Rejecting the Bourgeois Publishing Industry

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http://www.chandao.co.uk/published-articles.html

As an academic specialising in the subjects of Chinese history, culture and philosophy, and also the study of actual Soviet history, I decided some years ago to have nothing to do with the bourgeois publishing industry. This is despite having numerous academic and journalistic article published in newspapers, journals, magazines and books (both online and as paper articles). My experience has been that the bourgeois publishing industry works in collusion with capitalist governments, and perpetuates ‘official’ versions of history that have little or no association with established fact. These publishers are always seeking new ways of exploiting writers and their work – attempting to make money whilst they propagating ‘fake history’ and ‘fake news’ as if it was ‘real’. The lies about Communism, China and the Soviet Union are so huge that the truth of the matter is eclipsed by this industry that ruthlessly controls the publication of books to both the general public and the academic community. Individuals are left to research subjects for themselves, which invariably requires ever more ingenious methods for establishing the truth that by-passes the ‘fiction’ that circulates as ‘fact’. The rise of the internet has made it easier for progressive and free thinkers to seek-out and share alternative sources of reliable academic information, and distribute research that counters many of the official but false narratives that the media, academic community and government choose to ignore. This is not alternative history but rather ‘real’ history, with the official narratives constituting the ‘fake’ paradigm. The USSR used to have an internal publishing facility that allowed any Soviet citizen to write and publish a book that could be read by any other Soviet Citizen in the USSR. The publishing and distribution were entirely free, and encouraged to develop ‘free thinking’. Alexander Werth (the BBC correspondent) mentions this means of Socialist communication a number of times in his books. Do not bow-down to the bourgeois dictatorship of knowledge – strike out on your own and establish the real facts of the matter!

Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of the Russian October Revolution (2017) – Trust in the Communist Party!

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The USSR lives on in memory and in material fact. It collapsed from the combined pressures of Trotsky, Khrushchev, Gorbachev and Western capitalism. What the USSR represented – as the first Workers’ State – is a tremendously powerful psychological and physical image that serves as a rallying point for millions of oppressed peoples around the globe. The 1917 October Revolution will always be significant because it signalled the successful rising of the Working Class and the smashing of predatory capitalism! Although there is much lying and disinformation in the West about the USSR, nevertheless, the internet allows opportunities to study that by-pass the bourgeois educational facilities, and which allows individuals and groups to find more reliable and authentic sources of information. The Cold War lies are still very much in operation, but as time goes by, and the work of people like Grover Furr, Andrew Alexander and Alexander Werth (and many others), become better known, the wholesome truth about the USSR (and its vital importance for the evolution of humanity) will move ever more to the fore-front of general perception. This positive counter-swing is strengthened by the presence of the Collected Works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Mao (amongst others) being readily (and freely) available on the internet. As usual, the greatest challenges above and beyond the confrontation with predatory capitalism for the Communist Party is that of successfully countering Trotskyism (i.e. ‘pseudo-Socialism’), and the crippling forces of revisionism from the left. There is a wealth of legitimate proletariat literature available in the public domain which must be logically studied from a Scientific Socialist point of view. Even if certain ‘expedient’ compromises must be made with the Bourgeois State on the surface (due to prevailing socio-economic conditions), the true (and non-inverted) underpinnings of Marxist-Leninism must always serve as the dialectical ‘prime mover’ of any Communist Movement. The Working Class must always trust the Communist Party which is a collective expression of its proletariat ‘will’. The Communist Party came to power through a wave of Revolutionary activity in 1917 – and the same Communist Party exists throughout the world today, always representing and leading the ordinary people, and continuously agitating against the capitalist system. The ‘Communist Party’ in principle did not begin with the 1917 Russian Revolution, and did not end with the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. It is an ongoing and unfolding process of historical materialism. Trust in the Communist Party and support it with all your proletariat being!

Expunging Trotsky from ‘Socialist’ History – a Dialectical Necessity

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Even before he was expelled for treasonous activities from the Soviet Union in 1929, Trotsky’s distorted version of ‘Socialism’ had attracted the attention of the anti-Soviet ideologues in the USA. Indeed, there is much evidence to suggest that after WWII, what had by then become referred to as ‘Trotskyism’ was used as the basis for the US anti-Soviet (and anti-Communist) Cold War rhetoric. This is why most people are confused by ‘Trotskyism’ and the many organisations that follow his anti-Soviet ideology – whilst still insisting on calling themselves ‘Socialist’. Trotsky, for many, is known the wrong way around back to front, and in many ways ‘ahistorically’. What must be understood is that Trotsky was not a true Revolutionary, but rather a political ‘opportunist’ of the worst kind. He temporarily aligned himself with Revolutionary Movements to further his own political career, and as a means for him to attain influence and personal power at any cost. In this regard, he certainly was not a Marxist or Marxist-Leninist, and had no theoretical interest in those ideologies.

Trotsky was criticised by Lenin – and later by Stalin – for continuously failing to understand and interpret history from a Marxist perspective. This led to Trotsky attempting to undermine the hard-earned Soviet System from within, by advocating a thoroughly ‘bourgeois’ counter-revolution, with himself at the helm. For this treachery, he (and many of his followers) were expelled from the Soviet Union in 1929 – but a number of his followers remained behind ‘undetected’ within the Soviet System to spread their particular brand of ‘unrest’ and ‘discontent’. Many, as the years went by, attempted acts of sabotage against the Soviet State, destroying technology and machinery, and interfering with scientific research. Some even attempted to undermine the morale of the Red Army, and turn its officers against the Soviet State it had helped to build.

As Trotsky became the darling of the West, he attracted a great attention from the supporters of capitalism – which included many members of the rightwing and far-right political establishment in America, Europe and Asia.  This inspired Trotsky to actively call for all of his supposedly ‘Socialist’ supporters to enter into an alliance with Nazi Germany and fascist Imperialist Japan in 1938, and work to over-throw the Soviet Union AND the liberal democracies of the West! A year before (in 1937), many of Trotsky’s ‘sleeper cells’ in the USSR had become active, and were immediately identified by the NKVD and ‘neutralised’. This policing action was necessary to prevent what would today be interpreted as a comprehensive ‘terrorist’ attack on a sovereign government and the country it administers. If Trotsky had been successful, the Soviet Union would have collapsed prior to WWII, and the Red Army would not have existed to confront and eventually destroy the military forces of Nazi Germany.

