Other Dimensions (Out There)


The main stumbling block with analysing the idea of witnessing another reality, is ensuring that what is experienced, is not a product of the malfunction of the human brain, and its ability to perceive, cognise or interpret. An individual could be suffering from any number of internally generated psychological and physiological conditions, that interfere with the usual process of sensing the material environment. Such divergence away from normal function in the brain (and body), obviously leads to an internally generated view of the physical world, that does not actually exist ‘out there’. If a group of people appear to share a ‘visionary’ experience, it cannot be rejected out of hand, that all concerned are suffering from a perceptual ailment, or that the group is engaging in a ‘cult-like’ activity involving peer pressure, mutual conditioning, and interpretive reinforcement (i.e. a group hallucination). From a scientific perspective, these issues cannot be ignored whilst attempting to establish the theoretical principle of the existence of different planes of reality. Of course, belief systems effect how the world is perceived simply because that is one of their primary functions, but ‘belief’ does not necessarily equate to correct perception or interpretation of reality. Although theoretical physics postulates that other dimensions may exist (i.e. ‘String Theory’ and ‘Quantum Theory’, etc), these realities are mathematical probabilities, and not the product of sensory observation in the usual or mundane sense. In other words, the only manner in which these realities have been understood to exist, is through the use of numbers as cognised by the human brain. This is very different to the structure of religious or spiritual visions of other realities, which always appear to be like this (mundane) reality – but ‘ideal’ in nature. This can be ‘ideally’ good or bad, depending upon belief ad circumstance, but there is no scientific reason why other dimensions should be in anyway ‘familiar’ to human beings and their cognitive sensory array (which has evolved within a particular environment), or even ‘perceptible’ to the human mind in the ordinary sense.

Encountering China’s Most Beautiful Daoist Nun


This is the Daoist Nun known as ‘Miao Miao’ (妙妙), who lives on ‘Dragon Tiger Mountain’ (龙虎山 – Long Hu Shan), situated in Mainland China’s Jiangxi province.  Although young (apparently born in 1990), she carries the ‘horse hair dust-whisk’ of spiritual authority in the above photograph. According to a man who visited the area during the Tent Festival during the National Day holidays in October, 2010, he met and fell in-love with this nun, and the two got married soon after (their marriage certificate is dated October 10th, 2010).  It is unclear from various Chinese language texts exactly what happened next. Miao Miao is still a Daoist nun living an austere lifestyle on Mount Long Hu -although because of her ‘partner’s’ internet article retelling their whirlwind romance, she has become famous throughout China, with many tourists deliberately visiting the area to speak with her and take photographs.  Some Netizens in China think the entire story is a hoax to encourage tourism to the area, whilst others (including the government position) is that the story is true, and that the Daoist nun Miao Miao has conducted herself with the utmost virtue that the country would do well to emulate.  Although unclear, it would appear that despite marrying a man she just met, she did not ‘consummate’ the marriage, but remained forever ‘pure’.  This Chinese language article (and photographs) are from a tourist perspective of this Daoist nun.



©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2016.

Original Chinese Language Source Text:




Do Not Worship Cause and Effect


Our societies are full of bourgeois spiritualities that have no basis in logic and reason, and whilst purporting to offer a ‘higher’ path, are in fact an anchor weighing down on the heads of the working class, (and in the case of distorted Buddhism, quite literally),  These bourgeois entities mirror religious structure and spiritual instruction, but never (except in the case of radical or fringe practitioners) question the inequalities or injustices inherent within the capitalist, liberal democratic, bourgeois societies that have spawned them.  This is exactly the point of these bourgeois spiritualities, they claim to offer ‘freedom’ but freedom from what?  It certainly is not the injustices, war and famine perpetuated by the outer societies within which they exist, or the class oppression meted-out by the bourgeoisie itself upon the working class.  These ‘spiritual’ paths are follies for the wealthy, and those who already possess systemic political power and the means to guide culture along a non-threatening path, so as not to compromise the class privilege already amassed through the stolen profit of the labour of others.  In this sense, (and all others), bourgeois spirituality is nothing but a ‘muse’ to entertain the middle classes when they get momentarily bored of the opulence that surrounds them, but even then, opulence tends to dictate the inner and outer structures of the philosophy and theology that often offers a better tomorrow, but which as of yet, has never been proven to be true.  All these paths imply and infer that they possess a ‘higher’ knowledge as yet unknown by rational science, or the enquiring minds of humanity.  In other words, they peddle speculative and highly imaginative post-death scenarios, promising the living that when dead, they will carry-on living!  A question that everyone should be asking is this; does life mean so much now (with all its disasters, pain, suffering, and momentary pleasures), that anyone in their right minds would want to repeat the process again, albeit in somekind of disembodied format?

