China’s Successful One Child Policy [独生子女政策] (1979-2013)

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Author’s Note: China’s One Child Policy was part of a general Governmental initiative designed to increase health of the general population and lower infant morality rates inherited from feudal China, the corrupt Nationalist and colonial eras. It never was, nor has it ever been a policy of genocide against Chinese girls – which is a racist notion left-over from the times of Christian missionaries, who spent their time trying to convince the world that the superior Chinese culture they encountered was from the ‘devil’. This Western notion does not exist in China, but has an extra-ordinary currency in the West, even manifesting in ‘official’ medical documents, and the equally racist propaganda of antagonistic capitalist governments that exercise a blatant disregard even for the welfare of their own diasporic Chinese populations.  This One Child Policy was actually a raft of legislations advocating better sexual health, contraception, and the modernisation of marital relationships with better child-rearing techniques. This policy has contributed to the rapid rise in wealth within China, and has been so successful and popular amongst Chinese women, that they have been further empowered through it. The policy was relaxed in 2013 due to its success, but it was not abolished. It must be mentioned at this juncture that children die all the time within capitalist societies due to dysfunctional parenting, neglect, poverty, illness, murder racism and sexual abuse – with these deaths being presented as ‘natural’ and ‘inevitable’. Communist China values its girls and women and disagrees with Western racism and the capitalist inequality that kills children every single day in the capitalist world. The Chinese Communist Government rejects any and all Confucian patriarchy stemming from feudal China, and does not accept as valid any form of misogyny. The racist idea that it does, originates in the anti-China policies of the  US Government, the Taiwan Government, and of course, the despicable Epoch Times which relays anti-Chinese Western racism (in English and Chinese) through its publications. ACW 22.1.2017

Western colonialism in Asia systematically stripped countries like China and India of their own wealth and natural resources, whilst ruthlessly exploiting the people’s of Asia with a brutality that has seldom been matched in the history of the world. Of course, this European imperialism was not limited to Europe, but consisted of considerable equally destructive colonial activity in the Americas, Africa, Australia and other places. This corrosive process involved the murder and sexual abuse of indigenous men, women and children with impunity, and the psychological and physical destruction of non-European culture through the forced importation of capitalism, and Catholic and Protestant Christianity. Western men, both the over-lord middle class, and their working class lackeys, routinely took part in the sexual abuse of indigenous children and the rape of women. Needless to say, this unbridled hedonism unleashed upon essentially pre-modern and usually highly conservative cultures, led to immense psychological damage and physical injury – leading to many unwanted and unplanned pregnancies that produced mix-ethnicity children that were rejected by both cultures involved. Generally speaking, these children effectively formed a ‘third’ identity within the colonies, learning from an early age to rely only upon themselves. Another important aspect of indigenous people being used as sexual play-things by Europeans, was the transmission of terrible and highly infectious sexually transmitted diseases that spread through populations like wild-fire. As treatment for non-Europeans was not-forthcoming, many indigenous people eventually died from their infections. This led to many cultures that practised ‘equality’ between the genders being disrupted – and the men taught Western-style misogyny and patriarchy.

China, of course, is today the longest, continuous culture on planet earth. The coming Chinese New Year (28.1.2017) – the Fire Rooster – will be the Chinese Year 4715. Following the success of the Chinese Communist Revolution of 1949, the destructive imperialist presence of the West was swept away forever, and along with it all hypocritical notions of bourgeois racism and sexism. As the West had already stolen the greater part of China’s wealth, with the corrupt Chiang Kai-Shek stealing what was left and hiding it on the renegade island of Taiwan, China had to begin its new era of independence and self-sufficiency in a state of abject poverty. Thousands of years of feudal exploitation and high infant mortality rates, had led to cycles of married couples having very large families. This was designed to rapidly replace young children that died in childhood, or as young adults from drought, famine, warfare or natural disaster. Perhaps as many as five or ten children were needed for the peasants of China to cultivate the land, harvest the crops, look after the farms and care for their parents in their old age. Whenever the emperor needed soldiers there was mass conscription, or if the emperor demanded the building of some large or great project, able-bodied men had to join labour armies and travel throughout China – sometimes gone for decades. Illness could claim any off-spring without warning and life was generally hazardous. Throughout feudal China, many women were subjected to the harshest patriarchal control, which included men having up to four wives and as many concubines that they could afford. Women were essentially domestic slaves with many having their feet ‘bound’causing permanent crippling (except within the Hakka ethnicity – where women did not bind their feet and had historical equality with men).Of course, not all women had their feet bound because many were just too poor to be bothered with.

