Did the ‘Big Bang’ Event Happen?


No scientific theory is beyond improvement or dismissal (if proven wrong). Human scientific understanding has ‘evolved’ over-time, moving toward an ever greater, or more subtle understanding of the material universe. Science deals exclusively with the material universe because it can be seen – either technologically or mathematically – and therefore can be ‘observed’ and ‘measured’. This is even true of the quantum level of existence, which humanity only knows is there, because it has been ‘observed’. An apparent problem at the quantum level, is that it is difficult to ‘measure’ the behaviour of certain sub-atomic particles (termed ‘uncertainty’). Below is an informative video that explains the state of human knowledge as it now stands – this is open to revision at anytime. The ‘Big Bang’ event appears to have happened. The universe is expanding, that is, space itself is stretching (apparently faster than light). As space stretches, the light travelling through it is also stretched. However, logically working backwards through time, it appears correct to say that the universe was ‘less stretched’, i,e. ‘smaller’ than it is today at an earlier time in its existence, and this has been confirmed with photographs taken of when the universe was just 370,000 years old – some 13.8 billion years ago. Furthermore, a definite ‘event’ occurred which saw a highly dense and hot universe suddenly emerge and rapidly expand. The sticking-point for many scientists is whether a ‘singularity’ occurred, and if it did, what was its precise nature? Hot plasma transitioned into a gas state, as hydrogen atoms were formed. Simultaneously, the infra-red light which was trapped was suddenly ‘freed’ to expand across the universe.

How Georges Lemaître (1894-1966) – a Catholic Priest – Progressed Secular Science


‘A Day Without Yesterday’: Georges Lemaitre & the Big Bang

Albert Einstein (right) and the great mathematician Georges Lemaître (left). Until Lemaitre presented Einstein with his paper detailing how the universe had a definite beginning (subsequently termed by Hoyle as the ‘Big Bang’), and that space was expanding, Einstein use to think that the universe was eternal. In the history of science, for instance, a great injustice is perpetuated against Lemaitre because of his faith. His mathematical breakthrough (although confirmed by Einstein as ‘correct’) is ignored, and the concept that the universe has a definite beginning is instead erroneously ascribed to Edwin Hubble. Einstein stated that Lemaitre’s mathematics was perfect – but that he did not care much for his physics. This was because Lemaitre talked of a ‘cosmic egg’ to describe the  beginning of the universe, for which no evidence exists. My view is that a person’s personal beliefs should not exclude that person from official recognition if their scientific thinking is correct. Of course, I do not support politicised religion, and fully acknowledge that Lemaitre was probably motivated by proving the creationism of theology correct – and in the process – science wrong. As matters transpired, Lemaitre achieved neither of these objectives, but he did advance secular scientific understanding, and for that he should be properly remembered.

Ch’an Buddhism as Scientific Socialism


If Buddhism is viewed as a ‘religion’ – and the Buddha as a ‘theistic’ being – then Buddhism has nothing to do with modern science, and in that case, would represent one of many pre-modern theories devised by the human mind to explain reality. However, it is clear from a study of the Pali Canon that the Buddha’s system is a perceptual science premised upon the logical and rational observation of matter, and assessment of natural processes. Within the ‘five aggregates’ teaching, it is clear that the human mind is defined by the Buddha as a number of impermanent processes that ‘emerge’ from biological matter. This is why the Buddha places ‘rupa’ or ‘matter’ as first in the list of the five aggregates. The Buddha also seems to have been the first human in history to suggest that the tiniest specks of matter are ‘flashing’ in and out of existence during every moment, and that the idea that the world of matter forms a solid wall in-front of the senses is an illusion. This would suggest that the Buddha’s path is one of physical and psychological discipline that clears the mind of all ‘old’ and ‘out-dated’ modes of thought (such as an external or subjective belief in a god construct), and when coupled with the observation that compassion and wisdom manifest throughout society – serves as the foundation for the application of  Scientific Socialism. This is how Ch’an Buddhism is viewed in modern China.

The Oldest Light in the Universe and the Origins of Matter


here Did the First Light in the Universe Come From? Astrophysicists Now Know

This is a photograph showing the first light ever-present in the universe, taken by the European Space Agency’s (ESA) Planck Space Telescope in 2013. It is believed to show light from when the universe was just 370,000 years. In other words, this photograph presents the universe as it looked from the year zero to round 370,000 – 380,000 years old. This is a significant find, as the universe today is thought to be around 13.78 billion years old. This is essentially a photograph of what is called the ‘Cosmic Microwave Background’ (CMB), or to what is more commonly referred to as ‘background radiation’, which can be detected everywhere – including on earth. This is the residue of the ‘Big Bang’ that brought everything into being, the processes of which, eventually led to the formulation of planet earth (around 4.9 billion years ago), and through evolutionary processes, the emergence of all life (humans in their current evolutionary manifestation, are around 200,000 years old). One point that must be remembered is that light is older than matter, and that the dark patches in this photograph demonstrate areas where light is slowing down, and beginning to form matter – the physical stuff of the universe. Light is an electro-magnetic wave that travels through the vacuum of space, and which does not require any other medium to do so (the existence of dark matter and dark energy is known, because such entitles or ‘fields’ exercise an ‘attracting’ or ‘repulsing’ force respectively upon light as it travels through the apparently ’empty’ space). The following documentary conveys the ‘science’ of light, and humanity’s quest to study and understand its nature, covering operations with the naked eye, theoretical assumptions, telescopes, microscopes and mathematical equations, etc. British Professor Al-Khalili explains precisely how the physical universe emerged, and the scientific processes behind this emergence. When the early universe of hot, dense plasma ‘cooled’ and condensed, atoms were formed and trapped light energy released.

