Thomas Lynn Bradford (1873-1921) Explorer of Consciousness

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Thomas Lynn Bradford was just 48 years old when he took his own life. At a time following the mass murder that was WWI, Europeans had lost their belief in a god, and instead had turned toward a number of other philosophies, theologies and theosophy to explain existence and non-existence. As a consequence, Bradford’s death was well documented in the US newspapers of the time, as was the alleged subsequent happenings. Many people in the Western world were interested in spiritualism and the notion of a disembodied after-life, as was Thomas Bradford himself. However, what was different with Bradford was how he was willing to give his life in an empirical experiment to see whether he could communicate from the ‘other side’, with a living collaborator. If he had been proven successful, the world of material science would have been turned upside down, but there are many who think that he was successful, and did communicate if not exactly an after-life, certainly the continuation of conscious awareness.

After placing an advertisement in a local Detroit newspaper, a woman by the name of Ruth Doran came forward and volunteered to be the potential recipient of any post-death message conveyed by Bradford. On the night of the February 5th (around 9pm), 1921, Thomas Bradford returned to his boarding house and is said to have ‘sealed’ the place prior to blowing-out the pilot light on the gas supply. This successfully led to the physical death of Thomas Lynn Bradford. For a time, Bradford became very famous for both the manner and purpose of his self-imposed demise. Many self-proclaimed psychics and mediums dubiously claimed to have communicated with Bradford, with each presenting a narrative that supported their own particular religious or philosophical view of the world. In other words, such individuals were putting words into Bradford’s deceased mouth in the hope of reinforcing this or that view for popularity reasons.

Ruth Doran took a different position, Although she had only recently met Bradford, she often described herself as his ‘friend’. As Bradford was married, there is no indication that he and Doran were romantically involved, but this might not have been completely out of the question. On February 12th, Ruth Doran claimed to have heard Thomas Bradford’s voice which stated:

‘“I am the professor who speaks to you from the Beyond. I have broken through the veil. The help of the living has greatly assisted me.   I simply went to sleep. I woke up and at first did not realize that I had passed on. I find no great change apparent. I expected things to be much different. They are not. Human forms are retained in outline but not in the physical. I have not traveled far. I am still much in the darkness. I see many people. They appear natural.  There is a lightness of responsibility here unlike in life. One feels full of rapture and happiness. Persons of like natures associate. I am associated with other investigators. I do not repent my act.  My present plane is but the first series. I am still investigating the future planes regarding which we in this plane are as ignorant as are earthly beings of the life just beyond human life.’

What I find interesting is that if Thomas Lynn Bradford was of sound mind when he decided to extinguish his own life, and there is no evidence to suggest he wasn’t, then what a brave person he was! This is a man with no wealth who wasn’t very well-known prior to his death, who attempted what might be described as an ’empirical’ experiment into the after-life. It is further interesting to note that his message did not confirm the Judeo-Christian religious view of the after-life, but does seems to be one very similar to numerous spiritualist movements or that view of existence as described by the theosophy movement. Assuming that Bradford’s brain was nolonger functioning, and that his body was in a state of decay, the best that could be said for his life processes was that they were in a ‘dormant’ state. This is an important observation from the position of Cryogenics, where it is possible to ‘freeze the body and brain upon death, and prevent any further tissue damage that would occur as the body structure breaks down through natural decomposition. The next stage in this theoretical process is the defrosting of the corpse and the re-animation of the bodily functions. Again, there is no reason in theory why an intact body cannot be re-activated and brought back to life. Science can deep freeze a recently deceased body (or body parts), and science can defrost the body (or body parts), but as of yet the final stage of restoring life cannot be achieved. My point is this, if one day ‘life’ can be fully restored within a previously dead body, and if the personality of the individual automatically re-emerges and communicates clearly, then it is obvious that there is no after-life, and that all notions of such a journey are the figments of the imagination. At physical death, the life processes become dormant and non-functional – they do not travel as a disembodied entity to some other plane simply because these life process are the product of biological function and not spiritual transmigration. As and when Cryogenics solves the riddle of existence, the theistic religious view will be finally proven wrong. A person cannot simultaneously be in a heavenly and realm and STILL in their bodies. If the body of Thomas Lynn Bradford had been frozen and kept on ice for decades, perhaps if he was defrosted and brought back to life he would say that ‘nothing’ happened when he died, and that he had no awareness or ability to send any message whilst in the dormant state.