Although this generally goes unacknowledged, rational science has solved the meaning of existence, but not many people (accept for the Buddha in ancient India, and one or two others around the world) have realised this.  To build the picture, exactly the same thing happens before death, as it does after death, and our individual opinions about this natural process do not matter one iota, as the universe simply continues to do its ‘thing’ irrespective of how we might fell about it.  What is this ground-breaking realisation?  It is simplicity itself, as it is merely the observation that everything happens due to ‘cause and effect’, nothing more.  All the rest of the accumulated ‘junk’ of religiosity that has accrued over-time is simply an obscuration of this fact.  Such muddled religious teaching is like trying to formulate an echo, or define a shadow, none of it works, but instead forces humanity into religiously inspired ghettoes of the mind and body existence.  This type of limited religious thought creates the prisons it claims to possess the keys to.  Of course, ‘religion’ will not like hearing this insight because it directly ‘sees through’ Bourgeois obscuration and threatens its very existence by revealing its inherent redundancy.

Much of contrived religion is about keeping the masses looking in the wrong place for universal truth.  Universal truth does exist, and rational science has already de-mystified it and made it readily available, even if that science exists within bourgeois societies, and presents this truth though that political outlook.  The point is that science found universal truth by breaking away from the limitations of Judeo-Christian theology.  However, as it serves the class interests of the bourgeoisie to keep perpetuating the ignorance of theology, the toiling masses are kept from further and higher education, and encouraged to worship in a church rather than carry-out rational scientific research in a laboratory.  Why is this?  It is because rationality reveals the stupidity of capitalism as a defining economic system – as Albert Einstein pointed-out.  If the whole of society worked this out for itself, the capitalist system would collapse from within, washing away its rotting infrastructure of support.  Instead of middle class universities excluding the masses and compromising with the irrationality (i.e. read ‘greed’) of capitalism, they would have to throw all their academic weight behind actively participating in the revolutionary process of encouraging and guiding the evolutionary process for the betterment of humanity.

The churches need not be abolished – they must simply start telling the truth – and those who follow Buddhism should stop pretending it is Christianity, or a method for gaining money from the gullible and unsuspecting.  Islam should release that the modern and rational mind ‘worships’ Allah every time it creates a medicine that saves countless lives, and Brahmanism should let its natural beauty (as bright as the sun) shine through.  Science has existed in the past in all parts of the world, and this is a fact that must be understood.  Many ancient cultures had ‘science’ and used their collective minds to influence the world.  Modern science is, of course, a refinement of this process, but science within capitalist societies is currently dominated by a restrictive bourgeois straitjacket that prevents it from truly shining.  This is science polluted by the search for perpetual monetary gain and momentary advantage.  For science to truly fulfil its ‘emancipatory’ (i.e. ‘religious’) function, it must be ‘freed’ from this limited control.  Rational thought must be freed from inner psychological conditioning, and outer societal conditioning for humanity’s true potential to be unleashed for a better tomorrow.  The real mystery is how conventional religion has survived so long through delivery so little, but of course, it is no mystery at all.  That which is corrupt or of no rational use, is kept in place by a political class because it suits that class’s long-term purposes.  Religion as it currently exists (even its good manifestation) keeps humanity at a certain level of thought, and does not allow any progress beyond this point.  The working class, simply for evolutionary purposes, must progress beyond the limitations of theology for the betterment of the psychological and physical health of humanity.

