Dear Gillian Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864) was a ‘Hakka’ Confucian scholar from Guangdong, who came into contact with Western (Christian) missionaries in his youth. Although all evidence suggests that
A vanished empire: Major new discovery exposes long-lost medieval kingdom The Kingdom of ‘Nan Zhao’ (南诏) or ‘Southern Zhao’ existed between 738-902 CE. I suspect
Hakka religious culture often involves the integration of the practice of Daoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. There is a practical engagement with the outer world, whilst the facilities exist within Hakka spiritual culture that allows for the inner development of the mind.
In China a ‘Zhu Chi’ refers to the man or woman who presides over a Buddhist temple. In ancient India, however, the same post was referred to as the ‘Wei Na’ (維那) [i.e. ‘Maintainer of Affairs’], whilst during the Sui and Tang Dynasties, this role was referred to as the ‘Si Zhu’ (寺主) [i.e. ‘Temple Master’].
(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD) Ch’an Master Ma Zu Dao Yi lived between 709-788, or 688-763, and his lay surname was ‘Ma’ (马). He was