As it is now the 100th anniversary of the Russian Revolution (2017), it is important that Trotsky is nolonger viewed as a legitimate ‘Revolutionary’, and that his path of ideology (which he and his followers deceptively term ‘Socialism’), not be associated with either Marxism-Engelsism, or Marxism-Leninism. Trotsky’s work must be historically ‘re-oriented’ and removed from the glittering history of Revolutionary Struggle, and placed firmly within the realms of capitalist-supporting, bourgeois counter-revolutionary thought. Trotsky’s duplicity cost the lives of immeasurable numbers of people due to the Nazi German invasion of the Soviet Union – despite this beginning a year after Trotsky’s death. Presumably Hitler was of the opinion that Trotsky’s followers had carried-out enough damage to the infrastructure of the USSR, and that the time was now ripe to invade. Of course, the distorted history of the capitalist West blames all this on Stalin – as Trotsky demanded. Indeed, in 1925, just one year after the death of Lenin, the US Time magazine already began to exhibit the interfering-style of developed US Cold War rhetoric – by implying that Trotsky (and his ‘distorted’ Socialism) should now run the USSR – over Joseph Stalin. The myth here, is that Soviet citizens did not vote. In fact, ‘voting’ in a proletariat society is a central activity to every citizen’s life, but of course, proletariat democracy is not liberal democracy, and does not favour or privilege the bourgeoisie. The point continuously omitted in Trotskyite accounts of the USSR, is that from 1924 until his death in 1953, Comrade Stalin was continuously re-elected into office – despite trying to resign ‘twice’ after 1945. The citizenry of the USSR was organised around the trade union model, where from lowest to the highest in society – everyone voted for representatives on numerous committees. This organisational model did allow the bourgeoisie to manifest and/or exercise power within a Socialist society. Trotsky wanted to reverse this Revolutionary change, and allow the resurgence of capitalism in the USSR, and along with it the predatory capitalist system.

The very idea that Stalin had millions, or hundreds of thousands sent to the gulags – and/or executed – is an ‘ahistorical’ lie perpetuated by Leon Trotsky and his followers. Alexander Werth was a British BBC correspondent who was of Russian parentage. He was with the Red Army virtually throughout the entirety of the ‘Great Patriotic War’ (1941-1945), and was allowed at the frontline. During August, 1944, Alexander Werth was with the Red Army when it liberated the Majdanek Concentration Camp in Poland – built by the Nazi Germans. His initial reports to the BBC in London were the first to reach the allies regarding the Nazi German holocaust of the Jews and other minorities. Winston Churchill, still looking for ways of absolving the Hitlerite regime, had Werth’s reports quashed – stating that they were Soviet lies about Nazi Germany. As a result, Werth spent much of his later life repudiating US and UK anti-Soviet propaganda, proving it to be ‘untrue’. In 1959, Werth visited the Soviet Union once again, and met-up with a number of American friends who lived and worked in the USSR. As incredible as it seems, and despite the rabid anti-Soviet propaganda in the US, American people still travelled to the USSR, with some making their homes there. When Werth asked one or two prominent Americans about the supposed ‘purges’ of the late 1930’s, he was usually met with laughter! The general consensus was that a Trotskyite plot was uncovered that involved around 10,000 traitors. Many were sent to prison, whilst a minority were executed for treason. There were not hundred of thousands, or millions of people involved – Trotsky was just not that popular in the USSR – where life was very good for most people!

The Nazi German holocaust cost the lives of around 11 million people (6 million Jews, and 5 millions of other ethnicities, political and sexual orientations, the disabled, and anyone who disagreed with fascism). Meanwhile, Imperial Japan is estimated to have caused around 60 million deaths in China, a figure that does not include those killed throughout other parts of Asia by Japanese troops. When the Nazi German forces invaded the Soviet Union, between 27-40 million casualties were suffered (both military and civilian). The conquered Ukraine area of the USSR saw some of the worst Nazi German excesses of the holocaust – aided and abetted by a minority of rightist Ukrainians – the political (and in some cases ‘biological’) descendents of whom comprise the contemporary ‘Madan’ neo-Nazi government of Western Ukraine. All this anti-Socialist death and destruction is exactly the political policies that Trotsky advised his followers to embrace in 1938. A question worth asking is why the Trotskyite Movement today, remains entirely ‘free’ of any criticism from the bourgeois press. The answer, of course, is that the Trotskyites support capitalism, and are not averse to fascism, or fascist atrocity.

 

Distorting Soviet History – The Case of Soviet Physicist Matvei Bronstein (1906-1938)

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Soviet Physicist Matvei Bronstein

In 1953, the US Government executed Julius and Ethel Rosenberg for being Members of the Communist Party of the USA (a legal entity then as now), and by extension, because they were thought to be spies working for the Soviet Union. The then President of the United States offered the Rosenberg’s a deal whereby if they renounced their Communist beliefs, and ‘admitted’ their guilt – their respective Death Sentences (via the electric chair) would be commuted to ‘life imprisonment’ – both steadfastly refused, and they died within minutes of one another on June 19th, 1953. The mainstream media of the democratic West remained ‘silent’, and was generally supportive of a US that had just suffered numerous military defeats at the hands of Communist China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA), as it expelled the US-led Western forces from North Korea. Of course, Socialists had been attacked, maimed and killed in the US before, but following the crushing Soviet victory over Nazi Germany during WWII, the US Government, controlled as it is by the demands of big business, had developed a hysteria and paranoia against the Communist Bloc, the like of which could easily be described as a ‘group psychosis’. The capitalists that run America feared their own working class, and were afraid that it would rise-up and sweep away their corruption and class privilege. As a means to counter any working class grassroots movement that looked toward the Soviet Union for inspiration and perhaps material support, the US Government initiated a Cold War ‘disinformation’ campaign designed to turn the Western working class firmly away from any association with the USSR. The basic premise was a simple sleight of hand and inversion of thought; as the Soviet Union viewed itself as the ‘Socialist’ conquering force over Nazi German fascism, the US ideologues generated the lie that there was no difference between the brutal Soviet Union (an ally of the US during WWII), and the maniacal Nazi Germany. Ironically, the country that the US had dropped two atomic bombs upon at the end of WWII – fascist Japan – was quickly ‘rehabilitated’ and suddenly packaged to the world as America’s new best friend.

This all has to be mentioned, because another key aspect of Soviet misrepresentation is to mis-report segments of Soviet history with no historical context whatsoever – as if the Soviet Union was so corrupt that it possessed the ability to exist outside of space and time! Much of how the Soviet Union is interpreted prior to WWII, actually emerged as part of a continuously unfolding anti-Soviet Cold War rhetoric, manufactured after WWII. The false impression is that the post-WWII attitude of the US toward the USSR was exactly the same pre-WWII attitude of the US toward the USSR – an illusion that only holds true if the entirety of the WWII collaboration between the US and USSR is completely omitted from the historical record. Another important issue is the embracing by the West of Leon Trotsky and his peculiar form of collaboration with capitalism which he termed ‘Socialism’ (but never ‘Communism’) following his expulsion from the USSR in 1929. Trotsky sought to destroy the Soviet Union and instigate a system of bourgeois-left leaning capitalism in its place. Western Governments liked this form of ‘Trotskyite’ deception, and encouraged its presence throughout (and within) the Union and Labour Movements of the West. Trotskyism is essentially an anti-Marxist-Leninism ideology, and was viewed by the Western Governments as a preferred alternative for the workers to follow – due to its anti-Soviet underpinnings. From 1929 until his death in 1940, Leon Trotsky received all kinds of support from Western Governments in a bid to undermine the Soviet Union. This included the establishing of ‘cells’ within the Soviet Union linked not only to the Western Democracies, but also with Nazi Germany and fascist Italy. Trotskyism was (and still is) a counter-revolutionary and anti-workers’ movement, that permeates the Labour Movement, and which psychologically and physically leads workers away from Socialist Revolution, and toward a continued collaboration with capitalism and its oppressive forces throughout society. Trotskyism destroys Labour Movements from within, and is designed to completely disempower the working class on every front.

