In the first three paragraphs, John Ruskin is describing his 1849 visit to the Grande Chartreuse. This is the head-monastery of the Carthusian (Catholic) monastic
Hampton Court Palace In 1688, the British Parliament ousted King James II of Great Britain (King James VII of Scotland) on the grounds that this
Today, the socio-economic forces of the West have produced the conditions for the human mind to move beyond the conditioning of a theology that reflects medieval (and earlier) conditions, and which have led to the development of secular logic and presumed superior standards of moral behaviour. The problem with this development is that it is not ‘free’ of the Judeo-Christian tradition that has served as its historical basis.