Two Interpretations of the Buddha’s Middle Way (Majjhima Patipada)


Many people encounter Buddhism through a book, leaflet, documentary or group, and are therefore introduced to the subject through the particular interpretation implicit in those modes of knowledge transference. In the age of the internet, it can be argued that a greater degree of detail is available for the study of Buddhism, but the fact remains that as Buddhist philosophy is a complex subject, generally speaking a new student requires some sort of developmental guidance – or ‘narrowing’ of approach – to make sense of it all. This returns to the issue of entering Buddhism through a single gate of interpretation, and remaining unaware of the broader history and divergent philosophical development of Buddhist thought, or the various and distinct cultures that have become associated with the spread of Buddhism throughout Asia and the world. This insularity is compounded if the Buddhism encountered is being used for nefarious or illegitimate reasons. On the other hand, a misunderstanding of Buddhism can lead to the development of ‘quietism’, whereby an individual uses the excuse of being a ‘Buddhist’ not to get involved in important issues involving the well-being, development or safety of humanity. Even the Buddha interceded in the political milieu of his day, if he thought his personal presence could influence kings toward more humane policies, save human or animal life, or even prevent wars. He used the mediating device of cultivated wisdom as a means to ascertain when to act in the world, and when not to act in the world. This was not an interfering function that he took likely, and he advised many of his followers to sit and meditate for a considerable time so as to generate the wisdom required. Simply following personal prejudices, or current popularist trends was not the Buddha’s ‘middle way’. In essence, the Buddha inwardly followed the path of realising non-self, and of uprooting greed, hatred and delusion. On the outer the plane, the Buddha pursued policies that defused aggressive situations that were not dependent upon the belief of ‘self’ (religious or otherwise), and which advocated non-greed over greed, non-hatred over hatred, and non-delusion over delusion. His approach was that people would not treat one another in a selfish or barbaric manner if they understood the insubstantial and ever changing nature of reality. This approach included the deconstruction of the theistic religious belief system prevalent in his time.

The Buddha’s direction of inner and outer movement was defined as pursuing the ‘middle way’ (majjhima patipada), but within Early and Later Buddhist thought, this term has two distinct (and on the surface, very different) interpretations. The first statement must make it clear that all forms of Buddhism adhere to the teachings contained within the Four Noble Truths, and that within this schematic, the concept of the ‘middle way’, or ‘middle path’ is the directly philosophical consequence of the Buddha’s teachings as recorded in the ‘Fourth Noble Truth’. The full title of this teaching is the ‘Path of the Fourth Noble Truth which Leads to the Cessation of Profound Dissatisfaction’, or in Pali ‘Dukkha Nirodha Gamini Patipade – Ariya Sacca). Herein, the Buddha presents eight guidelines which all Buddhists (both lay and monastic) should follow as a means to create a better life free of suffering. This eight guidelines are:

  1. Right Understanding (Samma Ditthi)
  2. Right Thought (Samma sankappa)
  3. Right Speech (Samma vaca)
  4. Right Action (Samma kammanta)
  5. Right Livelihood (Samma ajiva)
  6. Right Effort (Samma vayama)
  7. Right Mindfulness (Samma sati)
  8. Right Concentration (Samma samadhi)

Together with various other instructions pertaining to thought and action in everyday life, the Buddha prescribed an ethical path of meditation (i.e. mind operation modification), and behaviour modification, primarily through adherence to the numerous rules designed to regulate moral behaviour (i.e. ‘sila’). For a Buddhist monastic, these guidelines were strictly (and literally) followed so that every thought, feeling, emotion and action was fully cognised and experienced in a ‘detached’ (or ‘impersonal’) manner. For the lay-Buddhist, the guidelines were followed in a more flexible manner, but with the emphasis being placed on the maintenance of virtuous thought and action in every situation. All Buddhists, for instance, regardless of status, are expected by the Buddha never to kill, or create the conditions for killing to occur. The same is expected with regards to stealing, inappropriate sexual thoughts and actions, speech motivated by greed, hatred and delusion, and food and drink termed ‘intoxicants’ that cloud the good judgement of the mind. Obviously, the Buddhist monastic follow hundreds of vows, but these five are essential to the entirety of the Buddha’s path, and are indicative of the psycho-physical nature of his moral teaching. For the Buddha, the greater the discipline applied to meditation and moral discipline, the quicker (in theory) a practitioner will escape the wheel of suffering and dissatisfaction. However, despite certain trends of thought found in various lineages of the more conservative extant schools of Buddhism, the Buddha did acknowledge (in the Pali Suttas) that committed lay-people (both male and female) could realise ‘nibbana’ through meditation or moral discipline, or on rare occasions, simply by being in the Buddha’s psychological and physical presence. The main point to take from this is that Buddhist monastic have an advantage in as much as their living situation is geared entirely away from worldly affairs, and completely toward the cessation of profound dissatisfaction and suffering. Although lay-people are at a disadvantage, this does not mean that they should not try, or that they are inherently unable to realise enlightenment. In many ways it is this tolerant attitude of the Buddha (found within Early Buddhism) that permeates Mahayana thinking.