In 1938, at a Conference representing his ‘Socialist’ ideology, Trotsky called for the victory of the forces of World Fascism over not only the Soviet Union, but also over the Western Democracies as well! In his deluded thinking, this victory of Adolf Hitler would be good for the well-being and freedom of the International Working Class! In the case of Matvei Bronstein – a Soviet physicist specialising in quantum mechanics and nuclear power – he became embroiled with a Trotskyite group operating in the USSR that had direct links to Nazi Germany. As usual, the English wikipedia page is inaccurate and missing vital information, but steadfastly supports the US anti-Soviet position. The Russian language wikipedia page has more official information, but still omits ‘what’ Matvei Bronstein had been found guilty of. The English wikipedia page portrays Bronstein ‘ahistorically’ as a lovable ‘genius’ who spent his spare-time writing children’s books. The implication is that his execution was unjust and an act of barbarism. The Russian Language wikipage – although lacking a crucial piece of information – does provide the following ‘historical’ details:

‘Arrested on August 6, 1937 in Kiev, in his parents’ house, and transported to Leningrad. Included in the firing list “Leningrad region” on February 3, 1938, approved by the signatures of Stalin, Voroshilov, Molotov, Kaganovich.
February 18, 1938 sentenced by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR under the chairmanship of Corveneurist Matulevich to be shot under Article 58-8-11 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR – was shot on the same day. Presumably buried in the Levashovskaya wasteland, where L. Chukovskaya in the 1990’s installed a monument. He was rehabilitated posthumously by order No. 44-028 603/56 of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR of May 9, 1957.’

Bronstein was ‘rehabilitated posthumously’ by Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev who was himself a Trotskyite. What surprised me was that Bronstein’s Death Sentence was tested and approved by ‘four’ different Soviet legal departments – Stalin’s signature being added last. I had to look in other Russian language sources to discover exactly ‘why’ this action was taken against Bronstein by the Soviet State. Six months had elapsed since his arrest and trial, and every indication is that this was a thorough investigation. Bronstein, of course, experienced every assistance and freedom the Soviet State could give prior to his arrest, and it was known that he had contact with Niel Bohr – the Danish physicist – who is often portrayed in Western literature as opposing Nazism, but Denmark as a nation openly collaborated with Nazi Germany and did not resist the Nazi invasion of 1940 etc, but this association is not the reason Bronstein was arrested. Interestingly, the English wikipedia (designed in the US) omits all details of the trial, whereas the Russian (modern) wikipedia text omits the following (crucial) line of information which explains ‘why’ Bronstein was arrested, tried and executed:

‘Active participation in a counter-revolutionary, fascist-terrorist organization.’

(активное участие в контрреволюционной фашистской террористической организации)

Another Russian language text adds even more information:

‘According to the indictment of January 24, 1938, as part of his “practical anti-Soviet work” the scientist “prepared terrorist acts” and carried-out harmful activities “in the field of subsoil and water resources exploration.”‘

‘Согласно обвинительному заключению от 24 января 1938 года, в своей «практической антисоветской работе» ученый «готовил террористические акты» и вредил «в области разведки недр и водного хозяйства». ‘

Writing in the UK in 2017, I can say that I was not present during these times, and have no way of knowing whether Bronstein was ‘guilty’ or not. Furthermore, like Karl Marx, I disagree with the judicial Death Sentence, whilst equally recognising that the working class has a right to defend itself. The British BBC correspondent Alexander Werth (who was of Russian parentage), spent many years in the USSR, and dedicated much of his later years to providing good quality, first-hand accounts of life in the Soviet Union. Obviously, almost by default, his work continuously counters the false US anti-Soviet propaganda – proving it wrong at every turn. Even Americans living in the USSR in the 1940’s and 1950’s stated that there was no ‘great purge’, and neither were millions of people sent to gulags. Instead, it was admitted that there was perhaps around 10,000 people arrested throughout the USSR in the late 1930’s, with only a small percentage receiving the Death Sentence for spying or collaborating with Nazi Germany, etc. From what I am told by Russian colleagues, it is suspected that Bronstein was preparing to hand-over his work on nuclear studies to a ‘fascist’ enemy – thought to be Nazi Germany.

From the viewpoint of US anti-Soviet propaganda – which a priori assumes the utter corruption of the Soviet State at every turn – why was it considered necessary to ‘omit’ Bronstein’s criminal charge from Western narratives about his life? The English-language wikipedia is a good barometer of US political opinion, as its pages are ‘edited’ to keep this often inaccurate encyclopaedia very much representative of America’s anti-Socialist position. This bias can be seen in the racist attitude employed by wikipedia toward Communist China and North Korea, and its continuous censoring of any critique of the Zionist State of modern Israel. It is interesting that the wikipedia editors chose not to include Bronstein’s criminal charge in their general anti-Soviet narrative.Why would they fail to include a charge, if they thought the charge itself was unjust? Surely the inclusion of such a charge would work in favour of their anti-Soviet cause? The only viable reason I can see for omitting Bronstein’s criminal charge, is that the US Establishment does not want the general reader to know about it. If this is the case, then why would the US Establishment not want the general reader to know ‘exactly’ what Bronstein was charged with? Could it be that Bronstein’s charge can be easily proven to be ‘true’ by accessing other historical records? Or could it include the fact that US espionage was behind Bronstein’s collaboration with fascism? Whatever the reasons may be, it is obvious that in the case of Bronstein, the US Establishment does not want his charge to be widely known.

Finally, whilst at Leningrad University (from 1923-1929), Matvei Bronstein made friends with three other people who would go on to become well-known Soviet scientists. One of these was named ‘Georgiy Gamov’. Despite having a privileged lifestyle and career as a Soviet physicist, Gamov sought to ‘defect’ to the capitalist West at his earliest convenience. This he did (with his wife) in 1933 – after two years of continuous effort. He then ingratiated himself with the Western (capitalist) Establishment, immediately sharing all his previously confidential Soviet science with the enemies of Socialism. His work, which involved Cosmology, quantum tunneling and molecular genetics, was then integrated into the capitalist ‘scientific’ narrative, giving the false impression that ‘greed’ had triumphed over egalitarianism. It is interesting, from a historical point of view, that Bronstein was associated with Gamov. Two of Bronstein’s other friends at the time were Dmitri Ivanenko and Lev Landau, both of whom went on to have glittering scientific careers in the USSR, and remain loyal to the Socialist cause.