My Father’s Old Waving Chair…


In the garden of our family home in Torquay, my father’s old chair slowly returns to its own inherent nature.  This is where my father used to sit to replenish his spiritual energy between bouts of intense waving anywhere on the road between Paignton and Torquay. When I discussed this chair with him recently, he said do not worry about it – nature takes care of its own.  Now the old chair has a new beauty all of its own, outside that of human utility.  This chair was once a tree (or a group of trees), and now slowly merging back into the nature from which it came.  This is how my father sees himself today.  He is three-quarters conscious light now, and only one-quarter physicality.  He says that like his chair, he is returning to the primordial light from which he came.  No sadness and no joy, things are just happening as they should.  My father’s primary message is ‘do not be afraid’ of the cycles of nature, they exist to guides us from one state to another.




President Putin at the Shaolin Temple (2006)











An old Ch’an monk (believed to Venerable Shao Yun) remains seated and indifferent to the presence of an international guest.  In fact President Putin specifically requested that this monk should remain seated due to his age and renowned spiritual attainment at the Shaolin Temple.  Venerable Shao Yun was a disciple of Master Xu Yun (1840-1959).


Chinese Language Source: http://www.yznews.com.cn/2005-12/ca101680.htm



It’s Funny How Ancient Aliens are Still Bourgeois!


The Ancient Aliens Series – produced by the History Channel – ran from 2010 – 2014, and consists of 6 Seasons of 82 episodes, which last over 68 hours. In the Region 1 DVD Box-set of this series (2014), there is included 12 extra-episodes not aired on TV during its original run. The format is a continuous presentation of a counter-narrative to conventional academia and established religion. All science is incorrect because it does not recognise that all the knowledge that human-kind has developed over its existence is a product of ancient (alien) astronauts who have visited the planet Earth and imparted their advanced knowledge to its backward inhabitants. Established religions are wrong because their adherents do not recognise that the ‘deities’ they worship are not gods as such, but were in fact ancient (alien) astronauts that visited the Earth and imparted their advanced knowledge to its backward inhabitants. Astute readers will see a pattern forming. What is interesting about this exercise of ‘free thought’ is that it is thoroughly bourgeois in nature (and therefore a product of the industrial and post-industrial era), that is in reality a re-representation of Judeo-Christian theology through the rubric of a pseudo-science. The ancient astronaut theory is one that is religious in nature – but freed from the restrictive yoke of conventional religion – and scientific in the limited sense that it does not adhere to the established scientific method that states that nothing is happening unless it is otherwise proven to be happening.

The ancient astronaut theory assumes unscientifically that its premise has already been proven (in this regard it is like a faith-based religion), and all that its adherents have to do is simply fill-in the evidential gap by gathering together disparate facts that have no causal connection, in an attempt to build a scientific-like case for its assumptions and conclusions. As a counter-narrative, it does not view itself as ‘illogical’ but rather assigns to itself the idea that it is a higher science simply because it appears to reject conventional religion. However, this is a false assumption because the ancient astronaut theory is essentially a religious belief system based upon the worship of disparate facts, and it is this worship of disparate facts (gathered from all areas of different scientific and philosophical academic subjects) that replaces the focal point of a ‘god’, and gives it its assumed ‘scientific’ bent. In a very real sense, the ancient astronaut theory is the secularisation of the belief in theistic religion – it is a religion that does not need a god-construct to be religious – but it does retain and depend upon the use of ‘faith’ to hold its theoretical assumptions together. Without ‘faith’ the ancient astronaut theory falls to pieces – because that is all it is – a collection of misconstrued disparate facts that are used to support conclusions that do not exist. In other words, there is no scientific proof for the assumptions and conclusions contained within the vague subject area that is the ancient astronaut theory.