All this feudal nonsense was abolished in 1949. During the end of the Qing Dynasty and during the Nationalist era – i.e. from 1904 to 1949 – the population of China grew by just 130 million (due to warfare and famine), but as conditions dramatically improved between 1949 and 1979 (i.e. the first three decades of the People’s Republic of China), China’s population boomed by an incredible 600 million!  As people in China now felt secure and happy with the new Communist system, coupled with a drastically improved (and free) health system, more children were surviving into adulthood, and due to lack of exploitation, were enjoying much improved living conditions that encouraged successful child-rearing. The problem this caused the Chinese Government was that demand was out-stripping supply in a country that was still financially poor and in the early days of its economic reforms. This burgeoning population made conditions difficult for the relieving and eradication of poverty and the uplifting of society in general. The Four Modernizations were goals first set forth by Zhou Enlai in 1963, and enacted by Deng Xiaoping, starting in 1978, to strengthen the fields of agriculture, industry, national defence, as well as science and technology in China. Ironically, the announcement of this policy coincided with the biggest population increase ever seen in China between 1963 to 1970. The Chinese Government could not break the cycle of poverty imported into China by the European colonialists if the Chinese population continuously outgrew production.

Early Communist theorists after 1949 – such as Ma Yinchu (马寅初) – advocated that the population should be controlled with the age of marriage increased and the number of children ‘limited’. This approach was known as the doctrine of ‘moderation’ (节制 – Jie Zhi), and was designed to be a national programme of contraception, rather than a policy of sexual abstinence. The Chinese State had no intention of interfering in sexual relations, but was concerned about the level of conception. However, the so-called ‘One Child Per Female Policy’ (独生子女政策 – Du Sheng Zi Nu Zheng Cu) was multifaceted and was not limited to the concept of contraception. A high surplus population meant a continuous problem of unemployment, and the fact that material goods (such as food, clothes, and electrical), being short in supply, had to be rationed (through coupons) to people aged between 50 and 70 years old. China’s industrial-base could not be modernised (to permanently relieve poverty) with a population that was continuously living beyond its means. For wealth to be re-distributed for everyone’s benefit, it had to be first ‘generated’ and then ‘invested’ in the People’s State. Without wealth-building in this manner, China would have continued to languish in its post-imperialist poverty – particularly after 1959 and the beginning of the Sino-Soviet Split – which saw material aid from the Soviet Union diminish considerably. Another issue that was raised in 1980 during Governmental discussion and Communist Party of China debate, was the difficulty of building enough suitable homes to house everyone, and raise living standards. Although plans began to emerge in 1979 to control the rate of growth of China’s population, it took several years to finalise this plan. This is why it wasn’t until February 9, 1982, that the CPC Central Committee and State Council issued the communique entitled ‘On the Further Work of Family Planning Instructions’, confirming family planning as a basic national policy, and setting the goal that by the end of the twentieth century, a controlled population growth would remain within 1.2 billion. Article 2 of the Constitution of 1982 stipulates family planning as a key-policy, with Article 25 stating: ‘The State promotes family planning so that population growth conforms to the economic and social development plan.’, with Article 49 stating: ‘A husband and wife have the obligation to practice family planning .’ From 1982 until 2013 (when the policy was ‘relaxed’), married couples in China were advised to have a single child. In fact, Article 27 stated that a ‘Married couple that voluntarily gives birth to only one child for a lifetime, the State shall issue the “Glorious Certificate of the Parents of One Child”‘. However, this law was not applied throughout the whole of China, and many ethnic groups and former colonial areas were made ‘exempt’. This law was primarily aimed at out of control urban populations, or rural areas of unnecessarily ‘high’ birth-rates.

Furthermore, couples who had had a child already, could apply for official permission to have a second child. This particularly applied to parents of disabled children (who continued to care for their child), and to divorced couples remarrying different partners, or widowed people remarrying. Chinese nationals marrying foreigners in China were also exempt from this law. Parents who followed the law received various legal and financial benefits throughout their lives, as incentives and a form of compensation. In the rural areas, this law put an end to child brides and the sexual exploitation of young girls in China, as well as ridding China of Confucian Patriarchy, as women were legally acknowledged as ‘equal’ to men with regard to inheritance. The success of this policy was scene in the fact that families with only one child to support, generally grew more affluent in a relatively short time, and people were able to gain more ‘choice’ because of their wealth. Perhaps the greatest success of this policy was the tremendous increase in pre-natal and post-natal care of the off-spring, as parents developed a greater concern for their children. This increase in well-being resulted in more experience and care being available for the next generation, with parents having more time to themselves. As this policy achieved all its main objectives, the Chinese Government ‘relaxed’ its one child component in 2013 – but continued to maintain the idea of contraception as a means of population control and building of affluence. In October, 2015, the Communist Party of China formally announced that as the One Child Policy had achieved all its intended objectives in controlling China’s hitherto rapid population growth, married couples would now be permitted to have ‘two’ children as the norm, with others being allowed dependent upon the various qualifying criteria. As Communist China is now the strongest economy in the world, the population of China is nolonger living beyond its means, and this new affluence ensures the safety and well-being of new born children. 

Chinese language Reference:

http://baike.baidu.com/view/11608612.htm

http://news.xinhuanet.com/finance/2015-10/30/c_128374476.htm

 

 

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