The Mahayana School becomes historically observable around the 1st century CE, and is assumed to be a later development of the Buddha’s thought away from the definitional confines of what is termed ‘Early Buddhism’. Although the suttas of the Pali Canon are later developments out of Early Buddhism, it is logical to assume that much of the former is recorded in the latter. The Mahayana ‘sutras’ – by way of comparison – are written in Sanskrit, but also retain virtually everything that exists within the Pali Canon, despite the fact that various philosophical concepts have been developed beyond the foundational premise as originally laid-down by the Buddha. Having established this fact, it is also true that the ‘original’ premise of the Buddha’s teachings is still recorded in the Mahayana sutras, and have not been ‘expunged’ in an act of eradication. This means that the Buddha is presented as teaching two different but inherently ‘related’ versions of his Dharma – one for beginners, and another for the advanced (this is how the Mahayanists explain the dual nature of their own sutras). Some lineages of the Theravada School (which must never be conflated with the ‘Hinayana’ or ‘Small Vehicle’ movement), hold the viewpoint that the Mahayana School is a distortion of the Buddha’s pristine message, whilst others (such as Ven. Walpola Rahula), are of the opinion that definite philosophical parallels exists between the Pali and Sanskrit texts. This situation is fluid and need not delay us when examining the concept of the ‘middle way’ as conceived within the Pali and the Sanskrit texts. The Theravada School follows the Pali Canon and perceives the ‘middle way’ as an individual, through an act of will, steering his or her mind and body on a psychological and physical course, conducive to reducing and eradicating negative karma-producing habits in the real world. This means maintaining a trajectory that treads a path ‘exactly between the two extremes of everything that exists (i.e. the material universe), and everything that does not exist in an obvious material sense (such as states of mind, emotionality and rarefied levels of conscious development). This may also be interpreted as understanding the world of physical matter as a) existing, but b) being ’empty’ of any permanency or substantiality. To understand this reality requires the development of the mind and its awareness capacity. This includes directly perceiving the fact that within the five aggregates that define an individual, there is no ‘atma’ or ‘soul’, and consequently no link to a theistic entity controlling the world from afar. This means that the Pali term ‘sunna’ means that the existing world (according to the Buddha) is ’empty’ of certain things, and that as a consequence, everything exists in a ‘relative’ or ‘interdependent’ state.

The Mahayana School views the ‘middle way’ primarily through the philosophy of the Madhyamika School (founded by Nagarjuna), which states that the physical world is non-existant and therefore ’empty’ of ALL reality. The world of physical matter is insubstantial, impermanent and ‘non-existing’. This means that the ordinary human assumption of an existing subject-object ‘duality’ is an illusion that must be transcended through a developed mind. In Sanskrit ‘sunya’ (i.e. ’emptiness’) refers to two distinct aspects or realisations. The first is that of experiencing a personal mind free of greed, hared, and delusion, and known not to possess a ‘soul’ or any other ‘permanent’ aspect. This is the enlightenment that the Mahayana School associates with the Hinayana School – as it signifies a ‘personal’ nirvana. The full Mahayana enlightenment requires that a mind empty of personal delusion (i.e. ‘relative enlightenment’) must experience a radical expansion so that its fundamental awareness appears to ‘expand’ and become all-embracing of its environment (or the entirety of existence). Within the Mahayana School, a practitioner must adopt a path that is neither attached to the void, nor hindered by the world of phenomena. This includes the realisation that the material world is ’empty’ of any substantiality, but that ’emptiness’ itself is also ’empty’. In Early Buddhism the Buddha appears to be saying that the world is ‘real’ but ‘insubstantial’, whilst in Later Buddhism the Buddha appears to be saying that although the physical world appears to be ‘real’, in reality it is not. This divergence has happened due to the inclusion in the Mahayana (Sanskrit) Canon of a number of ‘new’ texts which convey this ‘modified’ interpretation, whilst still claiming to be utterances of the historical Buddha. Early Buddhism steers a ‘middle way’ between the existing world and its insubstantiality, whilst Later Buddhism adopts a non-dual position that perceives the physical world as being ’empty’, and that emptiness’ being ’empty’ of any substantiality. The Mahayana School, although containing all the teachings found in the Pali texts, nevertheless seems to be suggesting that whereas Early Buddhists were required to adopt a lifestyle of physical discipline – Later Buddhists could realise enlightenment by assuming a certain philosophical point of view, whilst meditating on the realisation of that view. Chinese Ch’an Master Xu Yun (1840-1959), whilst being an adherent of the Mahayana School, rejected this notion and stated categorically that enlightenment could only be realised if the Vinaya Discipline was strictly followed. This was because he was well-read, and had studied virtually all the Buddha’s teachings over his long-life. As a consequence, he had a developed and mature over-view of the entirety of the Buddha’s path – both Early and Later. Although he acknowledged that enlightenment could happen in an instant, he never negated the importance of behaviour modification as a means for ordinary people to reform their lives and realise enlightenment. From 1931 to 1945, Master Xu Yun witnessed the barbaric behaviour of invading Japanese troops in China, and he associated this barbarism with Japan’s abandonment of the Vinaya Discipline.

The middle path for early Buddhists more specifically meant that an adherent had to maintain a perfect psychological and physical balance between the world of matter, and ethereal world of eternal spirit – recognising the conditioned reality of the former – whilst rejecting the entire notion of the latter (eternal spirit is demolished and replaced with the realisation of ever rarefied and subtle levels of conscious awareness). There is the cultivated development of non-attachment to physical objects (and the physical world in general), with a simultaneous cultivation of non-identification with thoughts and feelings in the mind and body. The central concept for early Buddhism is that of the essential reality of ‘dharmas’ or material (rupa) and immaterial (arupa) objects and states. The world of matter is ‘real’ irrespective of its unstable nature – and ‘mind’ (manas), and its functioning (citta), as well as its ability to generate bare conscious awareness (vijnana), are all considered rarefied extensions of matter, to the extent where they may be interpreted as ‘immaterial’ states emanating from a material base. The Buddha states that there are suffering-inducing conditioned states of being, and there are suffering-transcending states of non-conditionality, the latter of which are achieved by following the ‘middle path’. The Mahayana progression disagrees with the idea that all ‘dharmas’ (i.e. the world of matter in its many forms) are intrinsically ‘real’, but instead asserts that the world of matter is ultimately ’empty’ (sunya) of any intrinsic reality. This is despite the fact that the Buddha clearly states that ‘matter’ is the basis of his analysis of reality and the foundation through which his self-cultivation method operates. Whereas Early Buddhists might ‘retire’ from the world to seek a secluded practice, the Mahayana practitioner might suggest that all that needs to be changed is the inner mind and its perception of the outer world. It is the human mind that is ‘defiled; (klesa), and which needs to be ‘cleaned’ through meditation in the Mahayana School. The realisation of the ‘non-reality’ of existence leads to a ‘pure’ mind free of suffering-inducing tendencies (i.e. negative psychological states), and unwise physical actions. The Mahayana demands a radical subjective transformation, and not a shift in ontological understanding. Whereas, within Early Buddhism there is a shift from the state of ‘samsara’ to that of ‘nirvana’, (as if the former is left behind and the latter is entered), within the Mahayana, ‘nirvana’ is found in the midst of ‘samsara’ through clearing the mind of the obscuring ignorance that ‘hides’ this reality from direct perception. This can happen because both states are considered equally ’empty’ of any intrinsic reality, and as this ‘sunya’ is considered the only reality, its realisation cuts through all apparent dualities. As ’emptiness’ is ’empty’ of any inherent relativity, the ultimate position for the Mahayanist remains ultimately ‘beyond words’. As it is ‘beyond words’, this allows the re-entry of the Buddha’s original teaching (found within Early Buddhism) into the equation, as the exact definition of reality defies any exact conceptual explanation. The Buddha’s method only points a ‘middle path’ toward its realisation. This is why the state of nirvana is understood to be non-conditioned.