This is not an efficient manner to explore the subject of the paranormal – if such a subject exists at all. One of the seductive aspects of the ancient astronaut theory is that it does operate from a limitless theoretical base that pulls together often very interesting historical and philosophical facts and figures. In fact this ability to continuously pick-out significant or unusual events is a foundational and definitional aspect of this theory. Its premise is the ever-expanding collection of data that is assumed to prove its central hypothesis, but of course as the central hypothesis is never actually proven, all the adherents of the theory can do is continuously ‘gather’ more facts. This behaviour is very similar to that of the religious fanatic who desperately wants to believe in a theistic entity, but deep-down knows that it is not true. All such a religionist can do is try to gather support for his or her faith by getting more people to believe in it as well. This behaviour never ‘proves’ that god exists, however, but through its continuous search for converts, this fact becomes ‘hidden’ and ‘obscured’. For believers in theistic religions, scientific proof is not required to substantiate their beliefs, as this type of human organisation is premised upon numbers of adherents and not on scientific facts. This is the manifest stupidity of religious thought. Fact is ignored for the propagation of popularity, and through this popularity, large segments of the population are kept physically controlled and in a state of psychological and intellectual arrested development. The difference between conventional religion and the ancient astronaut theory is that the latter, whilst behaving exactly like the former, actually believes that it is being ‘scientific’ in its modern pursuit of a faith-based belief system.

If this analysis was not enough to blow its theoretical premise out of the speculative water, its obvious Eurocentric and middle class bias should finally lay it to rest. Not only does this series present a thoroughly ‘white’ view of history, but it uses the distinctly modern ‘American’ view of the world to convey a mishmash of academic and religious facts and fictions in an obviously ‘capitalist’ and ‘liberal’ format. This bourgeois (middle class) view of the world, its history, origins and evolution, gives the absurd impression that human socio-economic manifestation has always been modern ‘capitalist’, when in fact human history in its entirety has for most of that time, not in any way operated through a modern capitalist system. This is perhaps the greatest flaw in the ancient astronaut theory which purports to present a revelation of insight that proves that the greatest thinking of the modern world is incorrect and out of date. Far from being revolutionary or revelatory, the ancient astronaut theory is nothing other than post-WWII US pro-capitalist propaganda that was designed in its origination to confront and discredit the Soviet Union and its Communist ideology. This bourgeois thinking presents aliens or extra-terrestrials as conforming to contemporary US pro-capitalist propaganda that is essentially Eurocentric in its design. This effect is similar to how old sci-fi films when viewed today, always seems ludicrous in their theoretical imagining and presentation of the ‘future’, because the ‘future’ they imagine, no matter how apparently bizarre it may seem at the time of its creation, is always obviously deeply rooted in the socio-economic circumstances of its time period. The illegal invasion of Iraq by US military forces in 2003 is supported by the makers of the Ancient Astronaut Series. This is part of the general trend found within the series of the application of a racist narrative that interprets historical events from a Eurocentric, imperialist perspective. The US forces not only destroyed the sovereign government of Iraq (which led to the eventual execution by hanging of its last President Saddam Hussein), but it also destroyed Iraqi society completely so that chaos reigned in the place of law and order. The US’s policy encouraged previously outlawed extremist religious factions in Iraq to rise-up and commit mass murder and destruction of property. The series contains an episode that refers to this cultural annihilation of ancient civilisation as ‘Operation Freedom’, and buys in entirely to the lie that the US military is ‘freeing’ the Iraqi population by destroying its culture and political system. The story evolved around the fact that the US allowed museums in Iraq to be ransacked by looters and thieves, but it did not present it that way. Instead the Ancient Astronaut Series actually blamed the Iraqi people themselves for looting its own historical artefacts – but it did not attempt to explain why a people the US military had subjugated would be motivated to ‘steal’ artefacts that they already owned. This is a peculiar omission of insight for a theory that trades on the assumed possession of a ‘superior’ knowledge – a superior knowledge that apparently cannot see through capitalism and the imperialism it inspires.