Sichuan’s ‘Dwarf Village’ (明阳寺村)

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Master Luo Deshan

Western sources tend to convey the very basic facts about this interesting place and people situated in Zizhong County area of Southern Sichuan province, whilst continuing the usual disinformation about Mainland China. This place is not ‘shut off’ to the outside world, and Westerners are not ‘banned’ from visiting it. However, the elderly people who live in Bright Light Temple Village (明阳寺村 – Ming Yang Si Cun), are ‘protected’ citizens of the People’s Republic of China (due to their disability), are not entertainment for curious foreigners, and have a right to privacy to pursue their lives. The information in this article is conveyed by the Headman of the village – Luo Deshan (羅德山).

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In the 1930’s, when the standard of living was very poor in the area, local people gave birth to a generation of children who stopped growing at around 4 years old – reaching just 90cm in height. These children were born to otherwise healthy adults with no history of dwarfism within their families. The children concerned suddenly felt tremendous pain in their hips and leg joints and suddenly stopped physically growing in height (although the body matured as usual and psychological capacity generally remained unhindered). Although conventional dwarfism sufferers tend not to live long lives, these people in Ming Yang Temple Village have lived into their 70’s, 80’s and even 90’s – implying that the condition might have a by-product of increasing longevity.

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Today, out of the 120 inhabitants, around 80 elderly and middle-aged people stand between 80cm – 90cm tall, whilst their off-spring have become steadily taller at around 1.4m – 1.6m. Between the 1930’s and 1954, local inhabitants experienced severe pain in their ankles, knees and pelvic girdle. After this date, the recurrence of these symptoms ceased, only to re-emerge during the 1960’s and 1970’s (amongst adolescence). The incidence of Dwarfism has steadily diminished into the 21st century. After Liberation in 1949, the Government of China sent medical and welfare experts to the area, and had a purpose-built nursing home opened. Even with this help, life can still be hard for short people. Much of the furniture and utensils they use are of ordinary size and create ongoing difficulties, but the people manage and have a good attitude to life. Many of these people get on with their lives and even visit local markets outside their area.

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In January 2008, Zizhong County Health Bureau commissioned the County People’s Hospital to carry out an x-ray examination of the dwarves in the Ming Yang Temple Village. The results showed that the synovial joints between the head of the femur cones and the pelvic girdle had disappeared as the bones had ‘fused’ together causing immobility and great pain. Although something similar can happen in very old people (as ‘osteoarthritis’), this problem had occurred in young children. The Sichuan Provincial Centre for Disease Control and Prevention of Epidemics has put forward the idea that during the 1920’s and 1930’s the Southern Sichuan area experienced an unusually high degree of rain during the autumn harvest time. Due to the poor living conditions of the people at that time, the stored wheat and sweet potato were extremely prone to mildew and this may have given birth to a fungus called Fusarium. When consumed in large amounts, this fungus inhibits the growth of cartilage. After Liberation in 1949, the Ming Yang Temple Village underwent a thorough redevelopment and today life is much better for the inhabitants. With continuous and improved living conditions, there has not been another outbreak of Dwarfism in the area.

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Chinese Language Reference:

https://baike.baidu.com/item/矮人村?wtp=tt

The Barbarism of ‘Ratting’