The Connection Between the Perception of Inner and Outer Space


The Buddha’s ideas are very similar in nature to many of those generated by the philosophers of ancient Greece. Like those ancient Greek philosophers, the Buddha used his mind in a very ‘modern’ manner, and developed a logical and rational view of existence. Again, like the ancient Greeks his thinking reflected, the Buddha developed his mode of pristine thought out of the religiosity prevalent during his lifetime. The Buddha’s life dates are uncertain, but he is thought to have lived (by Western scholars) around 2,500 years ago in ancient India, and around 3,000 years ago according to the traditional scholarship preserved within Chinese Buddhism. I have speculated elsewhere, a tentative theory that Emperor Ashoka [304-232 BCE] (and his ministers) may have developed a peaceful and wisdom-loving (secular) philosophical path, that denied the relevancy and reality of an ‘Indian’ militant Brahmanism, an Indian religion that threatened to confront and over-throw Emperor Ashoka’s ‘foreign’ rule. A passive and meditating Buddhism could have been developed by merging certain Brahmanic elements (such as the yoga of meditation), with various aspects of Greek rational thought. A candidate for the Greek input for the Buddha’s mode of thinking could be the system of thought as developed by Epicurus (370-270 BCE). The similarities between the Buddha’s system and that of Epicurus are so obvious and staggering that I am surprised that this link has not been recognised in the past and studied with a greater depth. Of course, playing devil’s advocate, I have suggested that the ancient Greeks influenced ancient Indian thought, and that Emperor Ashoka ‘created’ Buddhism out of an admixture of Indian and Greek traditions. This is purely a speculation on my part, using the rational facility of my mind. It could also be that the Buddha’s mode of modern thinking was developed hundreds of years before a similar manifestation occurred in ancient Greek (spreading to Greece from ancient Indian through trade and cultural exchange). Another theory is that a ‘new’ way of using the human mind was an evolutionary development that spread ‘species-wide’ across many human cultures that had no direct (or indepth) contact with one another. The use of the rational mind (as advocated by the Buddha and ancient Greeks), is essentially a ‘free’ and ‘unhindered’ mode of thought that lies at the basis of modern science when channelled in a certain manner. This means that ‘free-thinking’ requires various modes of constraint to direct its energy into specific forms of creativity – with perhaps art for art’s sake being its most ‘free’ expression, and scientific endeavour being its most structured and disciplined.

Epicurus was taught by Nausiphanes, and their root-master was Democritus. Democritus was a genius who – without access to microscopes (or even advanced mathematics) – used his ‘rational’ mind to determine that existence is comprised of ‘atoms’ that move around through ’empty space’. Today, through the use of advanced technology and mathematics we know that this is scientifically correct. This would suggest that Democritus had an experience no less important than the enlightenment of the Buddha, as it radically redefined humanity’s perception of reality and existence, and yet generally speaking, there are no temples containing statues of Democritus, or people applying a meditative method to replicate his mode of thought. Democritus stated that atoms moved through space in a determinate manner – but Epicurus modified this idea by stating that atoms – although moving in a definite manner through space – also possessed the ability to suddenly ‘deviate’ or ‘swerve’ in a different direction for no apparent reason. This is how Epicurus explained how unusual events happened, whilst things seemed to unfold in similar patterns. Thousands of years later, Epicurus was proven right when Heisenberg produced his ‘Uncertainty Principle’ in 1927. My point here, is to explore how space and matter is perceive within (and by) the human mind. The Buddha and the Greeks said similar things about form and void. Epicurus – like the Buddha – rejected the relevancy of religion. Both seem to suggest that gods might exist in a deluded sense, but do not exist in an ultimate sense (as many people thought). Epicurus stated that even if gods existed, they had no interest in humanity, and after-all, as there are only atoms and space that define existence, the gods themselves must be comprised of atoms just like humans, and probably subject to some-type of ‘death’ or ‘demise’. For Epicurus – who understood that life was comprised of many sufferings and different kinds of pleasure – death is the absolute end of existence for the individual because the body has ceased to function and its atoms fall apart. There is no transmigration to a heaven or a hell, or rebirth into another living form. The Buddha agrees with this, but allows for a certain ‘delusional’ existence where rebirth occurs and physical death is not the end of existence. However, when full enlightenment is attained, then all rebirth (and karmic retribution) comes to an end – and yet the Buddha clearly states time and again the reality is comprised of empty space within which physical reality manifests. In other words, empty space is not ’empty’ in essence, and physical matter does not occur in a ‘dead’ vacuum.