English Language Reference:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matvei_Petrovich_Bronstein

Russian Language Reference:

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Бронштейн,_Матвей_Петрович

http://www.liveinternet.ru/users/rinagit/post298964829

http://polit.ru/news/2016/12/02/bronshtein/

Soviet Red Army Crushes Waffen SS – the Battle for Budapest (26.12.1944-13.2.1945)

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Soviet Red Army liberates Budapest 

Soviet Press Statement (21.12.1944):

‘At the beginning of December, under the chairmanship of Dr Vasary, the mayor of Debrecen, a group was formed of representatives of the different Hungarian parties… In liberated territory the election of delegates to the Provisional National Assembly took place between December 13 and 20. 230 delegates were elected, representing the democratic parties, the town and village councils and the trade and peasant unions… The Assembly opened with the playing of the Hungarian National Anthem. The meeting was held in the Reformation College where, in 1849, Kossuth proclaimed the independence of Hungary…

An Address to the Hungarian People was adopted which said:

It is time to make peace. Salasi is an usurper,,, We call upon the Hungarian people to rally to the banners of Kossuth and Rakoszi and to follow in the footsteps of the Honweds (volunteer militia) of 1848. We want a democratic Hungary. We guarantee the inviolability of private property as the basis of our social and economic order. We want Land Reform… Turn your arms against the German oppressors and help the Red Army… for the good of a Free and Democratic Hungary!’

(Russia at War 1941-1945: By Alexander Werth [1964] Pages 909-910)

Hitler’s Nazi German regime was assisted in its widespread (highly destructive and genocidal) invasion of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union by Bulgaria, Romania and Hungary, all of which had acquired politically rightwing governments. Nazi Germany was also assisted with supplies of oil and other raw materials by Sweden, Denmark and Portugal, as well as Vichy France and fascist Italy. The so-caked ‘Axis’ powers (of which there were many), coalesced around the 1936 ‘Anti-Comintern Pact’, an agreement between various rightwing countries to jointly resist the spread of ‘International Communism’. Therefore, it can be said that Hitler’s attack on the USSR was a direct manifestation of the pursuance of this pact, an act of aggression which was assisted by a number of Axis powers. Over-all, contemporary estimates suggest that around 34 million Soviet men, women and children died during the Nazi German invasion of the USSR, and the application of the Hitlerite ‘final solution’. Hitler had declared the the Slavic people to be racially inferior, and their embracing of Communist ideology to be a confirmation of this fact. To remedy this problem, Hitler demanded nothing less than the eradication of the Slavic people and their Communist ideology.

As the tide of war changed, and the Soviet Red Army started to push the Nazi German invaders out of the USSR, it became necessary to pursue the retreating Germans all the way to Berlin to ensure the complete defeat of the Nazi regime. Whilst pursuing this anti-fascist policy, the countries that had collaborated with Nazi Germany had to be invaded and ‘liberated’ from their fascist governments and Nazi German occupiers. As can be gleamed from the Soviet Press statement (above), the Soviet Authorities implemented ‘democratic’ elections, so that the ordinary citizens of countries such as Hungary, could choose a non-fascist political path. By and large, the ordinary citizens of such countries, (i.e. the ‘workers’), were treated as ‘victims’ of fascism, rather than its perpetuators.

On October 21st, 1944, the Soviet Red Army (under Malinovksy) entered and took Debrecen in eastern Hungary. Although the Red Army advance into Hungary was rapid at first, it was soon slowed by stiff (fascist) Hungarian and Nazi German resistance. This resistance increased as the Red Army fought inch by inch toward Budapest in November. In early December (1944), Hitler met with the fascist Hungarian leader Salasi in Berlin, where it was agreed that Budapest must be held at all costs (although behind the scenes, many of its industries were already being re-located to Austria). As part of this deal, Hitler allocated around 23,000 well-equipped and highly motivated troops of the Waffen SS to defend Budapest (and possibly turn the tide of the battle). These units were essentially heavily armed and highly politically motivated annihilation squads (being considered racially ‘pure’ by Hitler), whose motto was ‘Give Death and Take Death’. These men were not ordinary soldiers, and their training was designed to embody a certain ‘mindless’ brutality that existed outside of the traditions of the conventional German military. Surrender was out of the question as was taking prisoners or providing medical care to wounded enemy soldiers. In fact, the Waffen SS often tortured the enemy wounded to death, considering it a sport to invent ever more painful methods. These troops were under the direct command of Adolf Hitler himself (being considered his personal bodyguard), and were trained to believe that they personally represented the ideological foundation of the fascist ideology of National Socialism. As racially pure Aryans, these men received the best clothing, training, food, housing and weaponry, and were treated with the utmost respect (and fear) within German society. As an embodiment of ‘Nazism’, Hitler believed that these racially superior beings, entirely through an act of will, could defeat the military might of the Red Army, and in so doing trigger a collapse of its Communist ideology (bringing down the USSR from within).

The 50 day Battle for Budapest was to test this hypothesis. Around 23,000 racially pure Waffen SS troops were to spear-head the defence of Budapest and inflict a debilitating defeat upon the Red Army. By comparison, Red Army soldiers, whose motto was ‘Free the Workers!’ was comprised of ordinary men and women from the length and breadth of the vast Soviet Union. As such, they were ethnically diverse, and represented no particular race. They pursued Socialist Revolution every time they fought – freeing the oppressed workers from the tyranny of capitalism and fascism. The average Red Army soldier was selfless, supportive of his fellow Comrades, and willing to self-sacrifice to save others. These soldiers were not racially superior, did not pursue any form of fascist ideology, and were motivated by a broad non-racial ‘Internationalism’, rather than by a narrow fascistic ‘Nationalism’, and yet in the space of around 7 weeks, these quite ‘ordinary’ Communist soldiers encircled and then systematically ‘destroyed’ the 23,000 fanatical Waffen SS soldiers – killing 19,000 in the fighting! The fascist forces of Budapest surrendered on the 13th of February, 1945, and Hungary was finally liberated.

The following documentary explains who the Waffen SS were – and how they were deployed during WWII. Comprised of around 900,000 at their peak, toward the end of the war (as casualties mounted), Hitler allowed non-Germans to join, such as French, Swedes and Danes. In fact, as the Nazi regime collapsed under Soviet pressure, around 90% of the Waffen SS units defending Hitler in Berlin near the end, were comprised of foreigners who fanatically fought to the bitter end. Allowing non-Germans into the Waffen SS was thought by certain Nazi Germans as ‘weakening’ the spiritual strength of these units, and therefore lowering their fighting efficiency. However, Hitler gambled with some of his best (racially pure) Waffen SS regiments in Budapest – and despite their assumed ‘spiritual strength’, they were systematically destroyed by Slavic peasant soldiers from the Urals.