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Rats are clean animals that have adapted to living in the filth that humanity generates. Pet rats, for instance, are renowned as the cleanest of animals because they are kept in pristine environments free of the usual human filth associated with sewers, the rotting waste stored in municipal dumps and land-fill areas, and effluent associated with 24 hour slaughter houses and industrialised farming, etc. Rats are complex social animals that will keep as clean as their environment will allow, therefore the tautology espoused by those perverse and demented individuals that enjoy torturing an animal to death – namely that ‘rats are dirty’ – is nothing but an excuse to display a hateful blood lust toward an animal that does not possess the psychological ability to understand what is going to happen (and avoid it), or the physical ability to fight a pack of vicious dogs deliberately trained to rip it to bits, whilst the intellectually challenged stand by laughing and joking (with their beer-bellies hanging over their belts, with a cigarette in one hand and a can of lager in the other) as the rat’s body is torn asunder, and the rat ‘squeals’ in agony and terror! These ‘ratting’ dogs are trained to attacks things like cats as a preparation for dismembering rats, and are highly aggressive to any small creature – including young children. Whilst hiding the veneer of ‘pest control’, these mentally deficient morons who own these dogs and film the ritualised killing of a living creature, personify the very essence of the cultural poverty that privileges anger and hatred as the ‘norm’ when dealing with other creatures. This is not pest control – but rather the ‘acceptable’ face of fascist endeavour in the UK, and animals are the victims. More than this, however, but these damaged human-beings propagate their psychological state of arrested development to other people, by implying that what they do to rats is ‘civilised’ and ‘acceptable’, when in reality it is neither.  Children are often present at these bloodlettings, and of course, videos of such barbaric behaviour can easily be accessed on social media sites. The point is that if rat populations have to be controlled, it should be carried-out scientifically and humanely – with the idea that the relationship between humans and rats has to be transformed. I was prompted to write this short piece due to a video I was shown of a young person using an air rifle at night, and killing rats for fun on a farm, This activity was filmed and uploaded onto Youtube. A more disturbing video featured a very large and docile rat thought to be a ‘pet’, which was purchased by a group of ‘ratters’ and placed in the centre of a large barn. Under the pretext of ‘pest control’, a pack of five rabid dogs were set upon it. This rat could not fight (despite being the size of a large cat), and appeared to run toward one dog to ‘play’. The dogs broke its back legs and spine so that it could only stand on its front legs. Then, one of the dogs gripped the rat by the neck and all the other dogs began tearing it to pieces. The rat was alive and squealing as all this happened. The mind-set of the humans present was hateful and happy.

When Computers Turn ‘Racist’!

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Valdimir Myakovsky was the founder of ‘Communist Futurism’. He was of the opinion that humanity could eventually solve all its many problems through the use of technology – but only within the context of a ‘Socialist’ society where science is used by the people, in the name of the people, and for the benefit of the people. In such a society, scientists and manufacturers are not motivated by monetary profit, but rather through the very real idea that each innovation is relieving human (and animal) suffering, and as such is collectively ‘progressing’ humanity forward in its positive development and evolution.

People in the West – particularly the USA – are a priori conditioned to such an extent that not only do they never question the ideology of the capitalist system they exist within, by and large they nolonger possess the cognitive ability to formulate such a questioning. Many waste their time chasing ‘single issues’ of protest, areas of exploitative existence generated by the capitalist system. This is the great victory of the capitalists. Their system of ruthless exploitation and profiteering continues nonetheless, despite any and all doubts the populace might have about specific aspects of it. The capitalists offer ‘reform’ and ‘alteration’, but this just means a change in superficial presentation which the brain-washed accept as ‘real’ change. In the meantime, the whole-sale exploitation of humanity continues unabated. It is not technology that is the problem (as incorrectly assumed by this interesting video), but rather the way this technology is being used by the capitalist system that produces it. It is the capitalist system that should be attacked, and not the technology itself (which could be used to improve life for humanity, if the underlying capitalist exploitation ceased to function).

What is interesting to me, is that racism arises out of the capitalist system and its ruthless division of labour – and this video mentions a computer programme which when left to its own devices, started producing ‘racist’ rhetoric – surely an overt expression of the racism in the minds of its human creators. Another example involves a computer language that evolved beyond the understanding of its programmers – surely a manifestation of the ‘dishonesty’ and ‘deception’ that underlies ALL capitalist discourse.

Did the ‘Big Bang’ Event Happen?