The Buddha and ancient Greeks were able to use their minds to ‘see’ reality in such a way that modern science has confirmed their basic assumptions to be correct. Both Epicurus and the Buddha seem to suggest that this is not just an ‘objective’ understanding, but also the product of a profound subjective experience. It could be that the Buddha and Greek philosophers like Epicurus were able to manifest a rational mind premised upon subjective experiences that had been previously interpreted in a ‘religious’ manner – an approach rejected by ‘rationalists’. The following is a fascinating scientific documentary about empty space – which is not ’empty’:


Living in Stillness – Japan’s Minimalist Design and Eastern Zen


(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

A Zen-style room is deliberately simple, and is the product of both strict attentiveness and concentrated insight. Such a state need not be dependent upon ‘knowing’, but it is most certainly reliant upon ‘wisdom’. The Buddhist tradition of Zen defines this state as that of a ‘monkey existing within a vast and empty space.’ This form of philosophical idealism is well-known, but it is only one side of the story, as Zen practitioners believe that a harmonious living space should be crafted from whatever materials are at hand. This is because the Zen lifestyle is fluid, and always striving for the establishment of peace in the environment. Whilst moving through empty space, wisdom informs the Zen practitioner how to change the atmosphere and functionality of a room.

Traditional Japanese interior design advocates a ‘return to nature’. In this regard, natural aesthetics are very much respected and are harmoniously combined. In today’s high-tech and high-paced life, people require more than ever the ability to retain physical and psychological balance. Through fresh and elegant interior design. This is actually the basic Eastern view of nature, and the traditional Zen-view is compatible with the thinking (and requirements) associated with modern interior design, and produce the perfect fusion.

The aims and practices of Zen are compatible with traditional Japanese design, and when combined, create a natural Zen-like minimalist perspective. Modern Japanese minimalist design becomes more natural, as the indoor environment is designed to create a naturally comfortable and stress-free ambience. This should not be surprising, as the design process often makes use of natural materials such as wood, stone, bamboo, rattan and plain textures. Managing the indoor greenery creates a natural, earthy, and elegant atmosphere.

Japanese design is premised upon simplicity. This is not only in accordance with Zen thinking, but is the very soul of interior design. This benefits those who now live in the hustle and bustle of the urban environment, and creates a natural quiet, simple, and elegant atmosphere. Such a design is rich in personal characteristics suitable for an urban population. Traditional Eastern culture is defined by its simple and natural philosophy. Today, this reality has combined with the thinking of modern Western design trends, and a fresh synthesis (combined without resistance) has been produced.



Original Chinese Language Article








The Visionary Nature of the UFO Phenomena.

UFO Oregon 1950

UFO Illinois 1950.

The rounded apparitions repeat themselves over and over again, not only in photographs and films but are also believed to be represented in old works of art and description of unusual historical events.  In many cultures the circle is seen as a representative of completion and perfection.  The Chinese civilisation, for instance, has a very well developed tradition of representing what are considered fundamental truths through rounded imagery and symbolism.  The principle of roundedness appears to represent a deeper reality to the human perception than any other shape.  It is complete because the circular nature is not discontinuous and in and of itself it is non-threatening and is therefore profoundly satisfying, linking simultaneously the religious impulse with that of complete awareness.  The rounded shape is logical and allows the intellect to rest within it without distraction.  The phenomenon of the ‘Unidentified Flying Object’ (UFO) is primarily a visual event.  The other senses, although not entirely dormant in the experience of a UFO event, remain, nevertheless, secondary in nature to the visual stimulation.  A UFO is seen first and foremost through the eyes, and it is this contact that triggers the secondary usage of the other bodily senses.  The image itself may exist in the environment independent of the observer, forming a distinct and verifiable objective event, or it may manifest from the mind of the observer using the eyes as a portal from the inner world of psychological process to that of the outer world of external objects.  Of course, in the strict materialist model of existence, that which is created within the mind is an illusion, a phantom or ghost of the imagination that although may convince the observer that some thing is ‘out there’ in the environment, is in fact projecting psychic content outward that appears to be exiting ‘in front’ of the observer, but which in reality remains a purely mental event which contains no physical content.  Generally speaking, the confirmation of the existence of an external event is verified by the consensus of gathered evidence which relies primarily upon objective fact that is beyond dispute.  Psychic events, on the other hand, are considered by and large not to be recordable and certainly unable to project and create a concrete object into the environment.  This would involve the mind pulling elements together in the external world and creating an object of choice.  Even if this was possible and a UFO could be created by the human mind, it would remain a creation of the mind that produced it and not necessarily a flying craft from another planet.  These quandaries are the product of the human reliance upon material philosophy that views the physical world as separate and distinct from the human mind that perceives it.  It is this distinction that renders the human mind as merely a passive observer of an external world it has no direct control over.  It is true that the human intelligence can manipulate matter for particular ends (such as space travel), but this tends to be the product of accumulated human knowledge (over centuries), and the corporate control of resources.  The individual remains first and foremost the recipient of sense-data and at the
whim of social and natural forces.  The many the UFO phenomenon is a highly spiritualised experience.  This experience does not rely upon or even recognise the materialist interpretation of science or philosophy.  UFO’s are not merely concrete physical objects passing through an external world, nor are they simply imaginations projected into the environment – but rather a far more complete manifestation of a deep multiversal truth that transcends the limited human modes of contemporary thinking and existence.  The effect is simultaneous with the experience of the UFO itself and can not be separated from it.  The rounded UFO image appears to be fulfilling the human requirement for an immediate experience of perfection that represents a higher truth unbounded by the habits human convention.  A translucent multiverse allows all to be seen from any single perspective, and the roundel motif of the archetypal UFO represents a constant that although appearing solid is in fact a visual doorway to other parts of existence which includes differing planes of mental awareness.  The laws of conventional physics do not apply in this situation.  An interesting aspect of this phenomenon is that even forged photographic evidence of UFO’s, regardless of the motivation of the forger, serve the function of bringing together many different aspects of the human psyche and many different planes of existence, to such an extent that it has the affect of healing through the experiencing of wholeness.