German Atrocity at Katyn (1941)

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Alexander Werth (1901-1969)

Alexander Werth (1901-1969) was a British journalist of Russian birth.  His family fled Russia in 1917, following the October Revolution, and settled in England.  As he was born in St Petersburg, and spent much of his young life in Russia, he could read, write and speak Russian fluently.  During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945), Werth was the BBC Correspondent in the USSR.  His BBC credentials, and his inherent understanding of Russian language and culture gained him entry to many places off-limits to other journalists.  He spent a number of years writing clearly and concisely about Soviet history in English, and often dispelled Western Cold War lies and deception with thorough academic research.  Although not known to have been a Communist, or sympathetic to the Communist cause, his journalism was based upon the twin premise of ‘truth’ and ‘fairness’.  His historical work upon the Soviet Union (often drawn from personal experience) is excellent for an unbiased assessment of this crucial phase in world history.  What follows is a selection of information gathered from Werth’s 1964 book entitled ‘Russia at War 1941-1945’.  Interestingly this book is dedicated to the memory of Mitya Khludov, aged 19, killed in action in Belorussia, July 1944.  It is important to state that Alexander Werth does not state that he thought the Nazi Germans definitely committed the atrocity at Katyn – but he does offer excellent research as to why the Nazi Germans might have carried-out this atrocity.

Although the Soviet Union is no more, since its demise in 1991, the racial and class based hatred against a) Russia, and b) Communism, emanating from the West, has known no bounds.  Every despicable act known to humanity has been heaped upon Russia and its Communist past – aided and abetted from within Russia by the new breed of predatory capitalists (who see it in their own best interests to denigrate the former USSR).  This new ‘openness’ has included an apparent ‘admission’ of guilt regarding the disgraceful events surrounding the murder of thousands of Polish military officers in the Katyn Forest in Smolensk, 360km west-southwest of Moscow, probably around springtime, 1941.

During WWII, Winston Churchill (a known admirer of Adolf Hitler, and a detester of Communism), agreed to establish a rightwing Polish government in exile, ostensibly based in London.  This government was antagonistic to the USSR and often operated from an attitude of accommodation toward the Nazi Germans.  Following the invasion of the USSR in 1941, it was thought that between 300,000 and 400,000 Polish people either lived in the USSR as citizens, or as refugees from the fighting.  The Soviet Union had an official policy of looking after these people, and of arming and training independent Polish military units – despite the fact that the rightwing Polish government in exile (in London), often issued ‘edicts’ stating that they did not support the USSR and did not want Polish military units fighting to defend the USSR.  This bizarre situation designed by Churchill to de-stabilise the USSR from within, eventually backfired, as an independent, pro-USSR Polish government developed in Russia that eventually raised its own pro-USSR military units.  This rendered the rightwing Polish government in exile redundant.  However, as the war of words between Moscow and the Polish government in exile was reaching its peak with questions being asked by the former to the latter concerning ‘missing’ Polish POW’s, Joseph Goebbels’s propaganda machine issued a well place announcement (in April 1943), that the Nazi German Army had discovered a mass grave in the Katyn Forest containing thousands of executed Polish military officers.  The Germans then established a much publicised Committee of Enquiry that claimed to have ‘proven’ that the POW’s had been shot by the Soviet NKVD (the fore-runner of the KGB) in 1940 and buried them in hastily dug mass graves.

What is astonishing about this situation is that as the Nazi German war machine was committing massive and endless acts of barbarity, murder, executions, rape and genocide both within and outside of the Soviet Union, the likes of Churchill and Roosevelt (both apparently sworn enemies of German Nazism) would take this claim seriously.  However, during the Russian Civil War (1917-1922) both the British and US made false claims against the Bolsheviks and their Communist forces committing similar atrocities involving the execution of POW’s (in fact it was the British Army that massacred 26 Communist Commissars at Baku in 1918).  This strategy was designed to use fear to turn the Western working class against the Socialist cause of the Bolsheviks.  It is interesting to note in passing, that many contemporary ‘holocaust deniers’ use this German allegation of ‘murder’ and ‘atrocity’ aimed at the USSR, as a means to discredit holocaust survivors (and their recollections) and shift the blame for the holocaust from Nazi German, toward the USSR.  This is yet another example of the strength of bourgeois hatred toward anything Socialistic.

The Nazi German military over-ran the Katyn area in July, 1941, and Soviet forces re-took the area in September, 1943.  The Nazi Germans had been in control of the Katyn area for just under two years before they announced any hint of a Soviet atrocity.  This was because the Nazi German forces were busy with the practicalities of arranging the deportation, genocide and murder of Communists, Jews, Romany, the disabled, and any kind of dissident living in the area (and disposing of the bodies).  The Russians launched their own enquiry starting in January, 1944.  In attendance was a large retinue of Western correspondents – including Katherine Harriman (the daughter of the US Ambassador to the USSR – Averell Harriman).  The Soviets claimed that around 10,000 bodies had been recovered (but only a few hundred had been chosen as ‘examples’).  Witnesses stated that despite the freezing cold, the place still stank of decaying flesh.  The Soviets assembled a number of prominent academics and politicians, a group that even included the famous writer Alexei Tolstoy.  Alexander Werth makes the following observations:

1) The technique of killing the victims was distinctly ‘German’ and not Russia (i.e. shot in the back of the head).  In countless other places the Nazi Germans used exactly the same method of execution.

2) The Soviet NKVD on the other hand, were not known for using this method.  Individuals did undoubtedly die whilst in NKVD custody, but generally through neglect, over-work, bad food and exposure to cold.  Occasionally groups of people died in this way, but the NKVD were not given to mass murders of the Katyn-type.  (This is an important point with regard to the post-1991 assumption of Soviet responsibility).

3) Why would the USSR kill Polish POW’s in 1940, when Russia was at peace, and there was no military urgency or pressure to deal with ‘class enemies’?

4) Without doubt the Polish officers were murdered with the use of Nazi German ammunition – even the Nazi German Committee of Enquiry had to admit this.  It has been stated elsewhere by anti-Soviet protagonists that the Nazi Germans had sold ‘Geco’ bullets to the rightwing resistance movements in the Baltic States, and that Soviet troops had simply helped themselves to their use.  Werth points out that this counter-argument does not make sense because the Russians were accused of carrying-out the atrocity in March 1940, but did not actually arrive in the Baltic States until three months later.

5) The rightwing London-Polish government in exile alleged that the Soviets had arranged to exchange the Polish officers for 30,000 Ukrainian prisoners and that the Nazi Germans had refused to accept the Poles.  There had then been a misunderstanding between Joseph Stalin and the NKVD when he ordered the camps ‘liquidated’ (through prisoner exchange) with the NKVD misinterpreting the order for apparent ‘mass’ execution.  Werth mentions that there was no apparent evidence for this version of events, (given the other contradictory evidence).

6) The Soviets revealed that the Katyn Forest area was a favourite holiday location for the people of Smolensk, and that barbed wire had only been placed around the area since the German invasion of 1941.  The Soviets pointed-out that people still holidayed there until the Nazi German occupation.

7) The Nazi Germans had been in Smolensk since July 1941, and yet they waited nearly two years before revealing the apparent Soviet atrocity.

8) It is conceivable that the Nazi Germans murdered the Polish officers in 1941 (possibly in a different area) with a view of deliberately using the bodies against the Soviets at some future date.

9) An alternative story emerged from the British Embassy in Moscow which stated that the Soviets had not murdered the Polish officers in 1941, but had despatched these ‘fascists’ in early 1941, as the Soviet forces disintegrated from the force of the Nazi German attack on the USSR.  However, the problem with this story is that contact with these Polish officers had ceased in early 1940.