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No scientific theory is beyond improvement or dismissal (if proven wrong). Human scientific understanding has ‘evolved’ over-time, moving toward an ever greater, or more subtle understanding of the material universe. Science deals exclusively with the material universe because it can be seen – either technologically or mathematically – and therefore can be ‘observed’ and ‘measured’. This is even true of the quantum level of existence, which humanity only knows is there, because it has been ‘observed’. An apparent problem at the quantum level, is that it is difficult to ‘measure’ the behaviour of certain sub-atomic particles (termed ‘uncertainty’). Below is an informative video that explains the state of human knowledge as it now stands – this is open to revision at anytime. The ‘Big Bang’ event appears to have happened. The universe is expanding, that is, space itself is stretching (apparently faster than light). As space stretches, the light travelling through it is also stretched. However, logically working backwards through time, it appears correct to say that the universe was ‘less stretched’, i,e. ‘smaller’ than it is today at an earlier time in its existence, and this has been confirmed with photographs taken of when the universe was just 370,000 years old – some 13.8 billion years ago. Furthermore, a definite ‘event’ occurred which saw a highly dense and hot universe suddenly emerge and rapidly expand. The sticking-point for many scientists is whether a ‘singularity’ occurred, and if it did, what was its precise nature? Hot plasma transitioned into a gas state, as hydrogen atoms were formed. Simultaneously, the infra-red light which was trapped was suddenly ‘freed’ to expand across the universe.

The Case for a Mind-Generated Existence

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Everything a human being ‘senses’ is the product of bio-chemical electricity traversing the neural network that connects the brain with the spine, and the spine with the body. The body, of course, serves as a mediation-point between the physical environment and the brain-spine nexus. A very real problem exists in the form of the gathering and interpretation of sensory data. Admittedly, this is not so much of a problem if the existence of an external, material world is taken for granted. However, the existence of an external, material world – as a distinct and separate entity to the mind-body that perceives it – is simply a philosophical interpretation of reality, entirely premised upon the agency of personal ‘choice’.  If a thought community accepts without question the existence of an independent, external world, then it follows that all scientific and philosophical speculation and development will unfold ‘a priori’ from that theoretical location. The issue here, is that this ‘theoretical location’, because it has been selected as the ‘preferred’ model of reality, is raised to the status of concretised ‘certainty’, and is taken to exist as a matter of common-sense. In this model of reality, the notion of ‘materialism’ becomes the ‘new’ orthodoxy, and all advances in scientific understanding are assumed to ‘hang’ from it, like clothing on a washing-line.

The ‘real’ world is assumed to be composed of observable and measurable matter, with the inner world relegated to the status of ‘immeasurable’ and ‘unreliable’ psychological processes and fleeting emotionally. All the mind creates is endless thought-patterns (of varying quality) that traverse its psychological fabric, interspersed with often ‘irrational’ islands of ‘feeling’. This is the status of the ‘modern’ mind, which is viewed very much as an extension of matter, or the accidental by-products of biological responses to physical conditions. Neuroscience, for instance, claims that the human-brain evolved merely as a means for early humans to effectively traverse their evolutionary (physical) environments, and that the ability to ‘think’ and to ‘feel’ are the left-over attributes associated with this successful function. However the edifice of this ‘certainty’ is punctured if the existence of a separate, material world is not taken for granted. In such a scenario, how can it be known that an ‘external’ environment independently exists, when its presence is apparently known only from the ‘inner’ biological processes associated with bodily ‘sensation’? The structure and texture of an apparently external, (material) world is in reality only the product of bio-electrical energy flowing through nerve-fibres throughout the human-body (and brain). Through a process that is still not fully understood, ‘consciousness’ is generated, and from this, the abilities to ‘sense’, ‘cognise’ and ‘interpret’.

In a sense, this model of a bio-chemical, bio-electrically generated world within the brain is an alternative ‘materialist’ interpretation that replaces a concrete ‘external’ world with an equally ‘concrete’ internally generated world. The materialistic goal-posts have been moved. Nothing for certain can be known about any theoretical ‘external’ world, because there is no way of gaining truly ‘independent’ or ‘objective’ information about such a world. As matters stand, humanity is perceiving the inner processes associated with its own biological functionality, and mistaking this ‘subjective’ data for a ‘true’ and ‘genuine’ reflection of an ‘external’ and ‘independently’ functioning world. The human-brain is a physical organ that has apparently ‘evolved’ due to environmental pressure, and yet this entire process cannot be known to reliably exist outside of the mind that perceives it. All of this interpretation exists firmly within the material realm, but relocates ‘reality’ within the human-brain, rather than being external to the human-body. If this is correct, then the human-brain ‘generates’ reality through the agency of ‘perception’, whereby nothing truly exists until it is internally ‘generated’ through the processing of sensory-data. An external world only appears to exist as a necessary means to fit-in to the trap of limited human perception. An independently functioning ‘external’ world cannot be known to reliably ‘exist’ outside of the sensory processes that assume its presence.