Throughout the series is the racist misrepresentation of Tibet and China. The view of Tibet the series presents is that of the mythological creation in the West invented by such people as Lobsang Rampa and by others in the Theosophy movement. This is a false ahistorical viewpoint that tells the viewer absolutely nothing about ‘real’ Tibet. The programmes also perpetuate the modern myth that Tibet was invaded by China in 1959, and that Tibet was never part of China. This is very bad academia. In 1949 (when the Communists came to power) Tibet was part of China. In 1911 (when the pro-Western Nationalists came to power) Tibet was part of China. In 1644 (when the Qing Dynasty came to power), Tibet was part of China. Even before this, parts of west and south-western China were annexed and controlled by Tibet, so from a correct historical perspective, China did not ‘invade’ Tibet in 1959 because Tibet was already a part of China. Again, what is being seen here is US Cold War propaganda designed to destroy Communist China, and turn Western opinion against it. Furthermore, this series suggests that what are in fact Han Dynasty tombs in north and northwest China are really Egyptian-type pyramids and that the Chinese is preventing its own people and the people of the world from knowing about them. Any search through ‘Baidu’ the Chinese search-engine will demonstrate that these Han Dynasty tombs are well known, well researched, well recorded and well explored, not only by the Chinese people, but also by many foreign tourists over the years. This is yet another example of how the ancient astronaut theory that purports to see more than most ordinary people, cannot even see through the superficial and quite stupid disinformation created by the USA. For those who want to understand the reality of the US in its attempt to destabilise Communist China through Tibet, please access the subject by typing ‘CIA in Tibet’ through any search engine.

In the later episodes, the USA itself is presented as a ‘special’ god-protected country that has a predestined mission on Earth. Of course, this is merely a reworking of the Judeo-Christian myth whereby America is viewed as another Israel, and Americans simply as more Israelites. America is the chosen country on Earth and all of its history is interpreted as being comprised of events caused by extra-terrestrials who want to protect and guide the development of its culture. This gives the gloss that any act of vicious US imperialism in the world is automatically elevated above its actual motivation of greed, and into the category of divine revelation. The supposedly superior culture of the extra-terrestrials is obviously the Judeo-Christian god-concept and explains why it exists up above where heaven is supposed to be. When individual aliens visit the Earth and bestow their blessings upon humanity, this is nothing other than the reworking of the Jesus mythos. An alien visiting Earth is the ‘son’ or ‘representative’ of the superior extra-terrestrial culture (or ‘god’) from which he or she has arisen. This childish philosophy reduces humanity to an inert biological entity that can do nothing for itself, and must patiently ‘wait’ for superior beings to guide it along. Jesus – like the aliens – visited the Earth a very long time ago, and just as Christian theology talks of Jesus one day returning and creating heaven on Earth, so the ancient astronaut theorists talk of aliens returning to Earth to transform it forever. This is the sullying of hard and progressive science with that of an imagination of a non-existing reality that is raised to the level of assumed facts. This may well be an exercise in free thought, but it is a free thought that destroys all human progression throughout history, and reduces humanity into an infantile state of being. The point is that there may well exist other beings in the universe – multiverse, and it may be equally true that some of these beings have very advanced cultures. It could also be true that they have either visited, or may yet visit the Earth, but none of this can be ‘scientifically’ known if human consciousness is allowed to regress into a religious mind-set that mimics science (whilst fundamentally rejecting its methodological premise). Humanity has made itself and does not have to rely upon imagined gods or theoretical aliens to justify its existence. One day humanity will in all likelihood encounter extra-terrestrials, but this will be through a matter of logical science and not religious mythology. The interference in humanity’s natural evolution through alien manipulation is simply yet another reworking of the Judeo-Christian myth of god performing ‘miracles’ in the world. A theological ‘miracle’ is defined as the momentary suspension of the operation of the laws of nature. This definition is exactly the theoretical ground that the ancient astronaut theory both occupies and operates from. This is why it cannot be viewed as a legitimate science. It is a religion masquerading as a science, and this is a fact even if it is one day ‘scientifically’ proven that a) aliens exist, and b) they once visited the Earth in the distant past. This analysis holds even if it is also scientifically proven that alien technology was once used to alter human DNA – which at the moment is simply an interesting speculation. Speculating about reality is the origin of all scientific breakthroughs, but when a pre-existing theological construct is assumed to exist without evidence, a true scientific endeavour cannot be developed. This is really a debate about how the human mind can be used. The point is that the ancient astronaut theory is obviously a Eurocentric, religiously inspired, revelatory, miracle performing myth that is waiting to be proven correct – like any good religion. It just so happens that along the way, this modern myth has co-opted various aspects of modern science, whilst rejecting the conclusions of that science. It is all good fun just as long as readers can see beyond the old conditioning presented in a new and highly seductive light. It is the brain of humanity that will travel to the stars, and it will do this through intellectual observation and technological developmental. To reach the stars humanity should abandon the dead-weight of the past and fully embrace the future, or it will not be able to break free of Earth’s gravity!