All the above photographs are listed as appearing throughout four decades – the late 1940’s, 1950’s, 1960’s and 1970’s, and were taken across theUSA and theUK.  When presented in a montage the shared symbology is obvious and apparent.  Circumstantial differences in the place, time and environment, although interesting are only of a superficial concern when the ‘visionary’ nature of UFO symbolism is being examined.  These differences can be suitably recorded and then filtered out of the analysis.  Simply staring at the four photographs for a number of minutes will let the human mind sieve out the superfluous information and allow for the dominant present archetype to become exclusively manifest.  This process necessarily supersedes even the presence of colour, even if the photographs are in black and white.  Colour, again although useful and interesting in a broader consideration of UFO experience is not, and can not be a defining aspect of a UFO’s presence.  It is the spherical shape of the UFO that is its defining feature.  Every other piece of information within this context becomes secondary in importance to this fact.  This is to say that the study of the UFO phenomena involves the gathering of absolutely any and all information for consideration and analysis – this is a very important area of study for many reasons, the accumulation of which may one day lead to a major breakthrough in a possible human – extraterrestrial interaction, but to gain an understanding about specific aspects requires a concentration only upon the relevant details.  Presence and shape appear to be the base information that suggests a UFO has manifest in the environment.  It is this information that then transforms all accompanying factors toward a higher plane of perceptual awareness.  Nothing is the same again after the moment a UFO manifests in the environment and is perceived through the human sense of vision.  There may, or may not be an associated sound as UFO’s are often reported to be silent.  UFO’s can be still, hanging in the air, or can move at incredible speeds changing angles of flight in ways that should not be usually possible for the speed observed.  UFO’s can be motionless whilst present, or utilise a spinning upon their axis, whether still or moving quickly.  Occasionally a UFO may appear to flicker in and out of perceptual existence, only appear ‘solid’ for a moment or two.  Although the above pictures all share the attribute of air born UFO phenomena, sometimes UFO’s as circular discs have been seen moving through sea water or emerging from the sea into the air.  Appearing and disappearing without suddenly and without warning is a fairly common experience.  Another is that they appear to manifest out of the public gaze in the least public of areas.  Although there have been military reports involving UFO’s – including a sighting upon a military base in the UK – the authorities have been reluctant to share information about these events, even ridiculing those involved as some how being in perceptual error or in dereliction of duty, etc.  It is a similar situation with commercial pilots who are often reluctant to report what they have seen in case their professional judgement becomes subject to scrutiny.  This is the expected response of a culture enthused through with materialist principles.  The presence of UFO’s is a direct threat to the apparent supremacy of the materialist philosophy which is based upon the quantification of matter – as UFO’s – by their very nature can not be quantified and still resist this type of categorisation even today.  Materialist thought that is questioned and threatened with being proven incorrect resorts to the immediate deployment of extensive scepticism and cynicism as a means of bludgeoning a reality that is threatening to burst the seams – back into conformity with the materialist line of thought.  Extensive and over-whelming criticism of any thing that is different allows for the parameters of materialist organised society to remain intact.  Of course this kind of thinking and the society it presumes to protect is nothing but a temporary illusion that appears permanent.  The multiverse does not allow for the many planes of existence to be totally consumed by any one mode of thought, as this would prevent the creativity that lies at the heart of all sentient life.

How does a UFO materialise within the perceptible environment?  The materialist mode of analysis posits three possible explanations.  1) The UFO travels through (materially defined) linear time and space.  It begins its journey from some where else and arrives (i.e. ‘materialises’) at the point of observation.  2)  The UFO is the product of human imagination.  The UFO is conceived within the mind of an individual (or group) and is physically created as a rounded structure, being comprised of materials originating upon this human plane.  This may be a deliberate attempt to deceive, or for some other legitimate activity such as dramatic effect, etc.  3)  The UFO is generated solely within the mind of a single individual, or group of individuals, and although appearing to exist within the surrounding physical environment external to the perceivers, can not be seen by any one else or electronically recorded as being present.  This may be explained as an hallucination generated by an individual, or generated and shared by a group of individuals who are some how bound together.  These three definitions can be extrapolated and extended to include virtually all circumstances surrounding UFO observation.  Although UFO’s are viewed by many as being inter-stellar craft from other planets – possibly carrying alien life forms that have developed a technological culture that is vastly superior to contemporary human scientific achievement – this can not be directly known from just the observation of a spherical object in the sky or sea.  Conversely, such an idea can not be decisively disproven upon the same grounds – a spherical object remains at its core simply a ‘spherical object’ and nothing more can be satisfactorily assumed.  The matter remains open; such is the neutral power of the rounded object to the human mind.  Neutrality as used here implies that the rounded object, although it inspires awe (and some times fear), nevertheless serves as a conduit between the negative and positive force in the multiverse, operating as some thing akin to a ‘zero’ ((i.e. ‘0’) in modern mathematics.  Its presence draws every thing into it without limitation.  It is both ‘alien’ and ‘non-alien’ at exactly the same moment, regardless of its actual origination.  Even a forged UFO can induce this sense of totality within the mind of the unaware observer.  This totality of perception is the product of the observer turned back upon itself and magnified beyond assumed (and normal) perceptual limitations.  A sense of conscious expansion occurs that happens irrespective of the state of mind of the observer.  In this respect, the spherical UFO performs the function of the mandala – an abstract picture found within Asian religion that is designed to reflect various conscious levels of the mind, and to induce these frequencies of heightened perceptual awareness in the individual perceiving the event.  A relatively modest design can appear to contain a potentially vast reality beyond its apparent simplicity.  Of course, this raises issues of philosophical presence and being.  The material model, although definitely useful can not be representative of the whole of reality, but remains limited in scope.  If the world is not actually externally present to the sense organs that detect it, it is interesting to consider that the material model of perception may be severely limited.  A UFO might not appear from another place by following a linear, external flight plan.  If the world is actually comprised of ideas perceived as objective images, hrough its spherical shapethen a UFO, although apparently having followed a flight path could well have simply travelled from one point in a vast multiversal consciousness to another – appearing to physically appear as if out of nowhere.  Conscious matter is matter that is not necessarily solid, but that only appears to be solid.  Moving through time and space does not apply if the strict materialist notion of reality is abandoned in favour of an idealist interpretation.  The UFO appears multiversal because it is a localised presentation of consciousness itself.  Throughits spherical shape, the vastness of existence is condensed into a relatively small area of perception.  The UFO, possibly traversing great distances is in fact moving through the psychic fabric of existence.  The multiverse, as a conscious entity without limit, includes physical matter, but this physical matter is merely a certain frequency of reality within the mind itself.  The personal mind in its ordinary state reflects the UFO in its manifestation – both signify some thing far beyond the limitations of their own particular presentation.  It is multiversal presence in miniature.  Whatever a UFO is or is not, it can seldom be perceived as simply a round shape of little import.  The significance of its presence is often unsettling beyond the realms of reason.  A new reality is beckoning that often threatens the limitations of ordinary life.  Many interpret a UFO as a flying machine from another civilisation.  This is one way for the ordinary human mind to come to terms with the archetypal impulse to seek reality beyond its habitual limitations.  The UFO can not be ‘ordinary’ in any conventional sense.  The human bias is to assume that humanity is the only intelligent life form on the planet, and in the multiverse.  It is more or less a ‘taboo’ subject to assume that a life form could exist any where else other than the planet Earth.  Certain religions have taught for thousands of years that humanity is fashioned in a divine image because it is superior to lesser life forms.  The presence of an alien technology beyond that of humanity’s current level of development seems to represent a secular movement away from religious domination and out of the human bias of singular importance.  UFO’s in the contemporary setting appear to have arrived at a time when theistic religious models are no longer serving their previous functions of explaining virtually everything through the authority of scripture.  Material science, with its specific mode of the interpretation – and consequent limitation of perception- nevertheless has moved humanity away from the reliance upon the authority of scripture and revelation.  It is not that these things have no relevance – they certainly do – but that all religions originally were premised upon an expansive conscious experience that became obscured as the religions spread and became popular – the halo found within Christianity is common inAsiaand signifies the expanded consciousness of an enlightened being.  Like a halo, for instance, the UFO, as a rounded object represents a spiritual completeness.  Carl Jung commented upon this similarity and suggested that humanity, as it moves into the (secular) technological age, was protecting a religious technology upon the rounded objects seen in the sky, but that when assessing various sightings, he said that around 50% appeared to be in the mind only, whilst the other 50%  seemed to be actual physical events.  Jung also commented that the UFO’s did seem to behave as if they were visitors (or strangers), that did not know their way around an unfamiliar place.  A UFO can appear in the physical environment or in the psychological mind – it is interesting to entertain the notion that perhaps these two descriptions represent the same place or point of origin, and that to understand this depends entirely upon where the observer is observing from.