What of metaphysics? A brain can generate many different kinds of realities if the concrete (material) world is not a priori assumed to independently exist. These models do not necessarily have to be religious, but the idea of religion is obviously not excluded. A mind does not have to be associated with a god-concept, but neither is there any reason for it not to be. Deciding on a ‘mind’ or a ‘god’ is simply moving the metaphysical goal-posts, as in reality, existence is interpreted as being ‘non-material’ in essence. Of course, religious dogma can get in the way of interpreting reality, just as scientific dogma can hinder in exactly the same manner. Is ‘perception’ responsible for reality, or is material existence the product of a ‘divine will’? When the edifice of a separate (material) reality is rejected, then any and all ideas become of an equal validity in essence, and only differ in practical manifestation. Obviously, a religious or ideological fanaticism is problematic for the over-all survival humanity, but for those stuck in this dogmatic reality, the often violent and intolerant structures afford a certain ‘advantage’ over other fellow human-beings, despite the inherent injustices associated with such mindless violence and bigotry. It must be stressed, however, that just as much destruction has been wreaked upon the world by countries that pursue a strictly ‘scientific’ and ‘materialist’ agenda, as has been inflicted by any religiously minded regime. The point here, is the freedom to place one’s awareness exactly where it is needed to generated the maximum ‘meaningfulness’ for each individual (and communal) existence, free of anger and aggression, whilst being full of love and compassion for the entirety of existence. If a mind-generated existence is not motivated by the highest ideals envisioned by humanity, then what is the point of such a reality?

Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906) and the Re-Discovery of the Atom in Western Science

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Ludwig Boltzmann AUSTRIAN PHYSICIST

Although the ancient Greek philosopher Democritus (460-370 BCE), and his famous student Epicurus (341-270 BCE), speculated that ‘atoms’ existed beneath the surface of conventional reality (which could not be seen with the naked eye), this did not mean that following the ‘Renaissance’ in Europe (and the re-discovery of ancient Greek logic and reason), all Greek ideas were automatically accepted without question. This is the case with atoms. Western science evolved not only from the logic of Greek thought, but also from the rejection of Judeo-Christian theology (and faith) as a means to discern correct knowledge about the universe. Empirical science is premised upon the correct observation and measurement of matter and material processes. The problem with the atom hypothesis was that the existence of an atom had to be taken on ‘faith’, and because of this, many leading scientists in the 19th century refused to accept the idea of an atom on the grounds that its existence could not be confirmed and verified through observation and measurement. This is where mathematics and algebra came into play. Mathematics (and algebra) represent the meaningful arranging (or sequencing) of numbers and letters, so that empirical truths could be revealed about the material nature of reality. Ludwig Boltzmann, being fully aware that atoms had to be ‘statistically’ proven to exist, exercised his particular genius, and developed a mathematical formula which proved the existence and behaviour of atoms. In-short, Ludwig Boltzmann developed what is known as ‘statistical mechanics’. Statistical mechanics confirms the existence of atoms, and predicts how the mass, charge, and structure of an atom will behave. Such an observation determines the physical properties of matter – namely the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion. Ludwig Boltzmann lived at a time when microscopes were not yet powerful enough to observe individual atoms (or sub-atomic particles), and so had to use the power of representative mathematics to ‘reflect’ a material world that could be ‘predicted’ to exist with the human mind, but which could not yet be seen with the human eye.

Did Albert Einstein Mention Buddhism?

