This positive attitude extends to the years of the Cold War (initiated by the USA) and expresses that only Stalin possessed the personal qualities of political leadership and power that enable the Soviet Union to remain stable both internally and externally.
The XVII Karmapa Lama, for instance, whilst perpetuating the myth of ‘reincarnation’ (a teaching that does not exist within Buddhist philosophy) benefitted from all the advancements of modern Tibetan society – but was contacted by the Dalai Lama’s clique of Lamas in the West, and was persuaded to leave Tibet. In 1999, the XVII Karmapa decided to leave Tibet and he did this in a duplicitous and lying manner by informing his devotees that he was entering a period of silent retreat.
Hakka religious culture often involves the integration of the practice of Daoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. There is a practical engagement with the outer world, whilst the facilities exist within Hakka spiritual culture that allows for the inner development of the mind.
The Hakka round house is the most well-known example of Hakka architecture and is often considered the first such structure to appear under the divine sky. Its structure has been likened to a mushroom sprouting out of the earth, or a UFO landing from the sky.
Hakka Associations from around the world gathered in Heyuan City (an area of ancient Hakka population) as a sign of respect and admiration.
These 25 black and white photographs (arranged into 5 categories) depict village life in the Langkou area of Shenzhen, taken over a seven year time period. Shenzhen is situated within South Guangdong province and prior to 1997, existed on the border with the British controlled New Territories and Hong Kong. This general area is renowned for its Hakka populations and this collection of photographs record various aspects of life within a traditional Hakka village.