Translator’s Note: Early Chinese explorers sailed between China, Taiwan and the Philippines very early on. Chinese pottery was imported into the Philippines during the early years of the BCE era. This may explain why certain burial customs followed in the Philippines accord with ancient Chinese practices. These burial practices pre-date the arrival of Buddhism in China, and may have been introduced into the Philippines directly from Southern China. Archaeological discoveries have unearthed large pottery urns containing human remains in many places in the Philippines (that are reminicisient of how the Hakka Chinese people care for – and dispose of their dead). The urns, pots, tripods, pots, stoves, bowls, cups, spoons, plates, candlesticks, mortars and incense burners, etc. unearthed from the Han tombs in Vietnam all exactly the same shape. ACW (1.11.2021)
The Luzon, Sulu, Ma Yi, and Gu Ma Lalang geographical areas – as mentioned in Chinese historical records – are all present in the Philippines today. Furthermore, archaeological excavations have discovered Chinese porcelain dated to the 3rd century CE. During the 5th year of the reign of ‘King Wu’ (吳王) [c. 226 CE] of ‘Wu Dong’ [东吴] – or ‘Eastern Wu’ – with its capital city situated in modern-day ‘Suzhou’ – also historically known as ‘Wuzhou’) – the Scholar-Official named ‘Zhu Ying’ (朱应) was appointed to pursue the policy of ‘Sagely Transformation’ (宣化 – Xuan Hua) of all the peoples living within the area of the South China Sea (considered ‘Chinese’ by the Emperor of China).
During this time Zhu Ying visited the Chenyan (臣延), Tanlan (耽兰) and Dubo (杜薄) areas still found in the Philippines today. This sagely activity is recorded in the ‘Assist the South Transmission’ (扶南传 – Fo Nan Chuan) Chapter of the much larger book entitled ‘Wu Era Foreign Affairs Records’ (吴时外国记 – Wu Shi Wai Guo Ji). Furthermore, ‘Pei Song’ (裴松) made a note of this activity in the book entitled ‘Annals of the Three Kingdoms’ (三国志 – San Guo Zhi), and is also mentioned in the ‘Book of Jin’ (晋书 – Jin Shu). During the Tang and Song Dynasties, Han Chinese merchants also established trade contacts with various parts of the Philippines. In the 15th year of reign of the Yongle (永樂) Emperor of the Ming Dynasty (c. 417 CE), a King of the Sulu Kingdom of the Philippihttp://www.silkroads.org.cn/archiver/?tid-2248.htmlnes came to pay tribute and died of natural causes whilst in China. He was buried in the Dezhou of Shandong province, China (in the ‘Tomb of King Sulu’ – ‘苏禄王墓’ [Sulu Wang Mu]). Some of the Chinese people who carry the surnames ‘An’ (安) and ‘Wen’ (温) are his descendants.
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