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Albert Einstein apparently held Buddhist philosophy in high regard, stating that it represented both a social science and a natural science. Of course, the Buddha was right when he stated that the human mind can only know a certain level of knowledge within its natural state. This suggests that the Buddha was discussing a human mind unassisted by modern technology. Of course, through the use of the mind in a particular manner, technology can be produced that augments the mind’s ability to perceive and understand phenomena, but the mind itself is always hindered by a ‘knowledge barrier’ as suggested by the Buddha. The Buddha not only rejected a society premised upon theism, but advocated a complete revolutionary break with the past. This aspect of Buddhism is virtually ignored in the bourgeois West, or those Asian counties that embrace predatory capitalism. As for natural science, it is well-known that the Buddha explained how it is that a bowl of water is teeming with life so small the human eye can not ordinarily detect such entities, and that other worlds exist in the universe, more numerous than the grains of sand in the Ganges. The Buddha clarified the two ways of understanding the universe, namely through logic and reason, and a properly guided intuition. Both types of mind activity are required for the development and progression of scientific understanding. In 2012, those with a superstitious and irrational mind-set thought the world was going to end because the Mayan Calendar appeared to indicate this. Buddhism rejects the ‘argument from authority’ premise, and has a much broader concept of time and space (very similar to modern science).

However, in the West there seems to be confusion about whether Albert Einstein really did praise Buddhism, or consider it a ‘scientific’ philosophy. As Western sources all seem to be copying one another’s lack of knowledge on this issue, I have accessed the Chinese language internet to shed some light on this matter. These are the observations, quotes and attributable sources that I have found, gathered from the work of Chinese scholar Fu Dujun (杜福君) [https://www.zhihu.com/question/24587915]:

1) ‘What humanity owes to personalities like Buddha, Moses, and Jesus ranks for me higher than all the achievements of the enquiring and constructive mind.’

Source: Albert Einstein: The Human Side – The Chinese author states the phrase containing the word ‘Buddha could be found, but nothing relating to ‘Buddhist’ or ‘Buddhism’.

2) ‘The religion of the future will be a cosmic religion. The religion which based on experience, which refuses dogmatic. If there’s any religion that would cope the scientific needs it will be Buddhism….’

Source: Albert Einstein, quoted in Madalyn Murray O’Hair – All the Questions You Ever Wanted to Ask American Atheists (1982) vol. ii., p. 29 – The Chinese author states that this quote cannot be directly attributed to Albert Einstein – and was probably a product of paraphrasing, condensing and re-imagining a number of known Einstein quotes about Buddhism – as conceived by Madalyn Murray O’hair.

A further note states: A reply from the Einstein Archives of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem states: ‘The quote under discussion which I know is quite ‘popular’, appears to paraphrase some ideas Einstein developed in an essay titled “Religion and Science”, written in 1930. Here, Einstein mentions the “cosmic religiosity” (not religion!), Buddhism, and a belief that avoids dogma and theology.’

3) Einstein’s knowledge of Buddhism comes mainly from Schopenhauer. There is no evidence that Einstein understood Buddhism in its Asian cultural context, or through its broader philosophical implications.

4) Basically, it is clear that Einstein possessed a positive attitude towards Buddhism. In fact, many scientists also have a positive attitude towards Buddhism, but this does not necessarily mean that Buddhism can be of any direct assistance to scientific research, or represents a philosophy higher than science. It is more the case that Buddhism’s understanding of the world seems to be in line with the scientific method. Like science, Buddhism opposes dogma (and agrees with dialectical research), but Buddhism is generally more tolerant toward different types of thinking, than is mainstream science. In-short, the Buddhist integration of wisdom and tolerance allows people to feel good. It should also be noted that this positive attitude of modern science toward Buddhism is ‘generic’, as most scientists (including Einstein) rarely have an in-depth understanding of Buddhist philosophy, and usually do not agree with the concept of re-birth (or reincarnation), as found within popular Buddhism.

Chinese Language Reference Articles:

http://www.chuanxi.com.cn/Article/Content/12596

https://www.zhihu.com/question/24587915

 

How the Big Bang Continues to Defines Human Existence

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The Universe Just 370,000 Years Old

