dancing and a fashion show involving traditional Han Chinese clothing.

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©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2016.

Original Chinese Language Article:

http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/hqcj/xfly/2014-09-28/content_12460843_5.html

肯尼亚举行“孔子学院日”文艺汇演活动 组图

[提要]  9月26日,在肯尼亚内罗毕大学,孔子学院学生在文艺汇演中表演黄梅戏《天仙配》。新华社记者 张晨 摄  9月26日,在肯尼亚内罗毕大学,孔子学院学生在文艺汇演中表演中国舞蹈。9月26日,在肯尼亚内罗毕大学,孔子学院学生在文艺汇演中展示中国的汉服文化。

Buddhism and China’s Spiritual Beliefs

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(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

The indigenous spiritual beliefs of China are Confucianism and Daoism. These paths are centred on the idea of the achievement of Sagehood with these enlightened beings often referred to as philosophers of religion. As China’s culture has placed a great emphasis upon the recording of history, and the replication of tradition, these spiritual beliefs have been transmitted intact over thousands of years. As a result, Chinese culture highly respects the elderly, and values their experience. China has never had the Western notion of secularism – where spirituality is separate from everyday life – nor the convention that the nobility are separate from the clergy, etc. Although distinct spiritual paths with unique teachings and understandings, Confucianism and Daoism have in many ways integrated with one another. When Indian Mahayana Buddhism arrived in China, it was integrated into both Confucianism and Daoism, and this process of assimilation gave this foreign teaching a distinct Chinese cultural flavour. This synthesis created the tradition of Chinese Buddhism.

 

Extracted from the Original Chinese Language Article

http://xf.jzfjw.cn/news/15858.html

中国族系,即儒教和道教。其信仰核心是圣贤,亦被称作是哲人宗教。中国将终极理想诉诸历史,结果是强调历史传统和巩固陈规旧习。中国极为敬重老年人和他们的经验。加强这种敬重的反面是缺乏西方式的政教分离和贵族与教士分离。儒学和道教这两大哲人宗教互相融合交织,它们还吸收了大乘佛教的影响,并给这些影响染上了浓厚的中国色彩。

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