Many legitimate UFO sightings can be explained as fairly ordinary phenomenon that is not unusual or extraterrestrial in nature.  Cloud formations, aeroplanes, tricks of the light, birds, secret military experimentation, and general misinterpretation often are behind UFO manifestation.  Deliberate fraud is behind many others.  But when all the sightings are checked and categorised there are usually a small number that remain unexplained, or that can not be explained to everyone’s satisfaction.  Added to this can be added film and still photography from various NASA space missions.  This is where the analysing skills of material science are very helpful.  Those UFO’s which are explainable are no longer a UFO, but rather an ordinary explained flying object.  This knowledge removes these kinds of sightings from consideration, as well as those objects exposed as bits of cardboard, hub-caps or kites, etc.  Nevertheless, this analytical success should not be allowed to create a bias ‘a priori’ attitude that a true UFO is impossible or improbable.  Good science always allows for the unexpected, and from the philosophical perspective materialist thinking – scientific or otherwise – should not be viewed as the only possible way of viewing existence.  It is also important to remember that science is not beyond the realms of political and financial persuasion, and that sometimes the scientific method in the hands of certain people, can be wrong, immoral or both.  The objective analysis should not distract from the revelatory nature of the UFO encounter regardless of its actual origination.  This encounter is always ‘visionary’ to a certain degree.  This visionary experience can range from a mild sense of euphoria to that of a complete transpersonal experience.  This is essentially a spiritual experience and amounts to the presence of religion without religion.   It is spirituality as yet undefined (and undefiled) by cumbersome concepts.  Both inner and outer space converges upon the physical body of the spherical UFO, so that no dimensional difference can be detected.  The experience of the UFO is a sudden collapse of partial world views into that of complete understanding.  It is a dramatic and unexpected experience, as sudden as it is difficult to explain.  Sometimes the experience stays as a permanent attribute to a persons character, at other times the experience, although extremely memorable, fades virtually as soon as the UFO leaves the ordinary visual range.  Whatever the case there is no doubt that the experience is never forgotten and serves to inform opinion about life and its experiences.  The entanglements that evolve around power in society are often incorporate into the UFO experience.  The UFO presence is so powerfully present that it inspires confidence and bravery in the face of established social order.  In many ways the clash is inevitable between the ordinary person and the limiting structures of established society.  Many assume that the government and the military, as well powerful corporations are in possession of information and technology acquired from downed UFO’s and gathered over many decades.  This even extends to the recovery of alien bodies – either alive or dead.  The denial of this reality by those expected of it only serves to add fuel to the fire as the nature of the denials appear very non-committal and often as illusive as the UFO phenomena itself.  The denials are of such a psychological frequency that they actually serve to encourage the allegations they are designed to annul.  The fact that these social entities spend time on constructing barely credible denials is in itself highly suspicious behaviour and certainly not the kind of response expected for the removal of an apparently untenable allegation.  The denial seems to be designed so that it encourages the perpetuation of the allegation.  From a philosophical perspective it must be assumed that the presence of UFO’s – and the conspiracy theories based upon them – serves a hidden purpose for the authorities who expediently adopt an official denial position that encourages the continued existence of the accusation.  Such is the power of the presence of the spherical UFO.  During the existence of the Soviet Union (1917-1991), Soviet scientists investigating the events surrounding the Tunguska incident that occurred on June the 30th, 1908, considered the possibility that the massive explosion that devastated an 800 square miles of a remote Siberian area was extraterrestrial in nature.  This celestial body apparently exploded in the air aboveTunguska leaving vast forests flatten roughly in the shape of a butterfly’s wings – consistent with what is thought by many to be an airborne explosion of a very large meteorite – although no evidence of this meteorite has been discovered upon the ground during the numerous expeditions mounted to the area.  The explosion was so intense that areas ofEurope remained ‘light’ for weeks afterwards.  Soviet scientists at the time pursued an investigation based upon the observation of matter, drawing whatever conclusions they could from the evidence gathered.  The early expeditions photographed and filmed the devastation, revealing thousands of trees lying like match-sticks upon the ground, all facing in the same direction – indeed the photographs carry a certain disturbing quality – suggesting an almost unimaginable scale to the destruction.  Later, following the advent of the nuclear age, some Soviet scientists started to theorise that the explosion may have been the result of the presence of an alien technology within the area, and that this display of force occurred in a part of the planet that although being geographically large was also sparsely populated.  This does not mean that no one died – as these areas were occupied by the Evenki nomadic people – some of whom survived just beyond the periphery of the explosion itself.  Eye witness reports sound very similar to those of survivors of the atomic bombs dropped onJapan during the last days of WWII.  InTunguska the exact numbers of dead are unknown.  In 1947 – just after the dropping of the atomic bombs, a story emerged (and gradually developed over the years) of an apparent UFO crash in theRoswell area ofNew Mexico,USA.  Although originally involving one alien craft, the story eventually expanded into two or more craft crashing in the area.  This story is augmented by a military press release that stated a UFO had crashed and been recovered by the US military – the next day the story was retracted and the apparently alien UFO was replaced by an innocuous weather balloon.  As the story emerged, developed and was revealed the allegation surfaced that the US military had recovered the bodies (either dead or alive) from the wreckage, and that the weather balloon story was a very rushed and poorly planned cover-story designed to hide the facts from the general public.   This story has expanded as the years have gone by – as if an act religious revelation is unfolding.  He conscious human mind is the obvious conduit for this development of a completely different set of outer circumstances used to meet the highest spiritual yearnings of humanity, but there are parallels with the old religions.  Jesus Christ, for instance, is believed to be the Son of a monotheistic God born into human form.  Despite what might be considered the presence of immense spiritual and physical power, Jesus experiences a life of apparent oppression before being physically killed by the authorities of the time.  This contradiction of immensity and fragility present in a single being seems to be reflected in the Tunguska andRoswell incidents.  It the UFO’s believed to be evident in these incidents are the product of an alien civilisation far more advanced than contemporary human society, and bearing in mind that presumably they must have travelled very far distances to get to this planet, then it is surprising that such an obviously superior physical presence experiences a destruction based upon circumstances it can not control.

