Hakka Revolutionaries of Mainland China!

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Original Chinese Language Article By: http://www.sohu.com/a/147989943_366506

(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

A Japanese scholar once commented that:

‘There could not be any successful Revolution in China without the participation of the Hakka Chinese people.’

Although this remark is exaggerated, it is undeniable that all major Revolutions in modern China have substantively involved Hakka people who have played a highly important and irreplaceable role.

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Father of the Nation – Sun Yat-Sen (国父孙中山 – Guo Fu Sun Zhong Shan)

After the mid-19th century, the Hakka people began to change the tide of history in China. From Hong Xiuquan (洪秀全) of the Taiping Divine Kingdom (太平天国 – Tai Ping Tian Guo) to Sun Yat-Sen and the 1911 Revolution, the Hakka often played a major role within Chinese Revolutionary uprisings. It can be said that after the Taiping Divine Kingdom, the ‘community’ of nationally important Hakka historical figures began to take shape. This list includes, Ding Richang (丁日昌), He Ruzhang (何如璋), Huang Zunxian (黄遵宪) Qiu Fengjia (丘逢甲) and Wen Zhonghe (温仲和)… who are not only famous people in the Hakka community, but also considered great people of the Chinese nation in that era.

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Qiu Fengjia (丘逢甲)

The Hakka community developed a cultural climate within the land of ancient China, which involved an enhanced sense of self-awareness and progressive attitudes. There are also many scholars in the world, such as the Japanese scholar Yamashita Kiyoshi (山下清 – Shan Xia Qing), who hold the Hakka people in high esteem. He has stated:

‘The Hakka people are the best example of the Chinese Han nationality. They are confident and proud. Their patriotism is strong. In modern Chinese history, no political change has happened without the support of the Hakka people. The most striking example is that of the anti-imperialist ‘Taping Divine Kingdom’  Revolution headed by Hong Xiuquan, who was supported by the most ablest of generals, most of whom were Hakka people. The second is the anti-imperalist Revolution that overthrew the Manchu rule of China – which was led by the Hakka Dr. Sun Yat-Sen – who was also assisted by many other talented Hakka people.’

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Hong Qiuquan (洪秀全)

Hong Qiuquan was the founder and leader of the ‘Taiping Divine Kingdom’ movement that nearly toppled the Manchu Imperialist Dynasty and was close to uniting a China free of the Western imperialist presence. He was assisted by three other very talented Hakka people named Hong Renxuan (洪仁轩), Feng Yunshan (冯云山), and Li Jingfang (李敬芳).

Professor Zhong Wendian (钟文典) has stated:

‘The originators of the Taiping Divine Kingdom were entirely Hakka, and the Hakka language was used in all official Taiping texts. Even in the (legal) rules and regulations that governed the Taiping Divine Kingdom, including land distribution and management system (天朝田亩制度 – Tian Chao Tian Mu Zhi Du), the shadow of Hakka tradition and culture is evident. This is why the Taipng Divine Kingdom can be said to have been a strong masterpiece of Hakka ingenuity and organisation.’

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Ding Richang (丁日昌)

After the defeat of the Taiping Divine Kingdom, other Hakka historical figures of note included Ding Richang, He Ruzhang, Huang Zunxian, Qiu Fengjia, and Wen Zhonghe … These outstanding people are not only famous Hakka people, but are also considered outstanding Chinese people of that era.

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Taiwan Anti-Japanese War

Hakka Black Flag Army General Liu Yongfu (刘永福)

Following Imperial China’s defeat at the end of the first Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed, and Taiwan was ceded to Japan. However, many of the Hakkas in Taiwan did not accept the Japanese take-over without a fight. These Hakkas were indomitable and organized volunteer troops to fight against the Japanese invaders under the leadership of Xu Xiang (徐骧), Wu Tangxing (吴汤兴), Jiang Shaozu (姜绍祖 ) and Liu Yongfu, all of whom were Hakka fighters. Many Taiwanese Hakka people remained loyal to China and preferred to die fighting than live under Japanese tyranny.

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Kang (康) and Liang (梁) – Master and Disciple

Two prominent Hakka members of the Reform Movement were Kang Youwei (康有为) and Liang Qichao (梁启超).