10) A number of articles such as letters, postcards and newspapers from 1941 were discovered on or around the bodies.

Katherine Harrison stated in January, 1944, that in her opinion (which represented all the Westerners present), the Russian version of events was correct, and that it was the Nazi German military forces that were responsible for the massacre, just as it was for countless others, across the USSR and Europe.  In 1956, Nikita Khrushchev, seeking to cement his position as the leader of the Soviet Union, issued his infamous ‘Secret Speech’ within which he demonised the legacy of Joseph Stalin, and made him responsible for every real and imagined horror that had been associated with the USSR.  However, despite Khrushchev obviously striving to exchange the Marxist-Leninist ideology of the USSR with rightwing Trotskyism, he did not blame Stalin for the Katyn massacre.  Although Khrushchev’s Secret Speech has now been debunked as a complete falsehood by the academic research of Grover Furr, nevertheless it is curious that Khrushchev left-out a major allegation against Stalin if it were ‘true’ (and hidden in NKVD files), or ‘untrue’ (and hidden in the recesses of Khrushchev’s imagination) would be damaging nonetheless.  This is interesting because it suggests that whilst Khrushchev was planning his power-grab in the USSR, neither he, nor his co-conspirators, had the idea of ‘blaming’ Stalin for the Katyn massacre.  This would have been a straight-forward demonization of Stalin if people had a) suspected this was true, or b) it was recorded as being ‘true’ in Soviet intelligence files.  As Khrushchev did not care about the reputation of the USSR when he made his Secret Speech, it is unlikely that he refused to ‘use’ this allegation to spare Soviet blushes.  On the contrary, Khrushchev used every means possible to denigrate the Soviet past and even asked the Soviet psychic Wolfe Messing to ‘pretend’ that he had had a vision of Lenin and Stalin asking from the spirit world to have their bodies taken-out of the mausoleum and properly buried – but Messing refused, stating that he did not believe in spiritualism and could not communicate with the dead.  If the opportunist Khrushchev would not blame Stalin (either rightly or wrongly) with the Katyn massacre, why is it that the modern, capitalist State of Russia has apparently ‘admitted’ to carrying it out, whilst not releasing any definitive documents?  It is probably because modern, capitalist Russia wants to distance itself from its Soviet past, and does not care if the USSR is blamed with the Katyn massacre.  This means that the true victor of this situation is the Nazi German regime which carried-out endless extermination campaigns along the lines of that discovered at the Katyn site.  This plays into the hands of the modern rightwing which has always tried to ‘negate’ Nazi German atrocities, whilst pursuing a policy of race-hate – the very same race-hate that killed thousands of Polish officers in the Katyn Forest.  Anti-Russian racism, and anti-Communist fear in the minds of the Western bourgeoisie has ensured that the Katyn massacre out-shines all the many other atrocities perpetuated by the Nazi German regime, which includes around 27 million Soviet men, women and children who were killed during WWII in the fight against Nazi German fascism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

British Supterfuge: Courtine & Katyn

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Winston Churchill is depicted as a ‘hero’ of the bourgeoisie. This is not surprising as he continuously exhibited opinions (and behaviours) motivated through rightwing, nationalist ideology. This admirer of Adolf Hitler (prior to WWII), made no secret of his casually racist attitude, and inherent antipathy toward the communist regime of the USSR. Churchill, for instance, never eulogised Stalin, (or indeed recognised the many important achievements of the Soviet system), in the way that he was prepared to grant the benefit of the doubt toward Nazi Germany. This rotund, cigar puffing, middle class man, eventually would commit the British working class to a highly destructive modern war, and use them as pawns on the bourgeois battlefield – as two imperialist systems fought one another to near material destruction. Whilst avidly detesting any notion of working class hegemony, fairness, and justice, Winston Churchill (and his British bourgeois allies), actively courted the Soviet regime as it became clear that the British military forces were unable to check the advance of the well organised, highly motivated, and modern Nazi German war-machine. The German use of armoured spearheads in their ‘blitzkrieg’ (i.e. ‘lightning war’) strategy was new and innovative, and had the effect of simultaneously ‘piercing’ and ‘encircling’ enemy forces organised in conventional formations of static defence. The British imperialist system of military organisation was premised upon the idea that the ‘natives’ being controlled by it, were technologically and culturally unable to muster the systemic organisation required to successfully confront it. A modern, industrialised military force could merely ‘stand to’ in its defensive positions, and wipe-out any attack with immense and over-whelming fire-power. Following the defeat of imperialist Germany in 1918, and the failure of Britain, France and the USA, to successfully administer and influence the imposed ‘Weimar Republic’, German society collapsed and dichotomised into viciously competing far-left and far-right political camps – a situation that eventually led to the victory of the latter, and the rise of Adolf Hitler’s ‘National Socialist’ regime – a regime that Stalin would eventually describe as being neither ‘Nationalist’ nor ‘Socialist’, in origin, but rather a manifestation of the most vicious form of imperialism.

The bourgeois governments of Western Europe and the USA, caught in their usual indecision and hypocrisy, were opposed to communism of any kind, and were initially favourably indisposed toward the Hitlerite regime, as being very much the defender and saviour of European culture and tradition. Communism, on the other hand, represented the end of the power of the exploiting bourgeoisie and its transformation into the state of Socialism. The inherent conservatism of the bourgeoisie influenced and directed the policy of pre-WWII Western governments, and led to an official policy of resistance to the USSR, either demonstrated openly, or politically pursued behind the scenes. This duplicitous approach evolved after the 1917 Russian Revolution and the subsequent establishment of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), but was also clearly evident in the devastated trenches of WWI France. The Csar had authorised the raising of a Russian Expeditionary Force of 20,000 men, which sailed for Marseilles via Singapore and the Suez Canal. These Russian men saw action at Laon, and Arras; and fought bravely alongside the British Army at Amiens. Following the Russian Revolutions of 1917, however, which saw the Bolshevik (Communist) regime under Lenin come to power, many troops of the Russian Expeditionary Force saw no reason to continue fighting (and dying) in a bourgeois war that Russia had officially withdrawn from. The French military authorities disarmed these men and herded them into a concentration camp at a place called Courtine. This unjust treatment led to further agitation amongst the Russian soldiers, which culminated in the French using artillery to open fire on the camp. This led to the death of between 300 – 400 Russian men. The British government and its military authorities in France, did nothing to assist their Russian allies. Those who survived the massacre at Courtine were eventually deported back to Soviet Russia, and their previous military contribution to the British and French victory of WWI, all but forgotten and ignored. Many of these men immediately enlisted in the new communist armed forces formed in Bolshevik Russia, and participated in the war against invading Western forces.