The spherical shape of the classic UFO sighting appears to suggest a link through perception to the underlying nature of all things.  The conscious human mind is the conduit for this process.  Perception, whatever it may be, is the two-way portal to expanded understanding.  Linear time and space as defined as the measuring of matter can not be the full philosophical picture that defines existence In its complete form.  Therefore, the assertion of ‘presence’ and non-presence’ is based upon a partiality, or an obscured view of reality.  This dichotomy gives the impression that a UFO ‘travels’ into perceptual awareness, and then ‘travels’ out of perceptual ‘awareness’.  In reality such a situation can not be adequately known as a basis for truth.  Errors occur when definitive statements are formulated based upon such a limited observation.  Alien life has to originate ‘over there’, for it to be unusual ‘over-here’.  However, this may not be the case.  The ‘alien’ and the ‘familiar’ exist side by side, and perhaps even within exactly the same time and space.  The presence or non-presence of an object to the human senses does not necessarily correlate with the notion that the object is ‘here’ one moment, and ‘absent’ the next.  A UFO, therefore, may be:

1)     Present.

2)     Not present.

3)     Both present and not present.

4)     Neither present and not present.

Like Schrödinger’s Cat, the spherical UFO is both present and non-present all at once.  The travelling through external space, from one material base to another, might well turn-out to be an incredibly inefficient and relatively slow method of transportation.  At the moment, outside of the yogic sciences the travelling within inner space remains a mystery or an absurdity.  Certainly space can not be limited to any particular plane of existence, but instead serve as a universal constant within the multiverse.  It is also important to note that the notion of space can not be limited to the mere quantification matter.  In other words, the apparent logical association between ‘space’ and ‘time’ may well not be ultimately correct.  Once space is unencumbered by the materialist association with time (and therefore a specific place), its all-embracing nature can then be fully cognised, understood and utilised by humanity.  If a spherical UFO does represent an as of yet unfamiliar mode of existence involving other unique life-forms, perhaps these life-forms have already realised the totality of space as an independent multiversal reality, and in so doing developed modes of interaction that allows for time to be manipulated outside of its usual association with space, and produce elements of their existence in apparently different realities to their own.  This presence may well manifest on this plane in a very fragile and impermanent manner.  This flimsy manifestation might be an intrinsic value of the mode of travel involved, or a product of human consciousness that is limited to the material realm.  It could of course be a product of both.  The spherical UFO emits a certain complete sense of reality beyond its own manifestation.  This is similar to Mandalbrot’s Set:

There is the presence of an obvious structure that renders its own design immediately redundant through its infinite replication.  It appears to have an actual physical structure, but as perpetuation through change is in operation, the structure becomes transparent and non-existent in its eternality.  The spherical UFO, although appearing in different times and places within the human awareness, represents a continuation of changing manifestation that effectively only appears to be disparate and apart, but is in reality a form of multiversal presence interpreted through the disruptive filter of human perception limited to the measuring of reality through the quantification of matter.  When this hold upon the human consciousness is broken species wide, then a new understanding will emerge and the spherical UFO will become normalised through correct understanding.

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