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He Tianjiong (何天炯)

Apart from Sun Yat-Sen who was a Hakka, there were many other Revolutionary Hakkas such as Xie Yiqiao (谢逸桥), Xie Liangmu (谢良牧), He Tianjiong and He Tianhan (何天翰), all of whom studied in Japan, and all joined the League. Many of these Hakka people held important posts. Although Sun Yat-Sen was Prime Minister of the League, 46% of all the inner core posts were also held by Hakka people.

Chinese Soviet Movement

The Chinese Red Army operated out of the Jinggangshan base and when travelling up to the Central Soviet Area, the soldiers passed through the jurisdiction of Gannan, West Fujian, Eastern Guangdong, Northern Guangdong and another 21 counties, all of which were Hakka areas of cultural influence. The Hakka people assisted the Chinese Red Army with supplies and resources, helped it traverse the terrain and assisted in its evasion of the enemy. Many Hakka people joined the Chinese Red Army when the Socialist principles it stood for were explained.

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Zhu De (朱德)

Zhu De and Mao Zedong (毛泽东) were brilliant military strategists who struggled for a total of seven years after leaving the Jinggangshan base area, during the Long March northward. Mao Zedong was impressed with the Hakka peasants and workers, and often made detailed notes about their resilliance, hard-work and fighting ability. Mao Zedong wrote at least 10 military poems containing references to Hakka culture. Interestingly, Mao Zedong appeared to prefer Hakka cultural tendencies and wrote extensively upon their nature and manifestation. Often, it is clear that what Mao Zedong refers to as ‘Chinese’ in his notes and observations, is in fact ‘Hakka’.

The Second Revolutionary struggle in the Central Soviet Area can also be described as a Revolutionary struggle featuring mainly Hakka people. This is because the central area of Revolution covered precisely the enclave of Chinese Hakka people, whilst the youth of the Hakka people constituted the main body of officers and soldiers within the Chinese Red Army.

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General Ye Ting (叶挺)

The Hakka ethnicity is a Revolutionary tradition formed through the experience of crisis. The Central Plains is what Confucius described as the ‘place of killing’. Historically, the Central Plains were the places which the military strategists contested. In the wars to facilitate dynastic change, each time a large number of people were reluctant to become prisoners (even though they were defeated), they uprooted their communities and headed southward. This is the origin of modern Hakka people living within Southern China today.

Hakka people living in South China occupy remote or hilly areas that are tough to live in. This demands that the Hakka are strong and self-sufficient whilst always looking for methods of progressive change (to make life better). Hakka people, being warriors have very well developed systems of martial arts, and live close to the cycles of nature. However, being tough is only one part of being Hakka, as threats of attacks from other groups has meant that the Hakka must also retain a very strong fighting spirit.

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Great Man Deng Xiaoping (邓小平)

On the other hand:

‘Due to the Hakkas ingrained sense of ‘Datong’ (大同), as an ethnicity, they continuously strive for collective rights and collective social and cultural improvement. Although the Hakka have had violence historically aimed at them, and have developed renowned systems of self-defence, the Hakka people themselves prefer to work for peace and security within the community. They do this through expert scholarship and strict discipline.’

The formation of Hakka culture happened during periods of social turmoil. This led to the Hakka being surrounded on all sides, often suffering the worst excesses of imperialism and siege. This is the origin of the Hakka struggle for self-defense. This is a manifestation of the Hakka solidarity, advocacy of armed forces and Revolutionary traditions.

©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2018.

Original Chinese Language Source Article:

http://www.sohu.com/a/147989943_366506

近现代中国的大型革命,客家人都不曾缺席

有日本学者曾说:没有客家,就没有中国革命。这话虽然略有夸张,但是,不可否认的是,近现代中国的各项大型革命,客家人都不曾缺席,并扮演了不可替代的重要角色

国父孙中山

19世纪中期后,客家人开始成为历史的主潮,从太平天国运动的洪秀全到辛亥革命的孙中山,客家人在中国的革命中往往扮演着主要角色。可以说,在太平天国之后,客家历史人物的“群落”开始形成,其间,丁日昌、何如璋、黄遵宪、丘逢甲、温仲和……不仅是客家中的名人,而且是那个时代中华民族的伟人。