Lucid Viewing


How Buddhism is understood by its adherence, depends entirely upon the conditioning of the mind of the individuals concerned. For some, the Buddha is a god, and his teachings a theological attempt to give comfort to a suffering mass of humanity that cannot hope to apply or benefit from them. In this model, ordained Buddhist monks and nuns serve a role very similar to those found in the Christian religion, and physically and psychologically link Buddhist worshippers to the Buddha they worship. This model, although not unknown in the world of Buddhism, is a distortion and misrepresentation of the Buddha’s teaching. Another equally mistaken approach to Buddhism is a strictly materialist approach very common in the West. This views the Buddha’s teachings as a dry list of logical alternatives with regards to thinking and behaviour. Buddhism is viewed as a scientific textbook that is believed to work in an abstract fashion, not quite in sync with everyday life. Many who follow Buddhism in this manner, are rejecting the theism of the Judeo-Christian tradition, and perceive Buddhism as an ‘atheistic’ philosophy. They follow Buddhism as a type of ‘Protestantism’, which views this distinctly Asian philosophy in a purely Eurocentric manner. This distortion of Buddhism reduces this Indian doctrine into a branch of Christianity without a central ‘god’ figure. Buddhism (in the West), is also interpreted as a counter-cultural figure associated with ‘dropping-out’ of mainstream society, and associated with drug experimentation, free love, and a type of philosophical anarchy. The problem with this approach is that there is no developmental ‘punch’ associated with what the Buddha has to say, no matter how sympathetic he may have been with these practitioners. They interpret any attempt to discipline and order the mind and body as the use of unwarranted ‘force’, and no real development unfolds. The fetish of Buddhism involves middle class people who possess ample material resources, associate the calm mind they experience whilst staying in their country mansion, as somehow correlating with true and genuine spiritual development and self-cultivation. Buddhism for these privileged people is something of a lifestyle choice that includes the purchase of meditation cushions for the lounge, and giant Buddha-statues for the conservatory. These people can afford to surround themselves with Buddhist paraphernalia, but again, no true development occurs and the Buddha’s philosophy is basically ignored as unrealistic for the modern world, but nice to know. Genuine Buddhism (namarupa) is the acknowledgement that mind and matter – although referring to distinct and different concepts – in fact share a commonality of origin that cannot be limited or reduced to a vague ‘oneness’, whilst simultaneously not being trapped in ‘duality’. Existence cannot be defined as ‘matter’, or ‘mind’ – this is the Buddha’s message. However, as the Buddha also rejected theism as a valid path to enlightenment, but also appeared to have acknowledged the existence of polytheistic gods, his philosophy cannot be defined as ‘atheism’, but rather as ‘non-theistic’ in nature. The Buddha’s philosophy avoids all the traps that the perception of humanity can attempt to reduce it to. Understanding this is lucid viewing.

Shaolin ‘Meditation Hall’ Opened to the Public – First Time in 1500 Years

Meditation Hall

Meditation Hall

Original Chinese Language Article: By Liu Lin (刘林)

Photograph: By Peng Hua Ming (彭华明)

Source: Beijing Entertainment News

(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

Yesterday, (8.4.08), after 1500 years of history, the Shaolin Temple opened the door of its ‘meditation hall’ so that 36 ‘gongfu stars’ – dressed as novice monks – could attend a disciplined meditation session led by the fully ordain monks, and learn about the rigours and hardships associated with the Shaolin tradition. For many who had only practiced the outer art of gongfu, this was a totally new experience, as they learned about the strict rules and regulations that govern the Shaolin Temple and regulate the lives of its monks.  This was a Ch’an Week Retreat that saw the participants enter and leave the ‘meditation hall’ a number of times, gaining a new experience with each visit.