This war came about because the bourgeois West attempted to militarily destroy the Bolshevik regime during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1921 – a war that was eventually won by the newly formed ‘Red Army’. The West was defeated, and Lenin was able to spend his remaining years forging the Soviet State out of the ruins of the peasant Csarist regime he had inherited. Following this military defeat, the governments of the bourgeois West continued to smart and agitate against the USSR. This attitude of impotent hatred formed the central core of Hitlerite ideology, and provided the foundation of Churchillian rhetoric. Churchill opposed Hitler not because he was opposed to rightwing ideology – on the contrary, he was thoroughly rightwing himself – but simply because the dramatic rise of Nazi Germany represented an ‘imperial’ challenge to the declining British Empire. Churchill was defending the bourgeois notion of the British Empire, and not the rights of humanity, when he pitted the British working class against the German working class. Churchill believed that when the Nazis invaded the USSR, he could kill to birds with one stone, and whilst giving a tacit support to the Soviet resistance (and sacrifice), he could sit back and watch the Nazis and Soviets destroy one another’s regime. When both regimes were suitably weakened, Churchill could commit the British forces to consolidate military and political control over Germany and the USSR. In this task, Churchill sought to crush both German National Socialism, and Soviet Communism.

Part of this duplicitous policy pursued by Churchill was the supplying of the Soviet Union with small amounts of mostly obsolete military equipment, whilst forming the Polish Government in London. This ‘government’ was deliberately composed of ardent anti-Soviet Polish nationalists, who worked to continuously undermine any and all progressive Soviet initiatives, backed by the British authorities who remained ominously ‘silent’ with every unfounded criticism that emerged from these Poles in exile. In 1941, the Russian authorities established a Polish Army on Soviet soil under the command of the Polish General Anders. This army had been set-up with the agreement and permission of the London Polish Government with the understanding that in return, this Polish Army would fight alongside the Soviet armed forces in the Defense of Russia against the invading Germans. By December of that year this army numbered some 73,000 men, all were well fed, adequately clothed, professionally trained, and well looked after. This army would eventually number 96,000, but it became obvious that neither General Anders, nor the Polish government in exile, would honour their agreement to help defend the USSR. As the Nazi military machine moved toward Moscow, the London Poles (together with General Anders) refused to allow the Polish Army to go into action. Churchill, the man behind the duplicity, casually suggested that this army might leave the Soviet Union via Iran. At this time, many Russians felt uneasy about having a sizable ‘reactionary’ military force in the heart of the Soviet Union. As the situation could not be satisfactorily resolved, Stalin eventually agreed for General Anders and his Polish Army to leave Soviet territory and travel to Iran. Anders and his men left Soviet Russia on the 22nd of August, 1942 – the eve of the Battle of Stalingrad.This apparently cowardly behaviour of the Polish authorities in London (and the Polish Army in the USSR) can be compared and contrasted with the exemplary conduct of the de Gaulle’s French Normandie Squadron which fought bravely on the Russian front, and the famous Czechoslovak unit of between 2,000 – 3,000 men commanded by Colonel Svoboda. This Czech unit suffered substantial casualties in its first great engagement, but its stoicism and support for the Soviet homeland (whilst under fire) caught the attention of the Russian authorities and Svoboda received the Order of Lenin, whilst eighty-two of his men were decorated in acknowledgement for their service. The example of ‘internationalism’ set by these (and other foreigners) living in the Soviet Union, starkly contrasted with the attitude (and official policy) of bourgeois ‘nationalism’ pursued by the Polish Government of London exiles, and General Anders, who refused fight for the Soviet Union in its hour of greatest need. Soviet-Polish relations diminished further in the middle of April, 1943, when Goebbels’ propaganda machine announced that retreating Nazi forces had discovered a number of mass graves in the Katyn Forest area (near Smolensk), purportedly containing the bodies of thousands of men apparently dressed in Polish officer uniforms. All the bodies exhibited bullet wounds to the back of the head. The Polish nationalists in London had been making an issue of Polish prisoners of war captured by Soviet forces as they entered Eastern Poland in 1939. These prisoners – both officers and enlisted men – had been distributed throughout the Soviet Union, and many of them had enlisted in General Anders’ Polish Army before refusing to fight and leaving the USSR for Iran. In 1941, the Nazis had staged a similar ‘Victims of Bolshevik Terror’ exercise in Lwow, Poland, which was eventually discredited and disproven by hundreds of eye witnesses. The Katyn incident was different in that the London Poles immediately took the side of the accusing Nazi authorities and started disseminating the anti-Semitic myth that 10,000 Polish officers were murdered by a unit of ‘Jewish Commissars’ serving in the Red Army. This Nazi-type propaganda emanated from the London Poles completely unopposed by the British authorities in a time of war (and heightened security), and could only have done so through the expressed permission of the Prime Minister – Winston Churchill.

The propaganda offensive of the Nazis coincided with their military machine suffering one military reversal after another in Soviet Union, as the Red Army began to slowly make its way towards Berlin. The purpose of the fabricated Katyn incident was to discredit the Soviet Union in the eyes of the bourgeois West, and attempt to drive a wedge between the advancing Red Army, and its European and American Allies. The Russian authorities made it clear that there had never been any 10,000 ‘lost’ Polish officers, and that the London Poles were trying to undermine the Soviet regime with obvious lies. The same authorities stated that General Anders left the USSR in 1942 with 75,491 soldiers accompanied by 37,756 relatives, but that at this time there were still around 300,000 to 400,000 Poles still living in the Soviet Union. General Anders would later write a book repeating the Nazi German allegations, supporting the Hitlerite idea that the Soviets had massacred Polish officers in 1940. Despite factual evidence to the contrary, the narrative Anders established has been accepted in the bourgeois West as a ‘true’ and ‘accurate’ representation and recording of historical events that is copied without critical thought from one book to another, and from documentary to documentary. In many ways Hitler’s attempt to destabilise and dehumanise the Soviet regime found its greatest effectiveness through the betrayal manifested by General Anders himself, who along with his fellow nationalist Poles, did nothing to defend Russia whilst receiving free food, clothing and above all protection, when Soviet citizens were dying in their thousands due to Nazi aggression. The behaviour of the London Poles eventually led to the Russians ‘suspending’ direct political communication with their government in exile, claiming that it was unrepresentative of the Polish people and undemocratic in both its structure and operation. Instead, the Russian authorities acknowledged the pro-Soviet Union of Polish Patriots as the true representatives of the Polish people and set about (on May 9th, 1943), recruiting and training a new Polish Army on Soviet soil which became known as the Tadeusz Kosciuszko Division. The Soviet authorities made it clear that it was opposed to all forms of nationalism – particularly pan-Slavism – but pointed-out that all people were equal, and that nationalities were respected.