丘逢甲

客家群落,便开始在华夏古国的土地上成了气候,有了理性的自觉。也有了国际上众多学者如日本学者山下清海对客家人的推崇:“客家人是中国最优秀的汉民族,有自信自傲的气质,爱国心很强,在中国近代史上,没有一次政治变动是与客家人无关的。其中最显著的例子,当推洪秀全领导的太平天国革命,几乎参加的将领大部分是客家人;其次是孙中山先生领导的推翻满清革命,除了孙中山先生本人是客家的后裔外,其他主要助手,亦有不少客家人。

太平天国

洪秀全

太平天国的领袖洪秀全,天平天国的其他领袖人物以及其最初的基本群众,几乎都是客家人,太平天国运动,是一次客家人的革命运动。因为太平天国宗教的四位发起者洪秀全、洪仁轩、冯云山、李敬芳均是客家人。

钟文典教授曾经指出:太平天国的 发起者是客家人,太平天国的文书中使用的也是客家话,甚至在包括《天朝田亩制度》在内的太平天国的条规制度中,也可以找到客家风俗习惯的影子。也许,我们可以这样说:太平天国革命本身,就是客家人的一项发明创造,一项得意杰作吧!因为在太平天国的种种所作所为中,几乎无不凸显出客家的强烈影响。

甲午战争

丁日昌

在太平天国之后,客家历史人物,丁日昌、何如璋、黄遵宪、丘逢甲、温仲和……不仅是客家中的名人,而且是那个时代中华民族出类拔萃的伟人。

保台抗倭战争

黑旗军将领刘永福

甲午战争不敌日本,签下《马关条约》,台湾割让给日本。但许多在台客家人宁死不屈,并组织义勇军,在徐骧、吴汤兴、姜绍祖、刘永福等客家战士的领导下,以死对抗日军。

维新运动

康梁师徒

在维新运动中,改良派的代表康有为、梁启超都是客家人。

辛亥革命

何天炯

除了孙中山本人是客家的后裔外,其它主要助手,亦有许多客籍留日学生谢逸桥、谢良牧、何天炯、何天翰等24人加入同盟会,不少人还担任重要职务。在同盟大会上,除了孙中山任总理外,整个领导核心成员中,客家人就占了46%以上。

中国苏维埃运动

红军活动的地方,从井冈山根据地到中央苏区所辖区域赣南、闽西、粤东,粤北等21个县市,都是客家人的聚居地。

朱德

军事家的朱德、毛泽东,从井冈山到中央根据地征战乃至开始长征的整整7年,都生活和斗争在客家人的工农大众中,作为诗人毛泽东,他写了10多首军旅诗歌,都是咏诵客家风光,毛泽东的大量调查报告中,大都是调查客家人的风俗民情,报告所涉及的社区、事件、人物、风俗、语境等,基本上都是客家的。

第二次的中央苏区革命斗争也可以说是一次以客家人为主体的革命斗争,因为革命的中心区域正好是中国客家人聚居地,客家人子弟构成了红军官兵的主体。

叶挺将军

客家人是因忧患意识而形成的革命传统。中原是孔子所称的“杀伐之地”,在历史上中原都是兵家必争之地,在改朝换代战争中,每次都产生了大量即使战败也不愿成为俘虏的人,他们举家南迁,这就是近现代客家人的先祖。

南迁的客家人大都生活在山区,要想扩大活动空间,没有强健的身体是不行的,所以他们非常崇尚武力。一方面,客家民系接受过频繁战乱的洗礼和恶劣生存环境的考验,使他们具有与生俱来的忧患意识和危机感,加上长期的大迁徙和拓展斗争,又使得他们形成坚忍不拔、勇于拼搏、勇于斗争等精神。

伟人邓小平

另一方面,“由于客家人根深蒂固的大同思想和祈盼过上人人平等的太平日子的强烈愿望。面对人世间太多的不平等,便产生了一种为人民请命的造反精神。”在社会动荡时期形成的客家围拢屋,御火攻和防围困的设计是为了自卫斗争的需要,这是客家人团结互助、崇尚武力和革命传统的一种表现。

来源:网络综合资源

编辑:客家精英手机报

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