Original Chinese Language Source Text:




昨天,1500年来从未对外开放的少林寺“禅堂”终于对“功夫之星”的选手们敞开了大门。36位选手身着僧袍在“禅堂”里听取少林高僧讲述“禅堂”的规矩和礼仪?熏并首次体验僧人们的“坐禅”生活。但这仅仅是选手们在“禅堂”里的第一课,闭关期间他们还将数次进入“禅堂”学习和修炼。 实习生刘林/文彭华明/摄

The Still Mind


Original Chinese Language Text By: duitang.com

(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

Buddha said:

‘Many experiences encountered in life happen without planning and cannot be predicted, and those experiences that individuals would prefer to encounter, cannot be achieved by simply demanding they manifest. Many experiences happen unexpectedly, when the mind is unprepared to receive them, this is why it is better to cultivate a ‘still’ mind that is free from wants and desires. A calm mind that is free from the destructive influences of greed, hatred, and delusion, simply adjusts itself to prevailing circumstance (which are karmically produced), and is not excessive, does not demand, is not pessimistic, is not rigid, is not panicked, is not uncontrolled, is not pleased by material gains, and is not saddened by personal losses.’

©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2015.

Original Chinese Language Source Text:


佛说,生命中的许多东西是可遇不可求,刻意强求的得不到,而不曾被期待的往往会不期而至。 因此,要拥有一颗安闲自在的心,一切随缘,顺其自然,不怨怒,不躁进,不过度,不强求,不悲观,不刻板,不慌乱,不忘形,不以物喜,不以己悲。

Definition of a Ch’an Monastic Community Leader

Fang Zhang

Fang Zhang

Original Chinese Language Article: Zhongguo Wikipedia

(Translated by Adrian Chan-Wyles PhD)

Translator’s Note: The four most common terms used to describe the head monk or nun of a Ch’an temple or monastery in China are as follows:


1) Zhu Chi (住持): Lit. ‘Residence Manager’

2) Wei Na (維那): Lit. ‘Maintainer of Affairs’

3) Si Zhu (寺主): Lit. ‘Temple Master’

4) Fang Zhang (方丈): Lit. ‘Ten Square Feet’


It has become common place to refer to these titles in English translation by the Judeo-Christian term of ‘Abbot’, which derives from the Aramaic term ‘abba’, meaning ‘father’. An abbot is a man in charge of an abbey of Christian monks, and its female equivalent is ‘Abbess’. As is obvious from the above translations of the Chinese terms used to describe the Sangha community leader of a Ch’an community, none match this transliteration. Indeed, the most common term used today to refer to a Sangha leader is ‘Fang Zhang’ which actually derives from a measurement of length and width found within the Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra.  The post of ‘Wei Na’ today generally refers to the monk who assists the designated community leader – which is in practical terms a very powerful position to hold.  ACW 17/02/15

Zhu Chi (住持) [Residence Manager’]:

Zhu Chi is a short name for a monastic or temple Sangha leader. Over-time other words were used to describe the same post in Buddhist temples and monasteries. Zhu Chi is also used to refer to the head of a Chinese Daoist temple.


In China a ‘Zhu Chi’ refers to the man or woman who presides over a Buddhist temple. In ancient India, however, the same post was referred to as the ‘Wei Na’ (維那) [i.e. ‘Maintainer of Affairs’], whilst during the Sui and Tang Dynasties, this role was referred to as the ‘Si Zhu’ (寺主) [i.e. ‘Temple Master’].

Another name for the Sangha leader in China is ‘Fang Zhang’ (方丈). This designation derives from the Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra which teaches that the layman Bodhisattva Vimalakirti had a bedroom that measured only ten square feet in the material world of delusion – but that in the realm of enlightened reality, its capacity was limitless. This analogy is used to describe the community leader’s room, and explains why the post of ‘Zhu Chi’ is also known as ‘Fang Zhang’ (or ‘ten square feet’). These Buddhist terms are used differently to similar terms found in the Immortal Island stories of ancient China.

During the Song Dynasty, the preferred term for a community leader in a Ch’an temple or monastery was ‘Si Zhu’ [Temple Master]. The man or woman who held this post was commonly referred to as the ‘head monastic’, according to the ‘Ordination Rules of the Temple’, which stated the leader always stands at the front of the congregation and leads it into the Dharma Hall.

©opyright: Adrian Chan-Wyles (ShiDaDao) 2015.

Original Chinese Language Article:








小作品圖示  這是一篇關於佛教的小作品,你可以透過編輯或修訂擴充其內容。


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