The universe began from an event which human understanding knows to have happened, but which is difficult to define. Space and time suddenly emerged for reasons unknown, within a infinitesimally small area, and suddenly expanded, releasing immense light energy and heat (i.e. ‘inflation’). This process was not an explosion in the conventional sense, as an ordinary explosion requires a change of pressure. The above photograph shows the process of the ‘big bang’ from year 0 – 370,000 years (around 18.7 billion years ago). This is a hot ball of plasma, within which areas are beginning to cool and condense into solid matter. This process produces matter as light energy slows down. This matter has been thrust outward at tremendous speed, and over-time, has created the physical universe (the earth was formed around 4.9 billion years ago). When matter is formed, gravitational force is generated (as a side-effect) which pulls all galactic objects into a rounded shape (due to gravity operating in all directions). Gravitational pull generated by a sun, for instance, also sets the orbits for all the planets (and other objects) to circumnivigate through, in any given solar system. The entire universe appears to rotate around a theoretical centre-point at the heart of existence. As matters stand, human science does not know what caused the big bang, or what exists beyond the light horizon. As there is no data to analyse, or experiments that can be carried-out, everything beyond this point of understanding is purely speculative (with one theory being as valid as anyother). The big bang was probably not a ‘big bang’ – as nothing seemed to exist before this event – or exist in a manner that humanity can currently perceive and understand. Why and for what reasons the physical universe emerged are unknown, but one-day this will be known. There probably is something beyond the light horizon, and there was probably some kind of existence prior to the emergence of the physical universe. Or, it might be that concepts such as ‘existence’ and ‘non-existence’ have no ultimate meaning, and that humanity is looking at existence from an incorrect interpretive position, or utlilising a flawed logic. What is known, is that space at this current time is beginning to speed-up in its expansion rate, and that this expansion of space will continue forever, or what humanity perceives to be ‘forever’. If multiple universes exist, it could be that the universe that humanity inhabits is just one amongst many, with each having its origin through a ‘big bang’ event. As human science is premised upon immutable laws, its understanding is limited to the observation of light. If material (of whatever kind), exists beyond what humanity can see through the observation of ‘light’ (i.e. the ‘light cone’), then as long as human science remains focused upon the observation of light, any reality beyond the light horizon will remain beyond what can be observed and measured. The human universe can probably be defined as having a boundary – the true extent of which cannot be observed through the measuring of light – but it might also be true that the pattern of material universal existence could be repeated infinitely throughout reality, so that there could be many such universes. This feeds into the multi-verse theory and the idea of parallel universes. The point is that anything and everything could have happened before the big bang, but it has been the big bang that has served as the basis of the material reality within which humanity exists and has evolved.

Assessing Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter & Dark Energy – the Building Blocks of Existence

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The current state of human scientific knowledge suggests that the majority of the physical construction of the universe is actually comprised of a substance that cannot, as yet, be directly observed using the most advanced technology and methodology. The majority of ‘stuff’ in the universe (multi-verse) certainly cannot be detected with the naked human eye – but it can be predicted to exist through the correct and disciplined use of the human intellect and imagination. Imagination is an important part of advanced scientific thinking, but its function is often down-played or ignored when scientific processes develop into sound theories that nolonger require ‘speculation’ to fill-in the gaps in knowledge. Of course, this might be because the human capacity to ‘misuse’ the imagination can get in the way of the scientific method, and lead the entire process away from the desired objective. Whatever the case, the constitution of the universe (multi-verse) currently looks like this:

a) 4.9% ordinary (Baryonic) matter

b) 68.3 dark energy

c) 26.8 dark matter

Human beings have evolved around perceiving the 4.9% of material stuff that comprises their immediate environment, although it is speculated that dark matter and dark energy may well be everywhere. If this is correct, then it is curious that throughout human evolution, the ability to ‘see’ these material substances was not developed – probably because the perception of these substances had no direct impact upon human survival. Another way in which these ‘unseen’ substances are known to be present is through the effect they appear to have on objects moving through what was once thought to be ’empty’ space. There appears to be a ‘gravitational’ effect on objects moving through apparently ’empty’ space that should not be happening if space was in fact ’empty’. The human intellect has devised mathematical formula to demonstrate the ‘presence’ of these still ‘theoretical’ material substances. Although the Buddha and a number of ancient Greek philosophers used their minds to state that in all likelihood perceivable matter could be comprised of ‘atoms’, it has been the development of scientific technology (as an extension of the human mind), that has allowed for the perception of sub-atomic particles, and for the detection of different types of matter and energy. The following documentary presents a very good over-view of the current state of human knowledge in this area:

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