The new Polish Division had its pristine barracks in a pine forest on the banks of the Oka River, situated between Moscow and Riazan. The British BBC reporter (originally of Russian birth) – Alexander Werth – was one of the very few foreign journalists to be given exclusive access not only to frontline areas, but also recently ‘liberated’ villages, towns, and cities, and witnessed first-hand the barbarism of the Nazi German presence in the USSR. He visited the camp of the Tadeusz Kosciuszko Division on July the 15, and reported on its very good state and high moral. Unlike the secular Red Army, this Polish Army began its day with an open-air mass (facilitated by an attending catholic priest – one Father Kupsz – a Polish partisan), in front of an elaborate set of iconic panels depicting the integration of religious belief with the reality of Nazi atrocities committed in Poland. The Division numbered around 15,000 officers and men (including Jews), all drawn from volunteers who were displaced Poles living in the Soviet Union. This number included around 600 women who were technically termed ‘auxiliaries’, but whom carried-out not only tasks of labour, but in reality also served as frontline troops. Also present were nurses who served in the Division’s medical unit. Many of its members had been either partisans fighting behind the enemy lines, or had been soldiers in the Red Army and had fought in various important battles – including Stalingrad, etc. Every morning whilst on parade, the Division would sing the military oath which expressed the Polish nation’s gratitude toward the Soviet Union, pledging to liberate Poland whilst defending mother-Russia. Around the camp could be seen the flags of the Soviet Allies – the British, French, Polish, Czech, and the USA, etc. So important did the Soviet authorities consider this Division, that it was armed with exactly the same high standard military equipment usually issued to prestigious Soviet Guard Regiments. Around 80% of its weaponry was comprised of either ‘semi’, or ‘automatic’ infantry assault rifles. A number of companies also possessed ‘stove-pipe’ anti-tank rifles, and there were several machine-gun, mortar and artillery units, as well as T-34 tanks. All this equipment was Soviet made, except for the presence of one or two American-built trucks and jeeps. This Division was said to possess a fire-power seven times stronger than that of an average Polish infantry formation circa 1939.   The Tadeusz Kosciuszko Division later distinguished itself in battle fighting the Nazis in its ongoing attempts to liberate Poland, and defend the Soviet Union. In these tasks the Tadeusz Kosciuszko Division suffered heavy casualties fulfilling its duty toward the USSR, and remains a highly respected military formation.

In September 1943, the Red Army liberated Smolensk (and the Katyn area) from Nazi occupation. In April 1943, the German High Command had released its own findings on the Katyn incident – a version of events which was wholly supported and embraced by the London Poles, without recourse to objective and corroborating evidence. Indeed, this is how the German propaganda entered British (and Western) academia unopposed, and came to be accepted as ‘fact’, rather than the racially motivated fabrication that it undoubtedly was. Churchill, through his measured duplicity, was already preparing the groundwork for a future ideological and military conflict with the Communist Bloc. The London Poles became the voice of dissent and resistance for the British and Americans, to the existence of the Soviet Union in the world, perpetuated through the usual bourgeois notion of rabid, racially motivated nationalism. To counter the false allegations invented by the Nazi regime, and embraced by the London Poles, the Soviets conducted their own investigation into the events surrounding Katyn. This Russian report was finally published on January 15th, 1944 and a press conference held in the Katyn Forest attended by Western reporters, and other interesting individuals, including Kathie Harriman, the daughter of the US Ambassador Averell Harriman. There had been only a few hundred bodies discovered by the Russian authorities, buried in the Katyn Forest area, and not the 10,000 claimed by the Nazis or the London Poles. All were dressed as Polish officers and had been executed with a single shot delivered to the back of the head. The ammunition used was of German manufacture, a fact that even Goebbels had to acknowledge in his diary. He attempted to explain this inconvenient fact away by claiming that German ammunition was sold to pro-Nazi factions in the Baltic States, and that it was this ammunition which was captured and used by the Red Army in its murder of these men in March 1940. However, this is revealed as a ‘lie’ by the fact that the Red Army had not entered the Baltic States until three months after the alleged incident was supposed to have taken place in the Katyn Forest, and therefore did not have access to German ammunition. Another obvious inconsistency evolved around the apparent age of the bodies. Were the bodies killed in 1940 by the Russians as the Nazis suggested (and the London Poles believed), or after July 1941 by the German invaders (as the Soviet authorities alleged)? Until July 1941, the Katyn Forest area had been a well known picnicking place for the people of Smolensk. It was only after July 1941 that the Nazi occupiers placed barbed wire around the area and prevented free movement in and out. Prior to July 1941, there was certainly no reported evidence of the presence of massed graves in the forest. What adds weight to the Russian claims of a German initiated massacre is the relative ‘freshness’ of the corpses, even in early 1944, despite the claims of General Anders, who never visited the Katyn Forest, or made any mention of Soviet brutality toward either himself or his Polish men whilst in Russia. Anders was of the opinion that the ‘type’ of soil in the Katyn Forest had inadvertently ‘preserved’ the bodies, giving the false impression of their death being nearer in time to the examiners, than was really the case.

Many local witnesses came to give evidence to the Russian Committee of Enquiry. This testimony constituted a convincing body of evidence that the Germans had captured these Polish officers 1941 whilst rapidly advancing into the Soviet Union, and decided to eradicate them as surplus to requirement as they moved on. This decision was taken in part due to the fact that the railways were in great disarray as the Soviets retreated and the German set about destroying the area, and that there was no transport available to move the victims whilst still alive. Other witnesses suggested that some of the victims had been killed by the Germans elsewhere and had been transported by trucks to the Katyn Forest area for burial in mass graves, whilst other reported hearing gun-shots fired by Gestapo-men in the forest. It was also clearly established that the death of these men had been carried-out in a typically ‘Nazi-style’ fashion, an atrocity initiated by a regime that became well known for the millions of people it killed under Hitler’s reign. The British Embassy in Moscow at the time of the Russian Committee of Enquiry, sensing that the mounting evidence was proving the London Poles to be incorrect, concocted yet another version events which stated that it was true that the Russians had not killed the Poles in 1940, but rather in 1941 when the Red Army had been forced to retreat from the area due to the strength of the German onslaught! This was obviously a face-saving exercise in support of Winston Churchill’s anti-Soviet stance. The Soviet Union was the victim of Nazi terror, but due to the religiously inspired inverted consciousness inhabited by the bourgeois West, everything is turned upside down, and the wrong way around. The Soviets become the devilish perpetuators of the very terror they were victims of, and the aggressive Nazi regime was transformed into the angelic protector of Western morals and virtue. The fact that the Nazi regime killed these men in reality is inverted into the false idea that the Soviet authorities carried-out this callous act, and serves to demonise the Socialist and Communist cause. In effect, this deliberate distortion of history served as the foundation for the subsequent Western invention known as the ‘Cold War’, which justified its highly aggressive stance toward the Soviet Union as an act of self-defence against ‘imagined’ Russian violence and duplicity. The Katyn Forest massacre was just one of many carried-out by the Nazi regime whilst operating in the Soviet Union. This regime killed millions upon millions without conscience for its destructive actions. Blaming the Soviets for this crime is tantamount to blaming the slave for the ill-treatment he receives at the hands of his master. The bourgeois psychology of duplicity is easily identified and rectified when its inversion is understood and turned the right way around. It is only the ignorance of racially motivated nationalism that keeps the lie of the Katyn Forest massacre alive as being attributed to the very regime that was attempting to end nationalism for the betterment of all human society. The real question is why the hero of the British bourgeois – Winston Churchill – authorised the acceptance of Nazi propaganda as the factual interpretation of the Katyn Forest incident, at exactly the same time that thousands of British working class men were fighting and dying at the hands of the Nazi German regime?

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